The Great War aka WWI

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1 The Great War aka WWI

2 4 MAIN Causes of WWI Militarism countries beefing up their militaries led to increased hostility Alliances countries had each other s backs Imperialism competition for colonies led to tensions Nationalism pride in one s country/ethnicity led to desires for expansion/ independence

3 Militarism effect of Social Darwinism a strong military = survival of the fittest armies & navies were expanded Increased tensions Britain & Germany had the biggest naval rivalry

4 Alliances Purpose of alliances was to ensure security 1882: Triple Alliance was formed (They are the bad guys to us) Formed by Otto von Bismarck (remember him?) Italy, Germany, & Austria-Hungary They later become the Central Powers Italy switches sides to gain Austrian-ruled territory

5 1904: Triple Entente was formed Entente means nonbinding agreement to follow common policies Formed between France & Britain Russia later joined (hence the Triple part) They became the Allies after the war started

6 Alliances of WWI Two Sets of Alliances Central Powers Austria-Hungary Ottoman Empire Germany Bulgaria Allies Great Britain Belgium Montenegro France Greece USA (April 1917) Portugal Serbia Russia Romania

7 Imperialism Berlin Conference tried to prevent physical fighting over colonies Tensions still increased

8 Nationalism Nationalist feelings - strong all over Europe Germany - proud of military power & wanted to use it France wanted to be a super power again bitter about losing Franco-Prussia War of 1871 wanted Alsace-Lorraine back from Germany

9 Powder Keg of Europe SE Europe Balkan Peninsula June 28, 1389 Serbia was conquered by the Ottoman Empire June 28, 1912 Serbia is freed from Ottoman rule

10 June 28, 1914 Archduke Francis Ferdinand visits Sarajevo Capital of Bosnia Still part of A-H but loads of Serbs live there Seen as a huge insult to Serb population

11 He & his wife Sophie are assassinated by Gavrilo Princip

12 And So We Begin A-H declares war on Serbia Russia began mobilizing Germany declared war on Russia France promised to back Russia Germany declares war on France So Who s fault is it?

13 Fighting WWI

14 A Two Front War

15 Eastern Front German / Russian border Western Front French / German border

16 New Type of War Trench warfare

17 The boys would be sent Over the Top

18 Trench Foot

19 New Technology Tanks

20 Gas

21 Mustard & chlorine gases were used British Gas Casualties: Deaths Non-Fatal Chlorine 1, ,457 Mustard Gas 4,086 16,526

22 Battleships

23

24

25

26 Airplanes

27 The Sinking of the Lusitania Sunk in May 1915 off the coast of Ireland 14 miles off the Old Head, Kinsale 1201 people were killed Sunk in 18 minutes The Lusitania was in fact carrying weapons

28 The US was ticked off sinking was perfect propaganda against Germany Germany promised to stop using unrestricted submarine use German U-boats would surface & give warning, allowing neutral passengers to lifeboats That lasted until December 1916 And then.

29 Russia Leaves War March 1917 Russian Revolution starts Early 1918 Russia signs treaty with Germany ending her involvement No longer a two front war!

30 Zimmerman Note 1917 Brits intercept a note from Arthur Zimmerman, a German foreign minister En route to Mexico Mexico would get land back if she invaded US April 1917 US joined the war

31 Wilson s Fourteen Points January 1918 Called for an end to secret treaties Wanted freedom of the seas Free trade Large scale reduction of arms Self-determination right to people to choose own form of government League of Nations

32

33 End of WWI Sept German generals informed the Kaiser the war could not be won WWI ended on the 11 th hour of the 11 th day of the 11 th month of 1918 November 11, 1918 at 11 am, all the involved countries agreed to a ceasefire - armistice

34 Costs of WWI Deaths Wounded France 1,357,800 4,266,000 Britain 908,371 2,090,212 Russia 1,700,000 4,950,000 Italy 462, ,886 US 50, ,690 Other Allies 502, ,585 Germany A-H Ottoman Empire 1,808, ,500 4,247,143 3,620, , ,000

35 Treaty of Versailles Signed in the Palace of Versailles 10 miles outside of Paris In the Hall of Mirrors Germany must assume full blame for war

36 Germany had to pay $30 Billion in reparations (war damages) Limited Germany s military Alsace & Lorraine were returned to France Germany loses overseas colonies The Big Four Lloyd George of England Orlando of Italy Clemenceau of France Woodrow Wilson from the US

37

38 Unfortunately this is only the beginning!

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