# RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PHASE NOISE AND BIT ERROR RATIO (BER)

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PHASE NOISE AND BIT ERROR RATIO (BER) As stated in the article RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PHASE NOISE AND JITTER the Phase Noise of a stable crystal oscillator can be converted to an Rms jitter figure. This Rms jitter figure can be analysed further to show the contribution the crystal oscillator makes to the overall system Bit Error Ratio. Bit Error Ratio (BER, also known as the Bit Error Rate) is defined as The number of erroneous bits transmitted, received, or processed divided by the total number of bits transmitted, received, or processed for a given time period. This is a ratio, hence dimensionless, but convention states the number is expressed as ten to the power of a negative integer. For example a BER of means for one million million (10 12 ) bits transmitted there is a statistical likelihood of receiving 1 bit in error. If the transmission was working at 10MHz (10 7 ) then we would expect to receive a bit in error once every seconds (10 5 ) i.e. approximately once every 28 hours. The cause of the error bits could be poor electronic / software design, environmental / electromagnetic fluctuations, but assuming the system design is robust then the over-riding cause of the error bits is inherent system jitter. The convention for displaying / studying BER is the Eye pattern as shown in Fig. 1. Note this is a representation of a typical Eye pattern for a complete transmit / receive system, not the crystal oscillator which will be shown to contribute a small percentage of the overall jitter performance. Figure 1 If Fig. 1 is the Eye pattern at the input to the receivers is the received bit a logic 1 or logic 0 circuitry then the ideal decision point is the centre of the Eye pattern opening as shown in Fig. 2. It follows that as the Eye pattern opening gets smaller (closes in on the ideal decision point) then the likelihood of miss reading the logic 1 or logic 0 will increase until the limit where the Eye pattern opening is so small it becomes impossible to distinguish between the two logic states. The same likelihood of miss reading the logic 1 or logic 0 happens if we move the ideal decision point away from the centre of the Eye pattern opening. Figure 2 Page 1 of 5

2 This allows us to plot contour lines of predicted BER as we move away from the ideal decision point (as shown in Fig. 3). The predicted BER at the ideal decision point (for this example) is approximately For our 10MHz example this is a predicted error of 1 bit every seconds, i.e. approximately once every million million million years. Figure 3 Fig. 4 shows the same contour lines of predicted BER as a three dimensional image to show the Bath Tub shape of the contour lines. The top of the Bath Tub has a value of 0.5, if we try to guess whether we have a logic 1 or logic 0 on the rising or falling edge of a perfect noise free waveform then the chances of guessing correctly is 50/50. Since BER is a statistical relationship the bottom of the Bath Tub can never be zero, just a very small number as demonstratedd above. Figure 4 From the article RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PHASE NOISE AND JITTER the noise sources in a crystal oscillator are shown to be random (stochastic) rather than induced/repetitive (deterministic) and follow a normal Gaussian distribution. A stable crystal oscillator has negligible amplitude noise but will have some Phase Noise (jitter in the time domain), so for the remainder of this discussion only the Phase Noise contribution to BER will be considered and the distribution will be considered as Gaussian (random). Page 2 of 5

3 Fig. 5 shows the same Eye pattern with the Gaussian distribution of the Rms jitter (Phase Noise) superimposed. These Gaussian distributions are also know as Probability Density Functions. Figure 5 As the Eye pattern closes the crossing of the tails of the two distributions becomes more significant causing the BER to increase as shown in Fig. 6. Figure 6 Since the Probability Density Function is Gaussian it can be described in terms of its Standard Deviation (α) and it s Mean (centre of the distribution). For a crystal oscillator with only Phase Noise (negligible amplitude noise) then the Standard Deviation (α) is the Rms jitter value. The article RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PHASE NOISE AND JITTER explains how to convert Phase Noise to Rms jitter. The contour lines of predicted BER are then also characterised by the Standard Deviation (α). If the Mean of each of the two distributionss is taken as where the perfect noise free waveforms rising and falling edges should have been (see Fig. 2) then the contour lines of BER will be a multiple of the Standard Deviation (α) in from these perfect edges as tabulated in Fig.7. Page 3 of 5

