ANALYZING ENERGY. Time and Student Grouping Energy Source Analysis and Consequence Wheel: One class period. Grade Levels: 6-12

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1 ANALYZING ENERGY Lesson Concepts: Students will analyze the advantages and disadvantages of nine different energy sources. They will use their knowledge to predict what would happen if the world did not use fossil fuels. They will also propose a plausible solution to the issues surrounding our current energy choices. Learning Objectives Students will be able to: Analyze the advantages and disadvantages associated with the following energy sources: coal, natural gas, hydrogen, geothermal, hydropower, oil, solar, wind, and nuclear energy. Predict the economical and environmental consequences of choosing to use alternative fuels. Synthesize a plausible solution to the limited amounts of fossil fuels and the pollution caused by their burning, while still providing adequate amounts of energy. Link to Air The Search for One Clean Breath from Executive Producer Barbara L. Page In the film we view footage of how the Industrial Revolution changed air quality forever by dramatically increasing air pollution. Burning fossil fuels for energy use has caused this rise in air pollutants (e.g. ozone & particulate matter) and greenhouse gases (e.g. carbon dioxide and methane). We also visit Iceland, London s BedZED green community, and the EVS-23 Show to see how technology and good sense are cleaning the air. Materials Copies of Energy Sources Table and Energy Sources Analysis Worksheet Large butcher paper for student presentations of equence Wheels Markers (one pack per group) Advanced Preparation Make copies of student handouts (one per student). Time and Student Grouping Energy Source Analysis and equence Wheel: One class period Teacher Tips It would be helpful to use cooperative learning techniques in completing the group work. Some suggested roles to assign students are: leader, time keeper, recorder, presenter, errand runner, encourager, and summarizer. It is beneficial to stop and discuss each section of the Energy Source Analysis worksheet to keep students on task and monitor their understanding. The equence Wheel should include both positive and negative consequences. Grade Levels: 6-12 California Science Standards Grade 6, 6.a. Students know the utility of energy sources is determined by factors that are involved in converting these sources to useful forms and the consequences of the conversion process. Grade 6, 6.b. Students know different natural energy and material resources, including air, soil, rocks, minerals, petroleum, fresh water, wildlife, and forests, and know how to classify them as renewable or nonrenewable. HS Chemistry, 7.b. Students know chemical processes can either release (exothermic) or absorb (endothermic) thermal energy. HS Chemistry, 7.c. Students know energy is released when a material condenses or freezes and is absorbed when a material evaporates or melts. National Science Standards Grade 9-12 Science & Technology Content Standard F: Science in Personal and Social Perspective. Education and the Environment Initiative Educational Principles and Concepts Principle IV: The exchange of matter between natural systems and human societies affects the long-term functioning of both. As a basis for understanding this principle: Concept a. Students need to know that the effects of human activities on natural systems are directly related to the quantities of resources consumed and to the quantity and characteristics of the resulting byproducts. Concept b. Students need to know that the byproducts of human activity are not readily prevented from entering natural systems and may be beneficial, neutral, Vocabulary Coal: a combustible black or dark brown rock consisting of carbonized plant matter, found mainly in underground deposits and widely used as fuel. Natural Gas: flammable gas consisting largely of methane and other hydrocarbons, occurring naturally underground and used as fuel. Hydrogen: a colorless, odorless, highly flammable gas that can be combined with oxygen to release energy. Geothermal: energy produced by the internal heat of the Earth. Hydropower: the generation of using flowing water to drive a turbine that powers a generator. Oil: a viscous liquid derived from petroleum, especially for use as a fuel. Solar: energy produced by the sun. Wind: energy produced by the movement of air. Nuclear: energy released in fission or fusion. Analyzing Energy Lesson. Air -The Search for One Clean Breath. Page 1

