# Accurate Measurement of the Mains Electricity Frequency

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 Accurate Measurement of the Mains Electricity Frequency Dogan Ibrahim Near East University, Faculty of Engineering, Lefkosa, TRNC Abstract The frequency of the mains electricity supply is very important in many industrial and commercial applications. This paper describes the design of a microcontroller based system for measuring the mains frequency accurately. The measured frequency is displayed on an LCD, and in addition the measured data is sent to a PC continuously for timestamped logging and offline analysis. 1. Introduction There are several mains electricity power systems in use around the world [1]. These different systems are characterised by their: Voltage Frequency Type of plugs and sockets used In general, the type of plugs and sockets used is not a problem and passive adapters are available to convert between different varieties as long as the voltage and frequency are correct for the electrical device to be used. In general, we can divide the mains voltage and frequency usage in the world into four groups: V, 50Hz V, 60Hz V, 50Hz V, 60Hz The voltage quoted is the root mean square, and the peak voltage can be calculated by multiplying the voltage with 2, or the peak-to-peak voltage is found by multiplying with 2 2. The frequency used in mains electricity is either 50Hz (20ms period) sinusoidal or 60Hz (16.66ms period) sinusoidal. Some of the appliances we use at home may be affected if the mains voltage is not correct. For example, the motor speed of some CD players may be affected even though the motor supply voltage is regulated. The result of this is that the music can play slightly slower or faster. Also, some more sensitive appliances such as televisions may not operate correctly if the mains voltage is lowered. As the demand on the electricity supply increases the frequency usually drops. The electricity suppliers monitor the mains frequency constantly and aim to keep it within the allowed tolerances. A change in the mains frequency has negative effects in some of the appliances. For example, the speed of AC synchronous motors depend upon the supply frequency, and any appliance such as a turntable using such a motor will run slower or faster depending upon the changes. Also, some home or industrial clocks operate by counting the mains pulses, and such clocks will run slower or faster depending upon the changes in the supply frequency. By law, the Electricity Board is required to supply 230V + 10%,-6%. i.e. between volts and 253 volts. In addition, the frequency is required to be maintained at 50Hz ± 1%. i.e. between 49Hz and 51Hz. The European standard supply voltage is 220V and back in 2008 it was decided to change the European standard voltage to 230V and also the UK mains voltage to 230V. Although this sounded easy in theory, in practise it was too costly and uneconomic to change all the supply equipment to give 230V. Instead, the voltage limits were changed in UK, and the UK voltage was kept at 240V which is within the allowed limits of 230V + 10%,-6%. At the same time, the European standard was left at 220V. 2. Measuring the Mains Frequency The expected variation of the mains frequency (in UK) is between 49Hz and 51Hz. The mains frequency can in practise be measured using a simple frequency counter. But here the problem is that we need to measure very small changes, in the order of less than 0.01% and the cost of frequency counters to measure such small changes are rather high. In addition, we usually want to log the variations of the mains frequency over long periods of time and then to analyse these changes by for example plotting the results. Most low cost frequency counters are not capable of logging the frequency changes. In this paper, the design of a microcontroller based mains frequency measuring and logging device is given. The device has an LCD display that shows the frequency changes in realtime. In addition, the frequency data is sent to a PC over the RS232 serial port and stored in a file on the PC. The stored data can easily be analysed for example by plotting it or by using a statistical analysis package such as Excel. The stored data is time-stamped by the PC software so that the actual date and time of each data point is available. The data can be stored for very long times, such as for weeks, months, or even years. 3. The Hardware There are basically two methods used in the literature for frequency measurement. The first method, which is not accurate, involves setting up a time window and calculating the number of cycles within this window. The second method which is more accurate and is the one used in this paper, involves calculating the period of the waveform. Here, basically an accurate timer is 146