4 Figure 7 BER Distance in from the perfect noise free waveforms rising and falling edges (where α is the Rms jitter in seconds) forward from rising edge x α x α x α x α x α x α x α x α x α x α x α x α x α x α x α x α 10MHz Transmission One Error expected every 2GHz Transmission One Error expected every back from falling edge -3.1 x α ~100 microseconds ~500 nanoseconds -3.7 x α ~1 millisecond ~5 microseconds -4.3 x α ~10 milliseconds ~50 microseconds -4.8 x α ~100 milliseconds ~500 microseconds -5.2 x α ~1 second ~5 milliseconds -5.6 x α ~10 seconds ~50 milliseconds -6.0 x α ~2 minutes ~500 milliseconds -6.4 x α ~17 minutes ~5 seconds -6.7 x α ~3 hours ~1 minutes -7.0 x α ~28 hours ~8 minutes -7.3 x α ~12 days ~1 hour -7.7 x α ~4 months ~14 hours -7.9 x α ~3 years ~6 days -8.2 x α ~32 years ~2 months -8.6 x α ~320 years ~2 years -8.9 x α ~3200 years ~16 years A low Phase Noise 10 MHz Crystal Oscillator with the Phase Noise described by Fig. 8 will have an Rms Jitter figure (α) of:- 1.6ps (pico seconds) from 10Hz to 1MHz 4.0ps (pico seconds) from 12kHz to 10MHz 5.7ps (pico seconds) from 12kHz to 20MHz Figure 8 Page 4 of 5

5 In terms of real jitter the 10MHz crystal oscillator described in Fig. 8 only has jitter to 100kHz. Above 100kHz the Phase Noise plot is showing the noise floor of the HCMOS output buffer. Jitter to 10MHz suggest there is jitter at DC which does not make sense, and jitter to 20MHz implies a negativee frequency. There is 145dBc of Noise Power per Hertz of bandwidth at 20MHz, it just isn t Jitter. The article PHASE NOISE / JITTER IN CRYSTAL OSCILLATORS explains the concepts of Phase Noise. Assuming the Noise Power per Hertz of bandwidth above 100kHz (the jitter cut off frequency) still affects the Eye pattern opening then for the 12kHz to 20MHz jitter the BER contour will be ±40ps in from the ideal clock edges (±7.0 α from the table in Fig.48 where α is 5.7ps). This is 80ps total for a period of ps which is less than 0.1%. If this 10MHz Crystal Oscillator is used as the reference for a WCDMA network transmitting at ~2GHz then we have to consider what happens to the jitter when the frequency is multiplied up from 10MHz to 2GHz (i.e. x 200). All frequency multiplier circuits (digital or analog) pass any jitter present on the input un-attenuated to the output. For the above example this means if the multiplier circuit was completely noise free then the new clock still has 80ps total Jitter but this is now 80ps total of a new period of 500ps which is 16%. Fig. 9 shows, to scale, the above 10MHz Crystal Oscillator with 5.7ps Rms Jitter multiplied up to 2GHz showing the Crystal Oscillator Jitter still only uses a small percentage of the available Eye pattern Opening. Figure 9 In reality the x200 frequency multiplier circuit cannot be noise free and as a result will close the available Eye pattern opening further. If the additional Noise Power is random then the addition is RMS (i.e. square root of the sum of the noise powers squared), but more likely the additional Noise Power will be deterministic in which case it is a straight forward addition. Examples of deterministic Jitter in the multiplier circuit could be sub harmonic spurs for harmonic multiplication (i.e. 2GHz ± N*10MHz for this example) or non harmonically related spurs for Phase Locked Loop type multipliers. Next step: For more information Page 5 of 5

### Timing Errors and Jitter

Timing Errors and Jitter Background Mike Story In a sampled (digital) system, samples have to be accurate in level and time. The digital system uses the two bits of information the signal was this big

### Transmitter Characteristics (83D.3.1) Ryan Latchman, Mindspeed

Transmitter haracteristics (83D.3.) Ryan Latchman, Mindspeed Transmit equalizer Transmitter equalizer range The AUI-4 chip-to-chip transmitter includes programmable equalization to compensate for the frequency-dependent

### Analog and Digital Signals, Time and Frequency Representation of Signals

1 Analog and Digital Signals, Time and Frequency Representation of Signals Required reading: Garcia 3.1, 3.2 CSE 3213, Fall 2010 Instructor: N. Vlajic 2 Data vs. Signal Analog vs. Digital Analog Signals

### Jitter Measurements in Serial Data Signals

Jitter Measurements in Serial Data Signals Michael Schnecker, Product Manager LeCroy Corporation Introduction The increasing speed of serial data transmission systems places greater importance on measuring

### Silicon Laboratories, Inc. Rev 1.0 1

Clock Division with Jitter and Phase Noise Measurements Introduction As clock speeds and communication channels run at ever higher frequencies, accurate jitter and phase noise measurements become more

