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1 : sustainable and reliable bulk electricity generation in the multi-mw scale Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil, D.Eng., Dipl.-Ing., FREng, FIChemE, CEng Institute for Technical Thermodynamics, German Aerospace Centre (DLR) Stuttgart Cologne - Alméria/Spain

2 Germany s Aerospace Research Center and Space Agency.

3 Total 2009 budget 1.4 billion 800 All figures in Euro millions Space Agency Research and Operations German ESA contributions from the BMBF Institutional funding National Space Program Third-party funding

4 Sites and employees employees working in 28 research institutes and facilities! at 8 sites " in 7 field offices. Offices in Brussels, Paris and Washington. " Hamburg " Neustrelitz Trauen " Berlin- Charlottenburg " Braunschweig! Berlin--! Adlershof! Göttingen Köln-Porz! Bonn " Sankt Augustin " Darmstadt! Lampoldshausen! Stuttgart! Oberpfaffenhofen Weilheim " # Almería (Spain)

5 Scientific competence 5,900 employees 2,700 scientists 500 doctoral students and junior scientists 100 visiting scientists Space Aeronautics Transportation Energy

6 Institute of Technical Thermodynamics Prof. Dr. Dr.-Ing. habil H.Müller-Steinhagen Solar Research Prof. Dr.-Ing. R. Pitz-Paal Electrochemical Energy Conversion Prof. Dr.rer.nat. A. Friedrich Thermal Process Technology Dr.rer.nat. R.Tamme Administration and Planning Dipl.-Wirt.Ing. J. Piskurek Logistics & Purchasing Project Administration Computing Support Workshops Systems Analysis and Technol. Assessment Dr.-Ing. W. Krewitt

7 Institute of Technical Thermodynamics Prof. Dr. Dr.-Ing. habil H.Müller-Steinhagen Solar Research Prof. Dr.-Ing. R. Pitz-Paal Electrochemical Energy Conversion Prof. Dr.rer.nat. A. Friedrich Thermal Process Technology Dr.rer.nat. R.Tamme Systems Analysis and Technol. Assessment Dr.-Ing. W. Krewitt

8 Technical Thermodynamics Institute of Thermodyn. & Thermal Engn. Prof. Dr. Dr.-Ing. habil H. Müller-Steinhagen Solar Research Prof. Dr.-Ing. R. Pitz-Paal (ITT-KP,ST,AS) Electrochemical Energy Conversion Prof. Dr. A. Friedrich (ITT-ST) Thermal Process Technology Dr.rer.nat. R.Tamme(ITT-ST) TC for Solar Systems Dr.-Ing. H. Drück (ITW-ST) Rational Use of Energy Dr.-Ing. W. Heidemann (ITW-ST) Heat and Mass Transfer Priv. Doz. Dr.-Ing. K. Spindler (ITW- ST) Systems Analysis and Technol. Assessment Dr.-Ing. W. Krewitt; (ITT-ST) Undergraduate and Postgraduate Education

9 Technical Thermodynamics Institute of Thermodyn. & Thermal Engn. Prof. Dr. Dr.-Ing. habil H. Müller-Steinhagen TC for Solar Systems Dr.-Ing. H. Drück (ITW-ST) Rational Use of Energy Dr.-Ing. W. Heidemann (ITW-ST) Heat and Mass Transfer Priv. Doz. Dr.-Ing. K. Spindler (ITW- ST) Undergraduate and Postgraduate Education

10 Technical Thermodynamics Institute of Thermodyn. & Thermal Engn. Prof. Dr. Dr.-Ing. habil H. Müller-Steinhagen Solar Research Prof. Dr.-Ing. R. Pitz-Paal (ITT-KP,ST,AS) Electrochemical Energy Conversion Prof. Dr. A. Friedrich (ITT-ST) Thermal Process Technology Dr.rer.nat. R.Tamme(ITT-ST) TC for Solar Systems Dr.-Ing. H. Drück (ITW-ST) Rational Use of Energy Dr.-Ing. W. Heidemann (ITW-ST) Heat and Mass Transfer Priv. Doz. Dr.-Ing. K. Spindler (ITW- ST) Systems Analysis and Technol. Assessment Dr.-Ing. W. Krewitt; (ITT-ST) Undergraduate and Postgraduate Education

11 : sustainable and reliable bulk electricity generation in the multi-mw scale Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil, D.Eng., Dipl.-Ing., FREng, FIChemE, CEng Institute for Technical Thermodynamics, German Aerospace Centre (DLR) Stuttgart Cologne - Alméria/Spain