2 used to measure the period and hence calculate the frequency of the waveform. The block diagram of the designed mains frequency monitoring device is shown in Fig. 1. The operation of the device is based on a near-zero-cross-detector circuit [2]. Mains supply is reduced to 9V using a wall mains adapter. As shown in Fig. 2, the near-zero-cross-detector circuit is made up of a bridge rectifier and a transistor. Full-wave rectified mains signal is applied to the base of the transistor. The transistor is normally on and its output is low when the signal is high. As the signal drops to 0.7V, the transistor turns off and the collector voltage rises to the supply voltage (+5V), generating a pulse. Fig 3 shows the rectifier output and the transistor output. As shown in the figure, three such pulses are obtained during a full period of the mains frequency. These pulses are then fed to one of the inputs of a PIC microcontroller. The microcontroller starts an accurate timer when a pulse arrives. The timer is stopped at the arrival of the third pulse. Thus, the timer count is proportional to the period and hence to the frequency of the waveform. This timer count is converted into real frequency and is displayed on an LCD display. In addition, the data is sent to a PC using the serial RS232 port. A Visual Basic [3] program on the PC receives the frequency data, time stamps the data and then stores it in a file. The frequency data can be displayed by the Visual Basic program, or for more flexibility and statistical analysis it can easily be imported into Excel [4] and analysed or displayed. Fig. 1. Block diagram of the frequency monitoring device Fig. 2. The near-zero-cross-detector circuit Fig. 3.Three pulses in one cycle of the waveform Although the near-zero-cross-detector circuit does not detect the exact zero crossing point of the signal, it generates pulses at the same near zero points of the waveform, thus making it possible to accurately measure the signal period. Fig. 4 shows simulation of the near-zero-cross detection circuit. The circuit was simulated using the popular TINA circuit simulation suite [5], developed by DesignSoft. Fig. 4 shows the rectified fullwave mains waveform together with the output pulses of the near-zero-detector circuit on a virtual oscilloscope of TINA. TINA is a general purpose, low-cost Spice based simulation program that can be used to simulate complex analog and digital circuits. In addition, microcontroller systems can also be simulated using TINA. The circuit to be simulated is drawn using the built-in graphical editor of TINA. A large library of standard components are provided by the package. In addition, models of other components can be extracted from the manufacturers data sheets over the Internet and they can be loaded into TINA. The package provides virtual instruments such as oscilloscopes and spectrum analyzers that enable the user to observe the waveforms. A compatible hardware kit can also be purchased and used with TINA for real-time simulation work. Fig. 5 shows full circuit diagram of the device. A PIC18F4520 microcontroller [6] is used in the design with the timing provided with an 8MHz crystal. PORT B of the microcontroller is connected to a 2x16 character LCD display. UART output pin (RC6) is connected to a MAX232 type RS232-TTL voltage level converter chip and then to the PC serial port via a 9-pin D-type connector. Output pulses of the near-zero-detector circuit are fed to port pin RC2 of the microcontroller. 147

3 Fig. 4. Simulation of the near-zero-detector circuit The project was built and tested using the EasyPIC6 microcontroller development board [7], shown in Fig. 6, manufactured by mikroelektronika. A small breadboard was used to construct the near-zero-detector circuit and then wire connections were made to the main development board. Fig. 6 The EasyPIC6 Development Board By considering that a difference of one count can be measured, the accuracy of the frequency measurement is then given by approximately 0.001Hz, or 0.002%. Table 1. Frequency and counter values Frequency (Hz) Counter value Fig. 5. Circuit diagram of the monitoring device 4. Operation of the Circuit The output pulses of the near-zero-detector circuit are counted using 16 bit timer/counter TMR1 of the microcontroller. With an 8MHz crystal, the counting period is 0.5μs and maximum count is In a perfect 50Hz signal, with 20ms period, the maximum count will be 40,000. Table 1 shows the counter values at different frequencies of the mains supply. The frequency (f ) of the waveform is then given in Hz by: f 6 2x10 count (1) 5. The Software The software consists of the microcontroller software (or the measuring software), and the PC software (or the data logging software). 5.1 The Microcontroller Software Fig. 7 shows operation of the microcontroller software in the form of a Program Description Language (PDL). Counter TMR1 is cleared and internal counting starts on the high-to-low transition of the first input pulse on pin RC2 (see Fig. 5). The counting continues until the third pulse is detected on pin RC2, and stops on the high-to-low transition of the third pulse (i.e. after a complete cycle of the waveform is received). The frequency is then calculated using the equation given in (1) above. Floating point calculations are used in the program for high accuracy. 148

5 7. References [1] Mains Electricity by Country, Web Site: [Accessed on: 23 February, 2011]. [2] R. Elliot, Zero crossing Detector and Comparators, Web Site: [Accessed on: 12 January, 2011]. [3] Visual Basic User Guide, Microsoft Inc, Web site: on: 2 March, 2011]. [4] Excel User Guide, Microsoft Inc., Web site: [Accessed on: 3 March, 2011] [5] TINA User Manual, Web Site: [Accessed on: 20 February, 2011]. [6] PIC18F4520 Data Sheet, Web Site: [Accessed on: 10 January 2011]. [7] EasyPIC6 Data Manual, Web Site: [Accessed on: 12 March, 2011] [8] mikroc User Manual, Web Site: [Accessed on: 10 December, 2010]. 150