2 Teacher Background Energy is defined as the capacity to do work. We use energy in almost every aspect of our lives. For many people, it is difficult to think of a part of our day that we do not use mass-produced energy. While the use of energy makes our lives easier, there are negative consequences to the environment associated with it. For fossil fuels, there is the release of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas, as well as other pollutants. Others, such as wind and hydropower can disrupt the environment and negatively impact wildlife populations. In general, one downside of more environmentally-friendly sources of energy is a higher production cost. Therefore, there are economic and environmental costs to consider when determining the best sources. The United States contains 5% of the world s population; however, it consumes 26% of the world s energy each year. With increases in population, technological advances, and the desire to provide a reasonable standard of living for the average American, our energy consumption will continue to increase. In fact, it is predicted that our energy consumption will increase by 11% before Most of our current energy usage comes from non-renewable sources. This means we are quickly depleting our energy sources, and increasing pollution in the process. While there are ways to make the use of fossil fuels cleaner, this does not solve the issue surrounding their limited supply. Procedure Day 1: 1. Discuss what energy is and how students use energy on a daily basis. Make a list on the board of student responses. Energy uses: water heater, energy used by appliances when they are plugged in and not in use (vampire power), dishwasher, washing machine, refrigerator, wells (in rural areas), and stoves. Ask students to put the list in order of what they think consumes the most energy to the least energy. Energy usage can be broken down into different categories, see the table below. Source: Department of Energy, tonto.eia.doe.gov/kids/energy.cfm?page=us_energy_use-basics. Industry and Manufacturing = 31% Transportation = 28% Automobiles 32% Light Trucks 28% Other Trucks 16% Aircraft 9% Ships 5% truction & Agriculture Pipelines 3% Trains and Buses 3% Residential = 22% Space Heating 41% Lighting & Appliances 26% Water Heating 20% Air Conditioning 8% Refrigeration 5% Commercial = 19% Space Heating 36% Lighting 21% Water Heating 8% Cooling 8% Ventilation 7% Cooking 3% Office Equipment 3% Other 9% Refrigeration 6% 4% Analyzing Energy Lesson. Air -The Search for One Clean Breath. Page 2

3 Day 1 continued: 2. Explain to students that the energy they use has to come from somewhere, because energy cannot be created nor destroyed (1 st law of thermodynamics). Energy is stored (in chemical bonds, nuclear bonds, and gravitational energy) and then released in a different form (, heat, motion, and sound). 3. Explain that with each source of energy there are advantages and disadvantages in terms of the amounts of energy they can produce and the by-products of their production and usage. Students will be looking at these using the worksheet and comparison table. 4. Have students work in groups to complete the Energy Sources Analysis worksheet. Day 2: 1. Have students complete the equence Wheel answering the question: What would happen if there was a worldwide ban on the burning of fossil fuels? The students should first fill out their individual copies, then transfer their answers to a piece of butcher paper to be presented to the class. The first layer of circles is five primary consequences. The second layer of circles is three secondary consequences (resulting from the primary consequences). The third layer of circles is two tertiary consequences for each secondary consequence. 2. Have students present their equence Wheel to the class and build a class equence Wheel. Students should add new consequences to their personal copy. 3. Students will use their equence Wheel and Energy Source Comparison Table to write three paragraphs explaining what they think the United States should do to solve their energy issues. Closure: Have the students write three paragraphs explaining what they think they U.S. should do to solve the issues associated with the current sources of energy. Students should use evidence from the Energy Sources Comparison Table and their equence Wheel to support their solution. Assessment: Energy Analysis Worksheet, equence Wheel, and solution paragraphs. Extension: The three paragraphs on the solutions to energy issues could be turned into a full research paper. Resources: usproductioncosts/ Analyzing Energy Lesson. Air -The Search for One Clean Breath. Page 3

4 Energy Sources Analysis Use the Energy Sources Comparison Table to answer the following questions. Energy Usage 1. What are the different types of fossil fuels? 2. What percent of U.S. energy consumption is due to using fossil fuels? 3. What are the different types of renewable energy sources? 4. What percent of the U.S. energy consumption is due to renewable energy sources? 5. Heating is responsible for 47% of residential energy consumption. Which energy sources are used for heating homes? 6. Electricity is responsible for 35% of residential energy consumption. Which energy sources are used for generating? 7. Water heating is responsible for 17% of residential energy consumption. Which energy sources are used for heating water? Pollution 8. What are the by-products of the following sources of energy production: a. Coal f. Oil b. Natural Gas g. Solar c. Hydrogen h. Wind d. Geothermal i. Biomass e. Hydropower j. Nuclear 9. List the energy sources in order of least harmful to the environment to most harmful. Analyzing Energy Lesson. Air -The Search for One Clean Breath. Page 4

