Use words from the list to complete the following sentences. Words may be used once, more than once, or not at all.

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1 Q. The diagram shows an experimental solar-powered bike. A battery is connected to the solar cells. The solar cells charge up the battery. There is a switch on the handlebars. When the switch is closed, the battery drives a motor attached to the front wheel. (a) Use words from the list to complete the following sentences. Words may be used once, more than once, or not at all. chemical electrical heat (thermal) kinetic light potential sound (i) The solar cells transfer... energy to... energy. (ii) When the battery is being charged up,... energy is transferred to... energy. (iii) The motor is designed to transfer... energy to... energy. (6) Page

2 (b) (i) You may find this equation useful when answering this part of the question. power (watt) W = The cyclist stops pedalling for 0 seconds. During this time the motor transfers 500 joules of energy. Calculate the power of the motor Power... W () (ii) Name one form of wasted energy which is produced when the motor is running.... () (Total 9 marks) Q. State and explain the advantages and disadvantages of using nuclear power stations to produce electricity (Total 4 marks) Page

3 Q3. Use of renewable sources of energy is expected to increase. The table shows the comparative costs of producing I kwh of electricity from different energy sources. Types of energy sources used in the UK Cost of producing kwh of electrical energy Fossil fuels (non-renewable) Coal.0 p Gas Oil.4 p.5 p Nuclear fuels (non-renewable) Nuclear 0.9 p Renewable Hydroelectric 0. p Wind 0.9 p Installation and decommissioning costs are not included At present about % of electricity generated in the UK uses renewable energy sources. Consider the three types of energy sources in the table and give one advantage and one disadvantage for each (other than installation and decommissioning costs). Advantage Disadvantage Using fossil fuels Using nuclear fuels Using renewable sources Using fossil fuels Using nuclear fuels Using renewable sources Page 3

4 (Total 6 marks) Q4. The bar chart shows the relative costs of some different energy sources that are used to generate electricity. (a) Apart from cost, give two advantages that a hydroelectric power station has compared with a wind farm () Page 4

5 (b) Apart from cost, give one advantage and one disadvantage that a nuclear power station has compared with a coal-fired power station. Advantage Disadvantage () (c) State and explain one situation where it is better to use solar energy, rather than any of the other energy sources, to generate electricity () (Total 6 marks) Page 5

6 M. (a) (i).. light electrical for mark each (ii) (iii).. electrical chemical for mark each.. electrical.. kinetic for mark each (b) (i) 500 / 0 gains mark but 50 gains marks (ii) heat (thermal) or sound for mark [9] M. Read all the answer first. See below. Mark the first two advantages and disadvantages ( or X) ignoring neutral answers. Only allow a third advantage if there is only one disadvantage given. Only allow a third disadvantage if only one advantage is given. max. 3 advantages (e.g. cheap fuel, good availability, saving fossil fuels, low running costs, reliable, more energy / kg, less fuel needed, no greenhouse gases emitted, no SO causing acid rain) max. 3 disadvantages (e.g. danger to health of local community, non Page 6

7 renewable, high cost of decommissioning, long half life of waste materials, need for safe storage of waste, high cost of commissioning, danger involved in transporting fuel / waste) max. 4 marks [4] M3. do not give any credit for renewable or non-renewable or installation or decommissioning costs fossil fuel advantage a reliable source of energy fossil fuel disadvantage pollution by carbon dioxide / accept causes acid rain accept highest costs / more expensive than nuclear / more expensive than renewable nuclear advantage do not produce gases that increase the greenhouse effect or cause acid rain accept nuclear is cheaper than fossil nuclear disadvantage accidents / waste can release very dangerous radioactive material radiation accept it produces waste that stays dangerously radioactive for thousands of years or radioactive waste has to be stored safely for thousands of years renewable advantage there are no fuel costs almost pollution free (apart from noise and visual) accept cheaper than fossil Page 7

8 renewable disadvantage not a reliable source of energy except for hydroelectric accept (most) require large areas of land accept visual / noise pollution [6] M4. (a) any two from reliable accept it is not always windy can be used as storage for surplus electricity generates more electricity accept would need hundreds of wind turbines to generate this electricity takes less space is neutral no noise pollution do not accept can be started up quickly (b) advantage : does not produce greenhouse gases / carbon dioxide / water or acid rain / sulphur dioxide disadvantage : danger from radioactive materials if accidents or waste radioactive materials accept slower start-up time (c) any one situation with a suitable explanation satellite weigh less or work for many years or remote remote places on Earth pump water or operate phones or road signs / lights or Page 8

9 weather stations or too expensive / impractical calculators / watches small amount of electricity needed [6] Page 9

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