### EVAL-UFDC-1/UFDC-1M-16

Evaluation Board for Universal Frequency-to- Digital Converters UFDC-1 and UFDC-1M-16 EVAL-UFDC-1/UFDC-1M-16 FEATURES Full-Featured Evaluation Board for the Universal Frequency-to-Digital Converters UFDC-1

### The term data logging can be

DATA LOGGER/MCU Feature MICROCONTROLLER AND SD-CARD BASED MULTICHANNEL DATA LOGGER DOGAN IBRAHIM, LECTURER AT THE NEAR EAST UNIVERSITY IN CYPRUS, DESCRIBES THE DESIGN OF A MICROCONTROLLER- BASED MULTICHANNEL

### CHAPTER 11: Flip Flops

CHAPTER 11: Flip Flops In this chapter, you will be building the part of the circuit that controls the command sequencing. The required circuit must operate the counter and the memory chip. When the teach

### Fondamenti su strumenti di sviluppo per microcontrollori PIC

Fondamenti su strumenti di sviluppo per microcontrollori PIC MPSIM ICE 2000 ICD 2 REAL ICE PICSTART Ad uso interno del corso Elettronica e Telecomunicazioni 1 2 MPLAB SIM /1 MPLAB SIM is a discrete-event

### Programming a Computer and a Microcontroller to Control the Speed and Direction of DC Motors

www.ijecs.in International Journal Of Engineering And Computer Science ISSN:2319-7242 Volume 3 Issue3 March, 2014 Page No. 5046-5053 Programming a Computer and a Microcontroller to Control the Speed and

### 1-800-831-4242

Distributed by: www.jameco.com 1-800-831-4242 The content and copyrights of the attached material are the property of its owner. SSA-485 Smart Serial Adapter Serial Converter / Stand-alone host controller

### Abstract The problem of obtaining a portable, student friendly device

PC OSCILLOSCOPE Anubhav Singla and Manish Kumar Singh Electronics Club, IIT Kanpur Abstract The problem of obtaining a portable, student friendly device for plotting the graphs or testing the circuits

### Lab Experiment 1: The LPC 2148 Education Board

Lab Experiment 1: The LPC 2148 Education Board 1 Introduction The aim of this course ECE 425L is to help you understand and utilize the functionalities of ARM7TDMI LPC2148 microcontroller. To do that,

### Serial Communications

April 2014 7 Serial Communications Objectives - To be familiar with the USART (RS-232) protocol. - To be able to transfer data from PIC-PC, PC-PIC and PIC-PIC. - To test serial communications with virtual

BMV-602 Data Link Manual 1 Contents of the kit 1 x BMV-602 data link cable. 1 x Installation CD 2 System Requirements 2.1 Hardware requirements A BMV-602 with software version 2.03 or higher. A spare RS-232

### ATMega. Development Board. Manual V1.0

ATMega Development Board Manual V1.0 ATMega Development Board.doc Page 1/9 Introduction Development boards allow a quick implementation of a prototype design and successive downloads of the program directly

### Design of a multichannel temperature data logger with SD card storage

Design of a multichannel temperature data logger with SD card storage TEMPERATURE is basically the measurement of how hot or cold something is, and it is one of the fundamental entities in any kind of

### Computer Hardware Requirements for Real-Time Applications

Lecture (4) Computer Hardware Requirements for Real-Time Applications Prof. Kasim M. Al-Aubidy Computer Engineering Department Philadelphia University Summer Semester, 2011 Real-Time Systems, Prof. Kasim

### Display Message on Notice Board using GSM

Advance in Electronic and Electric Engineering. ISSN 2231-1297, Volume 3, Number 7 (2013), pp. 827-832 Research India Publications http://www.ripublication.com/aeee.htm Display Message on Notice Board

### ETEC 421 - Digital Controls PIC Lab 10 Pulse Width Modulation

ETEC 421 - Digital Controls PIC Lab 10 Pulse Width Modulation Program Definition: Write a program to control the speed of a dc motor using pulse width modulation. Discussion: The speed of a dc motor is

### Teach Yourself PIC Microcontroller Programming. Manual PIC 40 Basic Development Board. Amer Iqbal Qureshi. Microtronics Pakistan

Teach Yourself PIC Microcontroller Programming Manual PIC 40 Basic Development Board Amer Iqbal Qureshi Microtronics Pakistan www.electronicspk.com 40 Pin PIC Microcontroller Basic Board PIC Microcontrollers

### An Introduction to MPLAB Integrated Development Environment

An Introduction to MPLAB Integrated Development Environment 2004 Microchip Technology Incorporated An introduction to MPLAB Integrated Development Environment Slide 1 This seminar is an introduction to

### EECS 100/43 Lab 8 Introduction to the PIC Microcontroller

EECS 100/43 Lab 8 Introduction to the PIC Microcontroller 1. Objective In this lab, you will learn about how to use your PIC Microcontroller. This lab is the first lab for the digital component of the

### Microtronics technologies Mobile: 99707 90092

For more Project details visit: http://www.projectsof8051.com/rfid-based-attendance-management-system/ Code Project Title 1500 RFid Based Attendance System Synopsis for RFid Based Attendance System 1.