12 Global Primary Energy Consumption Primary energy, EJ / year non commercial biomass renewable energies nuclear energy natural gas mineral oil coal

13 DLR has analysed renewable energy resources of 64 countries in Europe and MENA in brackets: (max. yield in GWh el / km² /y)

14 $ renewable resources greatly exceed the present and future electricity demands $ solar radiation is by far the most abundant source of energy Economic renewable electricity potentials vs. demand in Europe and MENA

15 Solar Pond Photovoltaic System Solar Chimney!"#$%&'()* 89%8'.)# +"(%:-*!5-7.)4 +"(%,*-.) &-.$%;<*=-.)!"#$%&'()*0%1"2%3'#(%!".().( 1'4)*%&-(5%6.()*7)$-'()%3'#(%!".().( +"(%!"./).(*'()$%,*-.)%% &'((%7)()* 1"'$!"#$ :-*!">)* Parabolic Trough 8-B-.C%%%%%%%%%% +)#-"?('(

16 Why Concentrating Solar Technologies? Conventional power plants

17 Why Concentrating Solar Technologies? Solar thermal power plants

18 Why Concentrating Solar Technologies? can be integrated into conventional thermal power plants provide firm capacity (thermal storage, fossil backup) serve different markets (bulk power, remote power, heat, water) have the lowest costs for solar electricity have an energy payback time of only 6-12 months use the largest renewable resource in the world Solar thermal power plants

19 Why Concentrating Solar Technologies? CSP

20 Distributed Systems: Parabolic Dish Unit with Stirling Engine 10 kw EURODISH 2 units, Spain 10 kw ADDS 2 units, USA 25 kw SES/Boing 3 units, USA 22 kw SunDish 4 units, USA Parabolic reflector shell System size kw Very high concentration ratio Power package with Stirling Engine High conversion efficiency Remote operation Backup heating of power package with fuel Series production in preparation Can be cheaper than PV Low economic risk compared to bulk power production

21 Centralized Bulk Electricity Production 3()'7 8"2)*%8#'.( G Fuel Saver Cycle Efficiency fossil & solar 35-42% Solar Share 30% - 50% Expansion Vessel HTF Storage 6 Time Solar Share 100% Steam Cycle Solar-only Time Solar Share 100% Time

22 Principle of parabolic trough collector morning afternoon Line-focussing collector with single-axis tracking

23 !"##)/("* D)?-C. Eurotrough Collector Stiff structure % Less breakage % Length: 150 m % Less connections % Less optical losses

24 Mirror surface parabolic shape mirror design z 4mm glass z = x 2 / 4f f = 1.71 (Eurotrough) f x reflective silver coating copper layer base layer final layer ceramic mounting support 2-component proctective layer at present: reflectivity better 94%, life expectancy > 20 years

25 Absorber tube connection to vacuum pump vacuum between absorber and glass tube metal / glass connection metallic absorber tube outside glass tube gas molecule getter to maintain vacuum expansion bellow SEGS plants at 400 C: absorptivity 96%, emissivity 19% new Schott tubes at 400 C: absorptivity 96%, emissivity better 14% Schott is presently using a twin magnetron sputter process for the selctive coating.

26 Solar Radiation Backup Firing Layout of Parabolic Trough Plant Solar Field parabolic trough collectors m 2 Heat Transfer & Buffer hours capacity Power Block steam cycle turbine, condenser MW

27 2,5 Mio. m² Parabolic Trough Collectors in California The SEGS experience in California: 100 years of equivalent commercial operation (9 plants, with a total of 354 MW) High availabilities 11 bill. kwh have been fed into the Californian grid Generating 1.4 billion $ US in revenues High solar efficiencies and lowest solar electricity cost of cent/kwh

28 The Andasol plants in Spain 50 MW parabolic trough plant near Granada, start-up spring 2009 Total cost 350 mio. Euro; project management Solar Millennium and ACS Average annual efficiency 16%; electricity cost about 20 cent /kwh 7-8 hours storage capacity Two additional, identical power plants are under construction Model des Kraftwerks

29 50 MW Andasol plant in Spain 624 ET150 collectors: 7500 modules m 2 of aperture area mirror support points, 7800 bearings, absorber tube supports will have to be aligned to track the sun in 0.1 precision

30 Qualification Measurement Ray-Tracing Flux distribution next to absorber tube

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