### Data Communications Prof. Ajit Pal Department of Computer Science & Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Lecture # 03 Data and Signal

(Refer Slide Time: 00:01:23) Data Communications Prof. Ajit Pal Department of Computer Science & Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Lecture # 03 Data and Signal Hello viewers welcome

### USB 3.0 CDR Model White Paper Revision 0.5

USB 3.0 CDR Model White Paper Revision 0.5 January 15, 2009 INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY DISCLAIMER THIS WHITE PAPER IS PROVIDED TO YOU AS IS WITH NO WARRANTIES WHATSOEVER, INCLUDING ANY WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABILITY,

### AND8248/D. System Clock Generators: A Comparison of a PLL Synthesizer vs. a Crystal Oscillator Clock APPLICATION NOTE

System Clock Generators: A Comparison of a PLL Synthesizer vs. a Crystal Oscillator Clock Prepared by: Casey Stys and Paul Shockman ON Semiconductor Application Engineers Abstract An electronic system

### Understand the effects of clock jitter and phase noise on sampled systems A s higher resolution data converters that can

designfeature By Brad Brannon, Analog Devices Inc MUCH OF YOUR SYSTEM S PERFORMANCE DEPENDS ON JITTER SPECIFICATIONS, SO CAREFUL ASSESSMENT IS CRITICAL. Understand the effects of clock jitter and phase

### The Calculation of G rms

The Calculation of G rms QualMark Corp. Neill Doertenbach The metric of G rms is typically used to specify and compare the energy in repetitive shock vibration systems. However, the method of arriving

### AN-756 APPLICATION NOTE One Technology Way P.O. Box 9106 Norwood, MA 02062-9106 Tel: 781/329-4700 Fax: 781/326-8703 www.analog.com

APPLICATION NOTE One Technology Way P.O. Box 9106 Norwood, MA 02062-9106 Tel: 781/329-4700 Fax: 781/326-8703 www.analog.com Sampled Systems and the Effects of Clock Phase Noise and Jitter by Brad Brannon

### Application Note Noise Frequently Asked Questions

: What is? is a random signal inherent in all physical components. It directly limits the detection and processing of all information. The common form of noise is white Gaussian due to the many random

### Clocks Basics in 10 Minutes or Less. Edgar Pineda Field Applications Engineer Arrow Components Mexico

Clocks Basics in 10 Minutes or Less Edgar Pineda Field Applications Engineer Arrow Components Mexico Presentation Overview Introduction to Clocks Clock Functions Clock Parameters Common Applications Summary

### The Effective Number of Bits (ENOB) of my R&S Digital Oscilloscope Technical Paper

The Effective Number of Bits (ENOB) of my R&S Digital Oscilloscope Technical Paper Products: R&S RTO1012 R&S RTO1014 R&S RTO1022 R&S RTO1024 This technical paper provides an introduction to the signal

### 4.3 Analog-to-Digital Conversion

4.3 Analog-to-Digital Conversion overview including timing considerations block diagram of a device using a DAC and comparator example of a digitized spectrum number of data points required to describe

### Optical Fibres. Introduction. Safety precautions. For your safety. For the safety of the apparatus

Please do not remove this manual from from the lab. It is available at www.cm.ph.bham.ac.uk/y2lab Optics Introduction Optical fibres are widely used for transmitting data at high speeds. In this experiment,

### FILTER CIRCUITS. A filter is a circuit whose transfer function, that is the ratio of its output to its input, depends upon frequency.

FILTER CIRCUITS Introduction Circuits with a response that depends upon the frequency of the input voltage are known as filters. Filter circuits can be used to perform a number of important functions in

### LAB 7 MOSFET CHARACTERISTICS AND APPLICATIONS

LAB 7 MOSFET CHARACTERISTICS AND APPLICATIONS Objective In this experiment you will study the i-v characteristics of an MOS transistor. You will use the MOSFET as a variable resistor and as a switch. BACKGROUND

### Non-Data Aided Carrier Offset Compensation for SDR Implementation

Non-Data Aided Carrier Offset Compensation for SDR Implementation Anders Riis Jensen 1, Niels Terp Kjeldgaard Jørgensen 1 Kim Laugesen 1, Yannick Le Moullec 1,2 1 Department of Electronic Systems, 2 Center