### Develop a Dallas 1-Wire Master Using the Z8F1680 Series of MCUs

Develop a Dallas 1-Wire Master Using the Z8F1680 Series of MCUs AN033101-0412 Abstract This describes how to interface the Dallas 1-Wire bus with Zilog s Z8F1680 Series of MCUs as master devices. The Z8F0880,

### Using LEDs, LCDs and GLCDs in Microcontroller Projects

Brochure More information from http://www.researchandmarkets.com/reports/2176850/ Using LEDs, LCDs and GLCDs in Microcontroller Projects Description: Describing the use of displays in microcontroller based

### A DESIGN OF DSPIC BASED SIGNAL MONITORING AND PROCESSING SYSTEM

ISTANBUL UNIVERSITY JOURNAL OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING YEAR VOLUME NUMBER : 2009 : 9 : 1 (921-927) A DESIGN OF DSPIC BASED SIGNAL MONITORING AND PROCESSING SYSTEM Salih ARSLAN 1 Koray KÖSE

### OPTI 380B Intermediate Optics Laboratory

OPTI 380B Intermediate Optics Laboratory Lab 9 Microcontroller / Data Acquisition Project I Objectives: This lab is an introduction to the world of microcontrollers. In particular, we will explore the

### Using Xbee 802.15.4 in Serial Communication

Using Xbee 802.15.4 in Serial Communication Jason Grimes April 2, 2010 Abstract Instances where wireless serial communication is required to connect devices, Xbee RF modules are effective in linking Universal

### User's Guide DylosLogger Software Version 1.6

User's Guide DylosLogger Software Version 1.6 The DylosLogger software allows users of Dylos Air Quality Monitors equipped with PC interface to easily record, download, and graph data. The COM port is

### Transmission of Analog Audio Signal through Wireless Medium Using Radio Frequency

EE318 Electronic Design Lab Project Report, E.E. Dept., IIT Bombay, April 2007 Transmission of Analog Audio Signal through Wireless Medium Using Radio Frequency Group Number: D12 Nikhil Pande (04d07026)

### Tutorial for MPLAB Starter Kit for PIC18F

Tutorial for MPLAB Starter Kit for PIC18F 2006 Microchip Technology Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. WebSeminar Title Slide 1 Welcome to the tutorial for the MPLAB Starter Kit for PIC18F. My name is

### 1. About this document... 2 2. General information... 3 3. Board layout... 4 4. Testing this product... 5 5. Circuit description...

dspic / PIC24 Multiprogrammer datasheet EB064-00 00-1 Contents 1. About this document... 2 2. General information... 3 3. Board layout... 4 4. Testing this product... 5 5. Circuit description... 6 Appendix

### Control of Electrical Lights and Fans using TV Remote

EE 318 Electronic Design Lab -I, Project Report, EE Dept., IIT Bombay, April 2006 Control of Electrical Lights and Fans using TV Remote Group No. D07 Anshu Jain (03d07005) Sandeep

### 2. The STM32F4-Discovery BaseBoard

1 2. The STM32F4-Discovery BaseBoard The description of the extension board based on the STM32F Discovery is given in this chapter. Full schematic diagrams and PCB layouts are presented, including figures

### SKP16C62P Tutorial 1 Software Development Process using HEW. Renesas Technology America Inc.

SKP16C62P Tutorial 1 Software Development Process using HEW Renesas Technology America Inc. 1 Overview The following tutorial is a brief introduction on how to develop and debug programs using HEW (Highperformance

### Hello and welcome to this Renesas Interactive course, that provides an overview of the Clock Generator found on RL78 MCUs.

