Q1. (a) The block diagram shows the important parts of a coal burning power station. Use words from the box to complete the block diagram

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1 Q. (a) The block diagram shows the important parts of a coal burning power station. Use words from the box to complete the block diagram boiler condenser furnace generator (b) The diagram shows the energy transformations in a coal burning power station. Calculate the efficiency of the power station. Write down the equation you use, and then show clearly how you work out your answer. Efficiency =... (c) Draw a ring around the correct answer to complete the following sentence. If fewer coal burning power stations are used to generate electricity the amount of decrease. carbon dioxide emitted into the atmosphere will not change. increase. () Page of 40

2 (d) Some types of power station generate electricity by burning a biofuel. Give one example of a biofuel. () (e) Nuclear power stations generate electricity without burning a fuel. Name the process by which a nuclear fuel provides the energy needed to generate electricity. () (Total 7 marks) Q2. The diagram shows how electricity gets from power stations to consumers. (a) Complete the following sentences by drawing a ring around the correct line in each box. Page 2 of 40

3 (i) The network of cables and transformers linking power stations to consumers is called the national grid line network () A step-up transformer decreases voltage increases current increases voltage () (iii) Electricity is supplied to consumers homes at 230 V V V () (iv) Making the current in the cables smaller will increase make no difference to reduce the energy lost in the cables. () (b) Transformers always waste some energy. (i) What effect does the waste energy from a transformer have on the air around the transformer?... () Which one of the following describes the efficiency of a transformer? Draw a ring around your answer. always 00 % less than 00 % more than 00% () (Total 6 marks) Page 3 of 40

4 Q3. Scientists have observed that the wavelengths of the light given out from galaxies that are moving away from the Earth are longer than expected. (a) (i) What name is given to this observation?... () Draw a ring around the correct answer to complete the following sentence. shrinking. This observation gives evidence for the idea that the Universe is not changing. expanding. () (b) The graph shows that there is a link between the speed at which a galaxy moves away from the Earth and the distance of the galaxy from the Earth. The positions of three galaxies, A, B and C, are marked on the graph. From which galaxy, A, B or C, would the wavelength of the light reaching the Earth seem to have changed the most? Galaxy... Give a reason for your answer. (Total 4 marks) Page 4 of 40

5 Q4. (a) The diagram shows a wave pattern. Which letter, L, M or N shows: (i) the wavelength?... the amplitude?... (c) Describe how you could show that visible light travels in straight lines. You may wish to draw a diagram to help explain your answer (Total 4 marks) Page 5 of 40

6 Q5. Glass prisms are used in many optical devices. (a) The diagram shows what happens to a ray of light as it travels through a glass prism. To gain full marks for this question you should write your ideas in good English. Put them into a sensible order and use the correct scientific words. Use the words in the box to help you to explain why the ray behaves in this way. angle critical normal (3) Page 6 of 40

7 (b) Periscopes can be used to look over the heads of other people. A periscope contains two glass prisms. Complete the diagram to show the ray of light reaching the person s eye. (3) (Total 6 marks) Q6. (a) The diagram shows a longitudinal wave being produced in a stretched spring. Page 7 of 40

8 (i) Use the bold words from the diagram to complete the following sentence. Put only one word in each space. A longitudinal wave is one in which the... causing the wave is parallel to the... of energy transfer. Name the type of energy that is transferred by longitudinal waves.... () (b) The diagram shows water waves made by a wave machine in a swimming pool. Every second, two waves go past a person standing in the swimming pool. The waves have a wavelength of 0.8 metres. Calculate the speed of the water waves. Write down the equation you use, and then show clearly how you work out your answer. Wave speed =... m/s Page 8 of 40

9 (c) The graph shows how the speed of deep ocean waves depends on the wavelength of the waves. What can you conclude from the graph? (Total 7 marks) Q7. A microphone and a cathode ray oscilloscope (CRO) can be used to show the pattern of a sound wave. Page 9 of 40

10 Four sound wave patterns, A, B, C and D, are shown. They are all drawn to the same scale. (a) Which one of the patterns has the smallest amplitude?... (b) Which one of the patterns has the lowest frequency?... (Total 2 marks) Q8. (a) The diagram shows a ray of light being reflected by a plane mirror. Which of the angles, a, b, c or d, is: the angle of incidence; the angle of reflection? Page 0 of 40

11 (b) The diagram shows a road junction seen from above. A mirror placed at the side of the road allows the driver of car X to see car Y. Using the same mirror symbol given in part (a), draw a plane mirror to show how it should be placed so that the driver of car X can see car Y. (Total 4 marks) Q9. (a) The diagram shows the ways in which heat energy can be transferred from an old house. (i) Calculate the percentage of energy transferred by draughts. % energy transferred by draughts =... () Page of 40

12 Complete the following sentence using one of the words from the box. conduction convection radiation Draughts transfer heat energy by... () (iii) State one way of reducing the heat transfer by draughts.... () (b) The diagram shows a section through the walls of a house built in 930. Explain how the air cavity between the two walls reduces the heat transfer from the house (c) The table shows the installation costs and yearly savings on energy bills for different methods of insulating a house. Method of insulation Installation cost in Yearly saving on energy bills in Double glazing Loft insulation Cavity wall insulation (i) Give one reason why loft insulation is often fitted to an old house before double glazing or cavity wall insulation () Page 2 of 40