### Clock Recovery in Serial-Data Systems Ransom Stephens, Ph.D.

Clock Recovery in Serial-Data Systems Ransom Stephens, Ph.D. Abstract: The definition of a bit period, or unit interval, is much more complicated than it looks. If it were just the reciprocal of the data

### Clock Jitter Definitions and Measurement Methods

January 2014 Clock Jitter Definitions and Measurement Methods 1 Introduction Jitter is the timing variations of a set of signal edges from their ideal values. Jitters in clock signals are typically caused

### VCO Phase noise. Characterizing Phase Noise

VCO Phase noise Characterizing Phase Noise The term phase noise is widely used for describing short term random frequency fluctuations of a signal. Frequency stability is a measure of the degree to which

### NRZ Bandwidth - HF Cutoff vs. SNR

Application Note: HFAN-09.0. Rev.2; 04/08 NRZ Bandwidth - HF Cutoff vs. SNR Functional Diagrams Pin Configurations appear at end of data sheet. Functional Diagrams continued at end of data sheet. UCSP

### Optimizing VCO PLL Evaluations & PLL Synthesizer Designs

Optimizing VCO PLL Evaluations & PLL Synthesizer Designs Today s mobile communications systems demand higher communication quality, higher data rates, higher operation, and more channels per unit bandwidth.

### Introduction to Digital Audio

Introduction to Digital Audio Before the development of high-speed, low-cost digital computers and analog-to-digital conversion circuits, all recording and manipulation of sound was done using analog techniques.

### Harmonics and Noise in Photovoltaic (PV) Inverter and the Mitigation Strategies

Soonwook Hong, Ph. D. Michael Zuercher Martinson Harmonics and Noise in Photovoltaic (PV) Inverter and the Mitigation Strategies 1. Introduction PV inverters use semiconductor devices to transform the

### RF Measurements Using a Modular Digitizer

RF Measurements Using a Modular Digitizer Modern modular digitizers, like the Spectrum M4i series PCIe digitizers, offer greater bandwidth and higher resolution at any given bandwidth than ever before.

### LEVERAGING FPGA AND CPLD DIGITAL LOGIC TO IMPLEMENT ANALOG TO DIGITAL CONVERTERS

LEVERAGING FPGA AND CPLD DIGITAL LOGIC TO IMPLEMENT ANALOG TO DIGITAL CONVERTERS March 2010 Lattice Semiconductor 5555 Northeast Moore Ct. Hillsboro, Oregon 97124 USA Telephone: (503) 268-8000 www.latticesemi.com

### MODULATION Systems (part 1)

Technologies and Services on Digital Broadcasting (8) MODULATION Systems (part ) "Technologies and Services of Digital Broadcasting" (in Japanese, ISBN4-339-62-2) is published by CORONA publishing co.,

### Frequency Response of Filters

School of Engineering Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering 332:224 Principles of Electrical Engineering II Laboratory Experiment 2 Frequency Response of Filters 1 Introduction Objectives To

### Selecting the Optimum PCI Express Clock Source

Selecting the Optimum PCI Express Clock Source PCI Express () is a serial point-to-point interconnect standard developed by the Component Interconnect Special Interest Group (PCI-SIG). lthough originally

### Implementation of Digital Signal Processing: Some Background on GFSK Modulation

Implementation of Digital Signal Processing: Some Background on GFSK Modulation Sabih H. Gerez University of Twente, Department of Electrical Engineering s.h.gerez@utwente.nl Version 4 (February 7, 2013)

### A Laser Scanner Chip Set for Accurate Perception Systems

A Laser Scanner Chip Set for Accurate Perception Systems 313 A Laser Scanner Chip Set for Accurate Perception Systems S. Kurtti, J.-P. Jansson, J. Kostamovaara, University of Oulu Abstract This paper presents

### USB 3.0 Jitter Budgeting White Paper Revision 0.5

USB 3. Jitter Budgeting White Paper Revision.5 INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY DISCLAIMER THIS WHITE PAPER IS PROVIDED TO YOU AS IS WITH NO WARRANTIES WHATSOEVER, INCLUDING ANY WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABILITY, NON-INFRINGEMENT,

### CLOCK AND SYNCHRONIZATION IN SYSTEM 6000

By Christian G. Frandsen Introduction This document will discuss the clock, synchronization and interface design of TC System 6000 and deal with several of the factors that must be considered when using

### Digital to Analog Conversion Using Pulse Width Modulation

Digital to Analog Conversion Using Pulse Width Modulation Samer El-Haj-Mahmoud Electronics Engineering Technology Program Texas A&M University Instructor s Portion Summary The purpose of this lab is to