5 Costs 10. The average U.S. citizen consumes 12,133 kilowatt hours of per year. How much would it cost to meet the average person s energy usage using each of the following energy sources? a. Coal f. Oil b. Natural Gas g. Solar c. Hydrogen h. Wind d. Geothermal i. Biomass e. Hydropower j. Nuclear 11. What is the least expensive on an annual basis? a. What is the cost difference on an annual basis between this energy source and the next most expensive? b. What percent of the U.S. energy consumption does this account for? c. Why do you think the least expensive is not the most frequently used? 12. What is the most expensive on an annual basis? a. What type of energy is this source? b. Why do you think this energy source is more expensive than other energy sources? Comparison 13. Fill in the Pro/Con Table for each energy source. 14. List the energy sources in order of most frequently used to least frequently used. 15. Why do you think the list is in the order that it is? Include cost; what it is used for; and pros/cons of the different energy sources. Analyzing Energy Lesson. Air -The Search for One Clean Breath. Page 5

6 and of Energy Use Coal Natural Gas Hydrogen Geothermal Hydropower Analyzing Energy Lesson. Air -The Search for One Clean Breath. Page 6

7 and of Energy Use Oil Solar Wind Biomass Nuclear Analyzing Energy Lesson. Air -The Search for One Clean Breath. Page 7

8 equence Wheel Analyzing Energy Lesson. Air -The Search for One Clean Breath. Page 8

9 Energy Sources Analysis Key Use the Energy Sources Comparison Table to answer the following questions. Energy Usage 1. What are the different types of fossil fuels? Coal, Natural Gas, Oil 2. What percent of U.S. energy consumption is due to using fossil fuels? 83.7% 3. What are the different types of renewable energy sources? Hydropower, solar, wind, geothermal, biomass 4. What percent of the U.S. energy consumption is due to renewable energy sources? 7.3% 5. Heating is responsible for 47% of residential energy consumption. Which energy sources are used for heating homes? Natural gas, geothermal, oil, solar, coal 6. Electricity is responsible for 35% of residential energy consumption. Which energy sources are used for generating? Coal, hydrogen, geothermal, hydropower, solar, wind, nuclear, natural gas, oil 7. Water heating is responsible for 17% of residential energy consumption. Which energy sources are commonly used for heating water? Natural gas, geothermal, solar Pollution 8. What are the by-products of the following sources of energy production: a. Coal methanol, ethylene, land destruction, water pollution, sulfur, nitrogen oxides, mercury, carbon dioxide, smog, acid rain b. Natural Gas carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxide c. Hydrogen steam, carbon dioxide d. Geothermal zinc, silica, sulfur, carbon dioxide e. Hydropower land destruction (man-made reservoirs) f. Oil gasoline, diesel, propane, asphalt, heating oil, artificial reefs, oil spills, carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, unburned hydrocarbons g. Solar none h. Wind none i. Biomass ethanol, biodiesel, biogas, carbon dioxide, ash j. Nuclear steam, heat, radioactive waste 9. List the energy sources in order of least harmful to the environment to most harmful. Solar, wind, hydropower, geothermal, biomass, nuclear, hydrogen, natural gas, coal, oil (Rankings are subject to change. It is important for students to analyze the information and use it to form opinions.) Analyzing Energy Lesson. Air -The Search for One Clean Breath. Page 9

10 Costs 10. The average U.S. citizen consumes 12,133 kilowatt hours of per year. How much would it cost to meet the average person s energy usage using each of the following energy sources? a. Coal $ f. Oil $ b. Natural Gas $ g. Solar $ c. Hydrogen $ h. Wind $ d. Geothermal $ i. Biomass $ e. Hydropower $ j. Nuclear $ What is the least expensive on an annual basis? Nuclear a. What is the cost difference on an annual basis between this energy source and the next most expensive? $83.72 b. What percent of the U.S. energy consumption does this account for? 8.3% c. Why do you think the least expensive is not the most frequently used? The cost difference is not very significant over the year, especially when weighed with the safety concerns associated with nuclear energy and the disposal of nuclear waste. 12. What is the most expensive on an annual basis? Solar a. What type of energy is this source? Renewable b. Why do you think this energy source is more expensive than other energy sources? It does not generate as much and it is not always dependable. It is only effective in certain areas of the country (deserts, etc.). Comparison 13. Fill in the Pro/Con table for each energy source. 14. List the energy sources in order of most frequently used to least frequently used. 15. Why do you think the list is in the order that it is? Include cost, what it is used for, and pros/cons of the different energy sources. Analyzing Energy Lesson. Air -The Search for One Clean Breath. Page 10