Hello and welcome to this Renesas Interactive course, that provides an overview of the Clock Generator found on RL78 MCUs. 1 This course provides an introduction to the RL78 Clock Generator. Our objectives

### MICROCONTROLLAR BASED DIGITAL CLOCK WITH ALARM

MICROCONTROLLAR BASED DIGITAL CLOCK WITH ALARM www.microsyssolution.com Page 1 A BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO 8051 MICROCONTROLLER-: When we have to learn about a new computer we have to familiarize about the

### Radio sensor powered by a mini solar cell the EnOcean STM 110 now functions with even less light

Radio sensor powered by a mini solar cell the EnOcean STM 110 now functions with even less light In this issue, we would like to present the EnOcean radio sensor module STM 110 in more detail. The module

### RFID Access Control System

Lucius Knight ETEC 471 Senior Project Description 12.11.08 Introduction I propose to build an RFID access control system. The project will use an RFID reader to verify an RFID tag, and then send a signal

### ZL10AVR. Versatile Evaluation Board for AVR Microcontrollers

ZL10AVR Versatile Evaluation Board for AVR Microcontrollers Thank you for buying ZL10AVR evaluation board. We hope that the power and quality of our tool allow you to appreciate the advantages of AVR microcontrollers

### Digital to Analog Conversion Using Pulse Width Modulation

Digital to Analog Conversion Using Pulse Width Modulation Samer El-Haj-Mahmoud Electronics Engineering Technology Program Texas A&M University Instructor s Portion Summary The purpose of this lab is to

### Interfacing a Servo to the ATmega16

Learning Objectives: Interfacing a Servo to the ATmega16 After successfully completing this lab, students will be able to: Desribe how a radio control (RC) servo works Interface a RC servo to a microcontroller

### Lab 3: Introduction to Data Acquisition Cards

Lab 3: Introduction to Data Acquisition Cards INTRODUCTION: In this lab, you will be building a VI to display the input measured on a channel. However, within your own VI you will use LabVIEW supplied

### Implementation of Human Machine Interface Control for Filling and Capping System

International Journal of Electronics and Computer Science Engineering 455 Available Online at www.ijecse.org ISSN- 2277-1956 Implementation of Human Machine Interface Control for Filling and Capping System

### Transmitter Interface Program

Transmitter Interface Program Operational Manual Version 3.0.4 1 Overview The transmitter interface software allows you to adjust configuration settings of your Max solid state transmitters. The following

### Wireless Home Security System

Wireless Home Security System Group: D14 Members: Vaibhav Singh (05D07026) Abhishek Tiwari (05D07028) Sauvik Chowdhury (05D07029) 1. Abstract The project is aimed at designing a low cost and reliable wireless

### Design And Implementation Of Bank Locker Security System Based On Fingerprint Sensing Circuit And RFID Reader

Design And Implementation Of Bank Locker Security System Based On Sensing Circuit And RFID Reader Khaing Mar Htwe, Zaw Min Min Htun, Hla Myo Tun Abstract: The main goal of this system is to design a locker

### Making Programmer and Basic target.

Making Programmer and Basic target. AVR Tutorial Series. www.extremeelectronics.co.in PART 3 Now u know what tools are required for MCU based development. And you are familiar with their uses. Now time

### N2860A 3000 Series Scope Connect Software N2861A Communications Module

N2860A 3000 Series Scope Connect Software N2861A Communications Module Data Sheet N2860A Scope Connect software Easily manage and transfer data using the 3000 Series built-in USB port or the optional GPIB

### Embedded Patient Monitoring System

Embedded Patient Monitoring System 1 V.Ramya, 2 B.Palaniappan, 3 Anuradha Kumari 1 Asst. professor, Department of CSE, Annamalai University, Chidambaram, Tamilnadu. ramyshri@yahoo.com 2 Dean, FEAT, H.O.D,

### C What Happens INTRODUCTION PIC MICROCONTROLLER PRODUCT OVERVIEW SELECTING A DEVICE FOR EXPERIMENTS PIC16F818

C What Happens INTRODUCTION PIC MICROCONTROLLER PRODUCT OVERVIEW SELECTING A DEVICE FOR EXPERIMENTS PIC16F818 Pins and functions Package Clock oscillator Reset Ports Special Features PIC microcontroller

### ONLINE HEALTH MONITORING SYSTEM USING ZIGBEE

ONLINE HEALTH MONITORING SYSTEM USING ZIGBEE S.Josephine Selvarani ECE Department, Karunya University, Coimbatore. Abstract - An on-line health monitoring of physiological signals of humans such as temperature

### Chapter 6: Asynchronous Serial Communication

Asynchronous Serial Communication Page 215 Chapter 6: Asynchronous Serial Communication The previous chapter introduced synchronous serial communication, which relies on a separate clock signal to synchronize