### Moving Average Filters

CHAPTER 15 Moving Average Filters The moving average is the most common filter in DSP, mainly because it is the easiest digital filter to understand and use. In spite of its simplicity, the moving average

### Digital Fundamentals

Digital Fundamentals Tenth Edition Floyd Chapter 1 2009 Pearson Education, Upper 2008 Pearson Saddle River, Education NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved Analog Quantities Most natural quantities that we see

### ANALYZER BASICS WHAT IS AN FFT SPECTRUM ANALYZER? 2-1

WHAT IS AN FFT SPECTRUM ANALYZER? ANALYZER BASICS The SR760 FFT Spectrum Analyzer takes a time varying input signal, like you would see on an oscilloscope trace, and computes its frequency spectrum. Fourier's

### Selecting RJ Bandwidth in EZJIT Plus Software

Selecting RJ Bandwidth in EZJIT Plus Software Application Note 1577 Introduction Separating jitter into its random and deterministic components (called RJ/DJ separation ) is a relatively new technique

### Chapter 6 PLL and Clock Generator

Chapter 6 PLL and Clock Generator The DSP56300 core features a Phase Locked Loop (PLL) clock generator in its central processing module. The PLL allows the processor to operate at a high internal clock

### ANALOG VS DIGITAL. Copyright 1998, Professor John T.Gorgone

ANALOG VS DIGITAL 1 BASICS OF DATA COMMUNICATIONS Data Transport System Analog Data Digital Data The transport of data through a telecommunications network can be classified into two overall transport

### DIGITAL-TO-ANALOGUE AND ANALOGUE-TO-DIGITAL CONVERSION

DIGITAL-TO-ANALOGUE AND ANALOGUE-TO-DIGITAL CONVERSION Introduction The outputs from sensors and communications receivers are analogue signals that have continuously varying amplitudes. In many systems

### Part 2: Receiver and Demodulator

University of Pennsylvania Department of Electrical and Systems Engineering ESE06: Electrical Circuits and Systems II Lab Amplitude Modulated Radio Frequency Transmission System Mini-Project Part : Receiver

### Hello and welcome to this training module for the STM32L4 Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) controller. This controller can be used in a wide range of

Hello and welcome to this training module for the STM32L4 Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) controller. This controller can be used in a wide range of applications such as home appliances, medical, automotive,

### Loop Bandwidth and Clock Data Recovery (CDR) in Oscilloscope Measurements. Application Note 1304-6

Loop Bandwidth and Clock Data Recovery (CDR) in Oscilloscope Measurements Application Note 1304-6 Abstract Time domain measurements are only as accurate as the trigger signal used to acquire them. Often

### GSM/EDGE Output RF Spectrum on the V93000 Joe Kelly and Max Seminario, Verigy

GSM/EDGE Output RF Spectrum on the V93000 Joe Kelly and Max Seminario, Verigy Introduction A key transmitter measurement for GSM and EDGE is the Output RF Spectrum, or ORFS. The basis of this measurement

### The Need for Speed and its impact on Sync. WSTS 2015 Nigel Hardy

The Need for Speed and its impact on Sync. WSTS 2015 Nigel Hardy 1 The need for Speed and its impact on Sync. Contents The requirements for speed, high h dt data rates, increased dbandwidth The impact

### Digital to Analog Converter. Raghu Tumati

Digital to Analog Converter Raghu Tumati May 11, 2006 Contents 1) Introduction............................... 3 2) DAC types................................... 4 3) DAC Presented.............................

### HD Radio FM Transmission System Specifications

HD Radio FM Transmission System Specifications Rev. E January 30, 2008 Doc. No. SY_SSS_1026s TRADEMARKS The ibiquity Digital logo and ibiquity Digital are registered trademarks of ibiquity Digital Corporation.