11 Analyzing Energy Lesson. Air -The Search for One Clean Breath. Page 11 Classification % of U.S. energy consumption Coal Fossil fuel How we get it Surface mining and underground mining Fossil fuel Oil Solar Wind Biomass Nuclear Renewable Renewable Renewable Fossil fuel Renewable Renewable Natural gas Hydrogen Geothermal Hydropower Nonrenewable 22.50% 23.8% NA 0.4% 2.40% 37.40% 0.10% 0.50% 3.9% 9.0% Drilling wells, harvesting it from the decomposition of organic materials Energy Sources Comparison Table By-product of Volcanoes, other energy hot-springs, sources and and geysers processes (steam reforming and hydrolysis are most common) Dams capture the energy of moving water and use it to power electrical generators Drilling wells Collecting energy from sun using photo cells for Wind turns windmill which acts as a generator Renewable Trees (wood), plants, organic waste U-235 is mined Beneficial By-products of production Methanol, ethylene Propane (used in gas grills) and butane (used in lighters) None Zinc, Silica, None and Sulfur that can be sold for profit Gasoline, diesel, propane, asphalt, heating oil, fertilizers, artificial reefs. None None Ethanol, None biodiesel Harmful By-products of production Water pollution and land destruction CO 2 produced Sulfur but not from stripping much hydrogen from petroleum products (major source of hydrogen) None Oil spills, emissions from refining None None Biogas, CO 2 from burning, Small amounts of emissions particulates from uranium such as ash processing What is it used for Generating, industrial (plastics, steel) Heating homes, generating Powering vehicles and generating Heating buildings, generate Electricity production Fuel for transportation, plastics production, heating, fertilizers Heating and Electricity Heating, Generating

12 Analyzing Energy Lesson. Air -The Search for One Clean Breath. Page 12 Coal How is it used Burning it to make steam to generate By-products of use Sulfur, nitrogen oxide, mercury, CO 2 Energy Sources Comparison Table Natural gas Hydrogen Geothermal Hydropower Burning it to make steam to generate CO 2 (greenhouse gas), NO x Combines with O 2 to make steam. Captures energy released from chemical reaction Direct and indirect heating from the Earth s core to generate Steam <1% of the CO 2 of fossil fuels Dams capture the energy of moving water and use it to power electrical generators Oil Solar Wind Biomass Nuclear Burning it to make steam to generate None CO 2, NO 2, unburned hydrocarbons Collected with solar panels, thermal and photo voltaic to generate Windmills turn when the wind blows and generate. Fermented to produce ethanol which is burned like gasoline U-235 fission (nuclear reactions) to make steam to generate None None None Steam, heat, radioactive waste, and spent fuel rods How clean is it Major contributor to smog and acid rain Cleaner than other fossil fuels Clean use but Very clean. CO 2 is produced by steam released Steam is reforming Very clean. No emissions Major contributor to smog 100% 100% Cleaner than No air burning fossil fuel pollution, nuclear wastes Expenses Mining coal, power plants Mining, transmission and distribution Hydrogen production and storage Building plants Building and Drilling, maintaining processing, turbines, dams transporting Solar panels Wind mills Building Mining plants uranium, running plant Cost 2.37 /kwh 4.09 /kwh /kwh (assuming 100% efficiency) /kwh 4 /kwh 9.63 /kwh 30 / kwh 4-7 /kwh / 1.68 /kwh kwh Other Info Electrolysis is expensive and hydrogen is difficult to store safely. Dams can block migratory routes of native fish species, disrupt water temperatures and compositions, and cause flooding Sun varies by location and time; requires large surface area to be effective Wind is not always blowing and turbines can have a negative effect on wild bird populations Potential for nuclear meltdown. Accidents can cause severe damage to the environment and people living in the surrounding community

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