### IMPROVING PROCESS CONTROL APPLICATIONS BY USING IP COMMUNICATIONS

IMPROVING PROCESS CONTROL APPLICATIONS BY USING IP COMMUNICATIONS Eugen COCA University "Stefan cel Mare" Suceava Faculty of Electrical Engineering 13, Universitatii, 720229 - SUCEAVA, ROMANIA Tel: +40-230-522-978,

### Microcontroller-based experiments for a control systems course in electrical engineering technology

Microcontroller-based experiments for a control systems course in electrical engineering technology Albert Lozano-Nieto Penn State University, Wilkes-Barre Campus, Lehman, PA, USA E-mail: AXL17@psu.edu

### Entex Adventurevision Technical Specs V1.2 By Daniel Boris 12/18/2005

Entex Adventurevision Technical Specs V1.2 By Daniel Boris 12/18/2005 Disclaimer: All the information in this document comes from studying the actual Adventurevision hardware. The only technical document

### QUICK START GUIDE FOR DEMONSTRATION CIRCUIT 956 24-BIT DIFFERENTIAL ADC WITH I2C LTC2485 DESCRIPTION

LTC2485 DESCRIPTION Demonstration circuit 956 features the LTC2485, a 24-Bit high performance Σ analog-to-digital converter (ADC). The LTC2485 features 2ppm linearity, 0.5µV offset, and 600nV RMS noise.

### Evaluating the Accuracy of Maxim Real-Time Clocks (RTCs)

REAL-TIME CLOCKS Application Note 632: Aug 01, 2001 Evaluating the Accuracy of Maxim Real-Time Clocks (RTCs) This app note describes methods for measuring the accuracy of the Maxim Real-Time Clocks (RTCs)

### The elabtronics USB PORT Module: 2 in 1 PIC Programmer Controller

The elabtronics USB PORT Module: 2 in 1 PIC Programmer Controller The compact USB PORT Module from elabtronics can be used as a PIC programmer and a controller. It programs user PIC projects using the

### Charge and Discharge of a Capacitor

Charge and Discharge of a Capacitor INTRODUCTION Capacitors 1 are devices that can store electric charge and energy. Capacitors have several uses, such as filters in DC power supplies and as energy storage

### Measuring Resistance Using Digital I/O

Measuring Resistance Using Digital I/O Using a Microcontroller for Measuring Resistance Without using an ADC. Copyright 2011 John Main http://www.best-microcontroller-projects.com Page 1 of 10 Table of

### Impedance 50 (75 connectors via adapters)

VECTOR NETWORK ANALYZER PLANAR TR1300/1 DATA SHEET Frequency range: 300 khz to 1.3 GHz Measured parameters: S11, S21 Dynamic range of transmission measurement magnitude: 130 db Measurement time per point:

### POCKET SCOPE 2. The idea 2. Design criteria 3

POCKET SCOPE 2 The idea 2 Design criteria 3 Microcontroller requirements 3 The microcontroller must have speed. 3 The microcontroller must have RAM. 3 The microcontroller must have secure Flash. 3 The

### DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND COMPUTER ENGINEERING

ECE 1250 Lab 6 Generate Voltages using a Function Generator and Measure Voltages using an Oscilloscope Building: Digital Circuit Build an Electronic Candle Overview: In Lab 6 you will: Build an electronic

### MECH 423 Mechatronic Product Design Spring 2016 Lab #2: MSP430 Microprocessor Programming

MECH 423 Mechatronic Product Design Spring 2016 Lab #2: MSP430 Microprocessor Programming Objectives This lab consists in a set of exercises designed to teach you the basics of microprocessor programming

### SD Card Projects Using the PIC Microcontroller

SD Card Projects Using the PIC Microcontroller Dogan Ibrahim AMSTERDAM BOSTON HEIDELBERG LONDON NEW YORK OXFORD PARIS SAN DIEGO SAN FRANCISCO SINGAPORE SYDNEY TOKYO Newnes is an imprint of Elsevier Newnes

### Stepper Motor Driver (74194)

Stepper Motor Driver (74194) This page features an inexpensive stepper motor driver that could be used to power slow speed projects on the layout or other hobby applications. Based on the SN74LS194 - Bidirectional

### Universal Simple Control, USC-1

Universal Simple Control, USC-1 Data and Event Logging with the USB Flash Drive DATA-PAK The USC-1 universal simple voltage regulator control uses a flash drive to store data. Then a propriety Data and

### Automation System TROVIS 6400 TROVIS 6493 Compact Controller

Automation System TROVIS 6400 TROVIS 6493 Compact Controller For panel mounting (front frame 48 x 96 mm/1.89 x 3.78 inch) Application Digital controller to automate industrial and process plants for general