### T = 1 f. Phase. Measure of relative position in time within a single period of a signal For a periodic signal f(t), phase is fractional part t p

Data Transmission Concepts and terminology Transmission terminology Transmission from transmitter to receiver goes over some transmission medium using electromagnetic waves Guided media. Waves are guided

### Computer Networks and Internets, 5e Chapter 6 Information Sources and Signals. Introduction

Computer Networks and Internets, 5e Chapter 6 Information Sources and Signals Modified from the lecture slides of Lami Kaya (LKaya@ieee.org) for use CECS 474, Fall 2008. 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper

### MICROPHONE SPECIFICATIONS EXPLAINED

Application Note AN-1112 MICROPHONE SPECIFICATIONS EXPLAINED INTRODUCTION A MEMS microphone IC is unique among InvenSense, Inc., products in that its input is an acoustic pressure wave. For this reason,

### The Effect of Network Cabling on Bit Error Rate Performance. By Paul Kish NORDX/CDT

The Effect of Network Cabling on Bit Error Rate Performance By Paul Kish NORDX/CDT Table of Contents Introduction... 2 Probability of Causing Errors... 3 Noise Sources Contributing to Errors... 4 Bit Error

### Lock - in Amplifier and Applications

Lock - in Amplifier and Applications What is a Lock in Amplifier? In a nut shell, what a lock-in amplifier does is measure the amplitude V o of a sinusoidal voltage, V in (t) = V o cos(ω o t) where ω o

### ECG-Amplifier. MB Jass 2009 Daniel Paulus / Thomas Meier. Operation amplifier (op-amp)

ECG-Amplifier MB Jass 2009 Daniel Paulus / Thomas Meier Operation amplifier (op-amp) Properties DC-coupled High gain electronic ec c voltage amplifier Inverting / non-inverting input and single output

### Signaling is the way data is communicated. This type of signal used can be either analog or digital

3.1 Analog vs. Digital Signaling is the way data is communicated. This type of signal used can be either analog or digital 1 3.1 Analog vs. Digital 2 WCB/McGraw-Hill The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1998

### DSP based implementation of a Configurable Composite Digital Transmitter Soumik Kundu, Amiya Karmakar

International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 4, Issue 4, April-2013 262 DSP based implementation of a Configurable Composite Digital Transmitter Soumik Kundu, Amiya Karmakar Abstract

### How PLL Performances Affect Wireless Systems

May 2010 Issue: Tutorial Phase Locked Loop Systems Design for Wireless Infrastructure Applications Use of linear models of phase noise analysis in a closed loop to predict the baseline performance of various

### Managing High-Speed Clocks

Managing High-Speed s & Greg Steinke Director, Component Applications Managing High-Speed s Higher System Performance Requires Innovative ing Schemes What Are The Possibilities? High-Speed ing Schemes

### Taking the Mystery out of the Infamous Formula, "SNR = 6.02N + 1.76dB," and Why You Should Care. by Walt Kester

ITRODUCTIO Taking the Mystery out of the Infamous Formula, "SR = 6.0 + 1.76dB," and Why You Should Care by Walt Kester MT-001 TUTORIAL You don't have to deal with ADCs or DACs for long before running across

### Precision Fully Differential Op Amp Drives High Resolution ADCs at Low Power

Precision Fully Differential Op Amp Drives High Resolution ADCs at Low Power Kris Lokere The op amp produces differential outputs, making it ideal for processing fully differential analog signals or taking

### The Future of Multi-Clock Systems

NEL FREQUENCY CONTROLS, INC. 357 Beloit Street P.O. Box 457 Burlington,WI 53105-0457 Phone:262/763-3591 FAX:262/763-2881 Web Site: www.nelfc.com Internet: sales@nelfc.com The Future of Multi-Clock Systems

### Abstract. Cycle Domain Simulator for Phase-Locked Loops

Abstract Cycle Domain Simulator for Phase-Locked Loops Norman James December 1999 As computers become faster and more complex, clock synthesis becomes critical. Due to the relatively slower bus clocks

### Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Ben-Gurion University of the Negev. LAB 1 - Introduction to USRP

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Ben-Gurion University of the Negev LAB 1 - Introduction to USRP - 1-1 Introduction In this lab you will use software reconfigurable RF hardware from National

### The output signal may be of the same form as the input signal, i.e. V in produces V out

What is an amplifier? Operational Amplifiers A device that takes an input (current, voltage, etc.) and produces a correlated output Input Signal Output Signal Usually the output is a multiple of the input

### R f. V i. ET 438a Automatic Control Systems Technology Laboratory 4 Practical Differentiator Response

ET 438a Automatic Control Systems Technology Laboratory 4 Practical Differentiator Response Objective: Design a practical differentiator circuit using common OP AMP circuits. Test the frequency response

### Spike-Based Sensing and Processing: What are spikes good for? John G. Harris Electrical and Computer Engineering Dept

Spike-Based Sensing and Processing: What are spikes good for? John G. Harris Electrical and Computer Engineering Dept ONR NEURO-SILICON WORKSHOP, AUG 1-2, 2006 Take Home Messages Introduce integrate-and-fire

### Agilent AN 1315 Optimizing RF and Microwave Spectrum Analyzer Dynamic Range. Application Note

Agilent AN 1315 Optimizing RF and Microwave Spectrum Analyzer Dynamic Range Application Note Table of Contents 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 6 7 7 7 7 9 10 10 11 11 12 12 13 13 14 15 1. Introduction What is dynamic range?

