Solar PV panels fitted to roofs. Solar PV panels produce electricity from energy provided by sunlight. 3.5 MWh per system

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1 Solar PV panels fitted to roofs Yearly cost of production Cost per kwh 12.5p Solar PV panels produce electricity from energy provided by sunlight. 3.5 MWh per system 430 per system Solar energy can be used to generate electricity in remote places where other electricity supplies are hard to come by Energy is usually generated at or near to the location it will be used. This keeps transmission and distribution costs to an absolute minimum By putting people s energy production in their own hands it can increase awareness of energy issues The amount of energy produced is weather dependant and cannot be guaranteed.

2 Solar farm Yearly cost of production 52,800 Price per kwh A solar farm is an area of land housing a large number of solar PV panels 440 MWh 12p Solar energy can be used to generate electricity in remote places where other electricity supplies are hard to come by Energy is usually generated at or near to the location it will be used. This keeps transmission and distribution costs to an absolute minimum Costs are reduced due to economies of scale and ease of installation A large area of land will be required May be subject to vandalism / damage

3 Micro hydro power Amount of energy produced Yearly cost of production Cost per kwh A small water turbine or Archimedes screw is used to produce electricity from water flowing in rivers and streams. 65 MWh 9,850 15p It only takes a small amount of flow (as little as two gallons per minute) or a drop as low as two feet to generate electricity with micro hydro. Produces a continuous supply of energy The peak energy season is during the winter months when large quantities of electricity are required. Does not prevent the safe passage of fish and other animals Maintenance costs are relatively small in comparison to other technologies. Lower production in the summer months.

4 Hydro power barrage A dam is built across a river. Housed within the dam wall are a series of turbines. 4,380 MWh Yearly cost of production 560,640 Cost per kwh 12.8p Once the plant is built, operating costs are very low Dams store water so we can control when electricity is made Power output can be increased very quickly to meet sudden demand Electricity can be generated constantly as long as there is enough water Dams are very expensive to build Valuable land is flooded when a reservoir is made: homes and wildlife habitats can be lost A good site for a hydroelectric power plant, such as a mountainous region, is not always near towns where energy is needed There are not many suitable sites May prevent the safe passage of fish and other animals

5 Single onshore wind turbine Yearly cost of production 227,500 Cost per kwh Wind turns a turbine that produces electricity. 1,750 MWh 13p Once the wind turbine is built, running costs are relatively low The land can still be used for other uses Wind turbines are safe and easy to build We cannot control when the wind blows. Wind turbines shut down in very strong or very weak winds They can only be built in certain areas. These areas need to be windy places, usually hilly areas or coasts Not everyone likes the appearance of wind farms

6 Onshore wind farm Yearly cost of production 2,190,000 Cost per kwh A large number of wind turbines are used in conjunction. These are situated in fields or other open spaces. 21,900 MWh 10p Wind farms are safe and easy to build Once the wind turbine is built, running costs are relatively low The land can still be used for other uses We cannot control when the wind blows. Wind turbines shut down in very strong or very weak winds They can only be built in certain areas. These areas need to be windy places, usually hilly areas or coasts Not everyone likes the appearance of wind farms

7 Offshore wind farm Yearly cost of production 55,600,000 Cost per kwh 12.6p A large number of wind turbines are used in conjunction. These are situated offshore with cables bringing the electricity produced back to land. 440,500 MWh Offshore, the turbines will be away from settlements Running costs are relatively low We cannot control when the wind blows. Wind turbines shut down in very strong or very weak winds Construction and maintenance is more difficult offshore Some feel it spoils the sea view if they can be seen from land

8 Biomass CHP plant Yearly cost of production 3,360,000 Cost per kwh Biomass is burnt in boilers to produce steam which turns a turbine. Biomass may be sourced from woodland or from crops grown specifically for this purpose. 28,000 MWh 12p It supports farmers and foresters by providing markets for their crops It is a carbon neutral source of energy Biomass power plants need to be built near a plentiful supply of biomass fuel Trees / crops must be constantly re-planted in order to be sustainable

9 Tidal power (Barrage) Yearly cost of production 1,950,000,000 Cost per kwh 10.5p A barrage is built across an estuary. As the tides come in and out, water turns turbines within the barrage wall. 18,834,000 MWh It produces a constant and predictable supply Once the plant is built, operating costs are very low, so the energy produced is very cheap Barrages can be very expensive to build Barrages may prevent normal tidal flows that create mudflat habitats for wading birds Construction can be environmentally damaging Fish and other animals may be prevented from safe passage up and downstream

10 Tidal power (individual turbines) Yearly cost of production 13,950,000 Cost per kwh 22.9p Turbines similar to wind turbines are embedded in the estuary floor and turn as the tides flow past them. 60,900 MWh It produces a constant and predictable supply Fish and other animals still have safe passage up and downstream They do not prevent normal tidal flows It is expensive compared to other sources of energy Construction can be environmentally damaging

11 Wave power Yearly cost of production 382,000 Cost per kwh 19.4p There are several different ways to capture wave energy, from trapping waves to bobbing buoys. Wave energy devices can be fixed to the shoreline or placed out at sea. 1,970 MWh It is a more predictable energy source than wind At present the technology is still in the early stages of development and so is expensive Maintenance costs are high

12 Geo-thermal power station Yearly cost of production 8,600,000 Cost per kwh 11.6p Holes are drilled down to a hot area beneath the surface. Water is pumped down, where it is heated, drawn up again, and used to drive steam turbines. 74,450 MWh Low running costs It is difficult to find suitable sites to put a geothermal power station Construction may cause disruption If not carefully managed, a borehole can run out of steam and may not be useable for several decades Dangerous gases and minerals can come out of a borehole, which may be difficult to dispose of

13 Small-scale Biomass Yearly cost of production 336,000 Cost per kwh Biomass is burnt in boilers to produce steam which turns a turbine. Biomass may be sourced from woodland or from crops grown specifically for this purpose. 2,800 MWh 12p It supports farmers and foresters by providing markets for their crops It is a carbon neutral source of energy Biomass power plants need to be built near a plentiful supply of biomass fuel Trees / crops must be constantly re-planted in order to be sustainable

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