### Location-Aware and Safer Cards: Enhancing RFID Security and Privacy

Location-Aware and Safer Cards: Enhancing RFID Security and Privacy 1 K.Anudeep, 2 Mrs. T.V.Anantha Lakshmi 1 Student, 2 Assistant Professor ECE Department, SRM University, Kattankulathur-603203 1 anudeepnike@gmail.com,

### ATMEGA16 Development Board May 2010

ATMEGA16 Development Board May 2010 NEX Robotics Pvt. Ltd. 1 ATMEGA16 Development Board ATMEGA16 Development Board. Introduction ATMEGA16 Development Board is made from double sided PTH PCB board to provide

### SIMULTANEOUS A/D DATA ACQUISITION

BENEFITS OF SIMULTANEOUS DATA ACQUISITION MODULES When choosing a data acquisition board, many different selection criteria are used. Speed, resolution, accuracy, and number of channels are all important

### DESIGNING A PC OSCILLOSCOPE USING FREEDUINO

DESIGNING A PC OSCILLOSCOPE USING FREEDUINO Ritika, Preeti Kumari, Prem Ranjan Dubey Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Students of Department of Electronics and Communication Date: 22 nd May, 2013

### DS1104 R&D Controller Board

DS1104 R&D Controller Board Cost-effective system for controller development Highlights Single-board system with real-time hardware and comprehensive I/O Cost-effective PCI hardware for use in PCs Application

### HD44780-Based LCD Modules. Introduction to the LM018L

HD44780-Based LCD Modules Hitachi LM018L 40 character x 2 lines Built-in LSI HD44780 controller +5volt single power supply Display Colour: Grey LM018L: Introduction Interfacing Display Pattern and Character

### The PS/2 Mouse/Keyboard Protocol

The PS/2 Mouse/Keyboard Protocol Abstract: This document descibes the interface used by the PS/2 mouse, PS/2 keyboard, and AT keyboard. I'll cover the physical and electrical interface, as well as the

### Six-servo Robot Arm. DAGU Hi-Tech Electronic Co., LTD www.arexx.com.cn. Six-servo Robot Arm

Six-servo Robot Arm 1 1, Introduction 1.1, Function Briefing Servo robot, as the name suggests, is the six servo motor-driven robot arm. Since the arm has a few joints, we can imagine, our human arm, in

### Introduction to Microcontroller World. XMC TM Microcontrollers March 2016

Introduction to Microcontroller World XMC TM Microcontrollers March 2016 Agenda 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 What is a Microcontroller Co Processor On Chip Memories Communication Peripherals Analog Peripherals Timers

### MODULE BOUSSOLE ÉLECTRONIQUE CMPS03 Référence : 0660-3

MODULE BOUSSOLE ÉLECTRONIQUE CMPS03 Référence : 0660-3 CMPS03 Magnetic Compass. Voltage : 5v only required Current : 20mA Typ. Resolution : 0.1 Degree Accuracy : 3-4 degrees approx. after calibration Output

### Abstract. Cycle Domain Simulator for Phase-Locked Loops

Abstract Cycle Domain Simulator for Phase-Locked Loops Norman James December 1999 As computers become faster and more complex, clock synthesis becomes critical. Due to the relatively slower bus clocks

### Project Plan. Project Plan. May13-06. Logging DC Wattmeter. Team Member: Advisor : Ailing Mei. Collin Christy. Andrew Kom. Client: Chongli Cai

Project Plan May13-06 Logging DC Wattmeter Team Member: Ailing Mei Andrew Kom Chongli Cai Advisor : Collin Christy Client: Garmin International David Hoffman Qiaoya Cui Table of Contents Need Statement...

### A High Resolution Performance Monitoring Software on the Pentium

A High Resolution Performance Monitoring Software on the Pentium Ong Cheng Soon*, Fadhli Wong Mohd Hasan Wong**, Lai Weng Kin* * Software Lab, MIMOS Berhad lai@mimos.my, csong@mimos.my ** Dept of Electrical

### Current Monitoring Kit QUICK START GUIDE

Current Monitoring Kit QUICK START GUIDE Pico Technology EL040 Current Monitoring Kit Quick Start Guide CONTENTS 1 Introduction... 1 2 Kit contents... 3 3 Installation... 3 3.1 Connecting the system together...