### Ultrasound Distance Measurement

Final Project Report E3390 Electronic Circuits Design Lab Ultrasound Distance Measurement Yiting Feng Izel Niyage Asif Quyyum Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Bachelor of Science

### Voice---is analog in character and moves in the form of waves. 3-important wave-characteristics:

Voice Transmission --Basic Concepts-- Voice---is analog in character and moves in the form of waves. 3-important wave-characteristics: Amplitude Frequency Phase Voice Digitization in the POTS Traditional

### DVB-T. The echo performance of. receivers. Theory of echo tolerance. Ranulph Poole BBC Research and Development

The echo performance of DVB-T Ranulph Poole BBC Research and Development receivers This article introduces a model to describe the way in which a single echo gives rise to an equivalent noise floor (ENF)

### Precision Diode Rectifiers

by Kenneth A. Kuhn March 21, 2013 Precision half-wave rectifiers An operational amplifier can be used to linearize a non-linear function such as the transfer function of a semiconductor diode. The classic

### Impedance Matching and Matching Networks. Valentin Todorow, December, 2009

Impedance Matching and Matching Networks Valentin Todorow, December, 2009 RF for Plasma Processing - Definition of RF What is RF? The IEEE Standard Dictionary of Electrical and Electronics Terms defines

### Modification Details.

Front end receiver modification for DRM: AKD Target Communications receiver. Model HF3. Summary. The receiver was modified and capable of receiving DRM, but performance was limited by the phase noise from

### Filter Comparison. Match #1: Analog vs. Digital Filters

CHAPTER 21 Filter Comparison Decisions, decisions, decisions! With all these filters to choose from, how do you know which to use? This chapter is a head-to-head competition between filters; we'll select

### The front end of the receiver performs the frequency translation, channel selection and amplification of the signal.

Many receivers must be capable of handling a very wide range of signal powers at the input while still producing the correct output. This must be done in the presence of noise and interference which occasionally

### PCM Encoding and Decoding:

PCM Encoding and Decoding: Aim: Introduction to PCM encoding and decoding. Introduction: PCM Encoding: The input to the PCM ENCODER module is an analog message. This must be constrained to a defined bandwidth

### The counterpart to a DAC is the ADC, which is generally a more complicated circuit. One of the most popular ADC circuit is the successive

The counterpart to a DAC is the ADC, which is generally a more complicated circuit. One of the most popular ADC circuit is the successive approximation converter. 1 2 The idea of sampling is fully covered

### RF Network Analyzer Basics

RF Network Analyzer Basics A tutorial, information and overview about the basics of the RF Network Analyzer. What is a Network Analyzer and how to use them, to include the Scalar Network Analyzer (SNA),

### GMRT TIME & FREQUENCY SYSTEM

GMRT TIME & FREQUENCY SYSTEM ajith, navnath / (ver1.0) 20.06.2011 The GMRT Time and Frequency system (FTS) generates the master time and frequency standards for the GMRT Receiver system. The FTS system

### Jitter Budget for 10 Gigabit Ethernet Applications with SiTime SiT9120/1 Oscillators

February 2014 Jitter Budget for 10 Gigabit Ethernet Applications with SiTime SiT9120/1 Oscillators 1 Introduction The 10 Gigabit Ethernet (10GbE) specifications are defined in clauses 44 through 54 of

### M2TECH EVO CLOCK HIGH PERFORMANCE CLOCK GENERATOR USER MANUAL

M2TECH EVO CLOCK USER MANUAL REV. PRB 12/2011 Warning! Changes or modifications not authorized by the manufacturer can invalidate the compliance to CE regulations and cause the unit to be no more suitable

### Trigonometric functions and sound

Trigonometric functions and sound The sounds we hear are caused by vibrations that send pressure waves through the air. Our ears respond to these pressure waves and signal the brain about their amplitude

### CTA300. Communication Trainer Analog RELATED PRODUCTS. Communication Trainer kit

Communication Trainer kit Communication Trainer RELATED PRODUCTS v Digital Communication Trainers v Optical Fibers Communication Trainers v Digital and Communication Trainers v Communication Electronic

### Clocking. Figure by MIT OCW. 6.884 - Spring 2005 2/18/05 L06 Clocks 1

ing Figure by MIT OCW. 6.884 - Spring 2005 2/18/05 L06 s 1 Why s and Storage Elements? Inputs Combinational Logic Outputs Want to reuse combinational logic from cycle to cycle 6.884 - Spring 2005 2/18/05

### AN-837 APPLICATION NOTE

APPLICATION NOTE One Technology Way P.O. Box 916 Norwood, MA 262-916, U.S.A. Tel: 781.329.47 Fax: 781.461.3113 www.analog.com DDS-Based Clock Jitter Performance vs. DAC Reconstruction Filter Performance

### 1. (Ungraded) A noiseless 2-kHz channel is sampled every 5 ms. What is the maximum data rate?

Homework 2 Solution Guidelines CSC 401, Fall, 2011 1. (Ungraded) A noiseless 2-kHz channel is sampled every 5 ms. What is the maximum data rate? 1. In this problem, the channel being sampled gives us the

### Coaxial Cable Delay. By: Jacques Audet VE2AZX

Coaxial Cable Delay By: Jacques Audet VE2AZX ve2azx@amsat.org Introduction Last month, I reported the results of measurements on a number of coaxial cables with the VNA (Vector Network Analyzer). (Ref.

### Low Noise, Single Supply, Electret Microphone Amplifier Design for Distant Acoustic Signals

Low Noise, Single Supply, Electret Microphone Amplifier Design for Distant Acoustic Signals Donald J. VanderLaan November 26, 2008 Abstract. Modern day electronics are often battery powered, forcing the

### Large-Capacity Optical Transmission Technologies Supporting the Optical Submarine Cable System

Large-Capacity Optical Transmission Technologies Supporting the Optical Submarine Cable System INOUE Takanori Abstract As one of the foundations of the global network, the submarine cable system is required

### Phase-Locked Loop Based Clock Generators

Phase-Locked Loop Based Clock Generators INTRODUCTION As system clock frequencies reach 100 MHz and beyond maintaining control over clock becomes very important In addition to generating the various clocks

### This representation is compared to a binary representation of a number with N bits.

Chapter 11 Analog-Digital Conversion One of the common functions that are performed on signals is to convert the voltage into a digital representation. The converse function, digital-analog is also common.

### Project Checkpoint: Audio Output (DAC+Amp)

University of California at Berkeley College of Engineering Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences EECS150 Spring 2002 J. Wawrzynek E. Caspi Project Checkpoint: Audio Output (DAC+Amp)

### AC 2012-3923: MEASUREMENT OF OP-AMP PARAMETERS USING VEC- TOR SIGNAL ANALYZERS IN UNDERGRADUATE LINEAR CIRCUITS LABORATORY

AC 212-3923: MEASUREMENT OF OP-AMP PARAMETERS USING VEC- TOR SIGNAL ANALYZERS IN UNDERGRADUATE LINEAR CIRCUITS LABORATORY Dr. Tooran Emami, U.S. Coast Guard Academy Tooran Emami received her M.S. and Ph.D.

### IN current film media, the increase in areal density has

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MAGNETICS, VOL. 44, NO. 1, JANUARY 2008 193 A New Read Channel Model for Patterned Media Storage Seyhan Karakulak, Paul H. Siegel, Fellow, IEEE, Jack K. Wolf, Life Fellow, IEEE, and

### AN-691 APPLICATION NOTE One Technology Way P.O. Box 9106 Norwood, MA 02062-9106 Tel: 781/329-4700 Fax: 781/461-3113 www.analog.com

APPLICATION NOTE One Technology Way P.O. Box 9106 Norwood, MA 02062-9106 Tel: 781/329-4700 Fax: 781/461-3113 www.analog.com Operation of RF Detector Products at Low Frequency by Matthew Pilotte INTRODUCTION

### DDS. 16-bit Direct Digital Synthesizer / Periodic waveform generator Rev. 1.4. Key Design Features. Block Diagram. Generic Parameters.

Key Design Features Block Diagram Synthesizable, technology independent VHDL IP Core 16-bit signed output samples 32-bit phase accumulator (tuning word) 32-bit phase shift feature Phase resolution of 2π/2

### W a d i a D i g i t a l

Wadia Decoding Computer Overview A Definition What is a Decoding Computer? The Wadia Decoding Computer is a small form factor digital-to-analog converter with digital pre-amplifier capabilities. It is