### ServoOne. Specification. Option 2 - Technology. x 11. x 8 X 8. x 10. x 9. x 7. x 6 TTL Encoder / TTL Encoder simulation

x - + - + x L L L AC SO 4-45 A DC SO 4- A ServoOne Specification x 9 - + - + x 7 x 8 X 8 Option - Technology x 6 TTL Encoder / TTL Encoder simulation Specification ServoOne Specification Option - Technology

### ezsystem elab16m Project 1F: Alarm System (Full Project description)

ezsystem elab16m Project 1F: Alarm System (Full Project description) ezsystem The aim of ezsystem is to enable Creativity and Innovation at an early age in a Problem Based Learning (PBL) approach. ezsystem

### Computer Automation Techniques. Arthur Carroll

Computer Automation Techniques Arthur Carroll 1 Three Types of Computers Micro-Controller Single Board Computer Desktop Computer 2 The Micro-Controller Small inexpensive DIP or surface mount chips Roughly

### isppac-powr1220at8 I 2 C Hardware Verification Utility User s Guide

November 2005 Introduction Application Note AN6067 The isppac -POWR1220AT8 device from Lattice is a full-featured second-generation Power Manager chip. As part of its feature set, this device supports

### PC Base Adapter Daughter Card UART GPIO. Figure 1. ToolStick Development Platform Block Diagram

TOOLSTICK VIRTUAL TOOLS USER S GUIDE RELEVANT DEVICES 1. Introduction The ToolStick development platform consists of a ToolStick Base Adapter and a ToolStick Daughter card. The ToolStick Virtual Tools

### PROGRAMMING PIC MICROCONTROLLERS

PROGRAMMING PIC MICROCONTROLLERS Install ET-PGMPIC USB Install the following two programs from the CD..NET Framework (dotnetfx). PICkit2Setup. After installation, click on the icon below to start the program.

### 555 Timers. We are going to look at using the 555 to create two very different types of timer. A MONOSTABLE timer and an ASTABLE timer.

555 Timers We are now going to concentrate on specific IC s and how they can be used to perform useful functions. In turn we shall be looking at Timers, Amplifiers, Counters, Microprocessors and finally

### Palaparthi.Jagadeesh Chand. Associate Professor in ECE Department, Nimra Institute of Science & Technology, Vijayawada, A.P.

Patient Monitoring Using Embedded Palaparthi.Jagadeesh Chand Associate Professor in ECE Department, Nimra Institute of Science & Technology, Vijayawada, A.P Abstract The aim of this project is to inform

### Cart Interface Installation & Control Board Manual for M38 XP and RX Carts and Legacy M39 Carts

Rubbermaid Medical Solutions Cart Interface Installation & Control Board Manual for M38 XP and RX Carts and Legacy M39 Carts REVISED FEBRUARY 25, 2010 Filename: Cart Interface Installation & Control Board

### Current Monitoring Kit

Current Monitoring Kit QUICK START GUIDE DO090-6 CONTENTS Issues: 1) 2.10.02 WP A4 format 2) 2.10.02 Added safety warning 3) 17.3.06 Word A5 format. S1: Removed relay modules. S2: Added MI010. S4.1: added

### Remote Token Display and Sound System

Remote Token Display and Sound System Ms. Seint Seint Htwe Abstract This paper describes Peripheral Interface Controller (PIC) based remote token display and sound system. This system consists of two portions:

### EVAT - Emblitz Varsity Associate Trainee Program - Embedded Systems Design

EVAT - Emblitz Varsity Associate Trainee Program - Embedded Systems Design Product Number: EVAT 001 This fully interactive self study course of embedded system design teaches the basic and advanced concepts

### Disturbance Recoder SPCR 8C27. Product Guide

Issued: April 1999 Status: Updated Version: C/26.04.2006 Data subject to change without notice Features Versatile digital disturbance recorder module for recording various phenomena in the electric power

### MICROCONTROLLER BASED TEMPERATURE INDICATOR SUBMITTED BY:

MICROCONTROLLER BASED TEMPERATURE INDICATOR SUBMITTED BY: 1 INTRODUCTION The aim of this project is to design an ambient temperature measurement circuit. The motivation for doing this project is the fact

### USB-500/600 Series Low-Cost Data Loggers and Accessories

Low-Cost Data Loggers and Accessories Features Stand-alone, remote data loggers and portable logger assistant Measure temperature, humidity, voltage, current, or event/state change 1 or 2 channels Low

### DSO138 oscilloscope program upgrade method

DSO138 oscilloscope program upgrade method Applicable models: 13801K, 13802K Program upgrade Principle The DSO138 is a SCM STM32F103C8 internal oscilloscope that is preinstalled with a flash bootloader,