13 The time it takes for the saving on energy bills to equal the cost of installing the insulation is called the pay-back time. Calculate the pay-back time for loft insulation.... Pay-back time =... years () (Total 7 marks) Q0. (a) Solar energy is a renewable energy source that can be used to generate electricity. (i) What is meant by an energy source being renewable?.. () Name two further renewable energy sources used to generate electricity () (b) A householder uses a bank of solar cells to generate electricity for his home. The solar cells are tilted to receive the maximum energy input from the Sun. Page 3 of 40

14 The data in the table gives the average energy input each second (in J/s), to a m 2 area of solar cells for different angles of tilt and different months of the year. Month Angle of tilt February April June August October December (i) Use the data in the table to describe how the average energy input to the solar cells depends on the angle of tilt The bank of solar cells used by the householder has an area of 8 m 2. The efficiency of the solar cells is 0.5 Use the equation in the box to calculate the average maximum electrical energy available from the bank of solar cells each second in June. efficiency = Show clearly how you work out your answer..... Maximum energy =... joules/second (3) Page 4 of 40

15 (c) The graph shows how the householder s electrical energy needs change over one year. Why would it be advisable for the householder to remain connected to the National Grid? () (Total 8 marks) Page 5 of 40

16 Q. The pie charts show the relative proportions of electricity generated in Japan from different energy sources in 975 and (a) Describe the main differences in the energy sources used in 2005 compared with () (b) In the UK, nuclear fuels are used to generate about 2% of the total electricity supply. (i) What is the name of the process by which a nuclear fuel produces heat?... () Explain how the heat released from a nuclear fuel is used to generate electricity in power stations Page 6 of 40

17 (iii) Some people have suggested that more nuclear power stations should be built in the UK. Give two reasons to support this suggestion (iv) Nuclear power stations create dangerous waste. Why is the waste from a nuclear power station dangerous? () (c) A headline from a newspaper article is shown below. Explain the possible link between climate change and coal-burning power stations (Total 9 marks) Q2. (a) In winter, energy is transferred from the warm air inside a house to the air outside. (i) What effect will the energy transferred from the house have on the air outside?... () Page 7 of 40

18 What would happen to the energy transfer if the temperature inside the house were reduced? Assume the temperature outside the house does not change.... () (b) To increase energy efficiency, a householder installs a heat exchanger to an outside wall of the house. The heat exchanger uses heat from the air outside to warm the inside of the house. The diagram shows the idea of the heat exchanger. Physics Through Applications edited by J Jardine et el (OUP, 989), copyright Oxford University Press, reprinted by permission of Oxford University Press. (i) Why does the heat exchanger cost money to run?... () The heat exchanger is cost effective in reducing energy consumption. Explain why (Total 5 marks) Page 8 of 40

19 Q3. The table shows the electromagnetic spectrum. Three types of wave have been missed out. (i) Use words from the box to complete the table. infra red rays radio waves X-rays Which one of the following gives a use of gamma rays? Put a tick ( ) in the box next to your choice. to communicate with satellites to see objects to kill cancer cells () (iii) Complete the following sentence by drawing a ring around the correct word in the box. energy All electromagnetic waves move gases from one place to another. particles () (Total 4 marks) Page 9 of 40

20 Q4. The picture shows one type of solar water heater. Water from the tank is slowly pumped through copper pipes inside the solar panel where the water is heated by energy from the Sun. (a) Explain why the copper pipes inside the solar panel are painted black. (b) Each day the average European family uses 00 kg of hot water. To kill bacteria, the water going into the tank at 20 C must be heated to 60 C. Calculate the energy needed to increase the temperature of 00 kg of water by 40 C. Specific heat capacity of water = 4200 J/kg C. Write down the equation you use, and then show clearly how you work out your answer. Energy transferred =... J Page 20 of 40

21 (c) The bar chart shows how the amount of solar energy transferred to the water heater varies throughout the year. How many months each year will there not be enough solar energy to provide the hot water used by an average European family?... months () Page 2 of 40

22 (d) In this question you will be assessed on using good English, organising information clearly and using specialist terms where appropriate. The water in the tank could be heated by using an electric immersion heater. Outline the advantages and disadvantages of using solar energy to heat the water rather than using an electric immersion heater. (6) (Total marks) Q5. The visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum from a star includes a dark line. This line is at a specific wavelength. The diagram shows the position of the dark line in the spectrum from the Sun and in the spectrum from a distant galaxy. Page 22 of 40

23 (a) Explain how the spectrum shift of the dark line supports the theory that the Universe began from a very small initial point. (3) (b) Name one other piece of evidence that supports the theory that the Universe began from a very small initial point. () (Total 4 marks) Q6. A car is driven along a straight, snow covered, road. The graph shows how the velocity of the car changes from the moment the driver sees a very slow moving queue of traffic ahead. Page 23 of 40

24 (a) Use the graph to calculate the distance the car travels while it is slowing down. Show clearly how you work out your answer. Distance =... m (3) (b) The car has a mass of 200 kg. Calculate the kinetic of the car when it travels at a speed of 2 m/s. Write down the equation you use, and then show clearly how you work out your answer. Kinetic energy =... J (Total 5 marks) Q7. Electrical appliances that are left on standby still use energy. The bar chart compares the average amount of standby energy wasted each year in every home in five countries. Page 24 of 40

25 (i) In which country are the homes that waste, on average, the smallest amount of standby energy? Draw a ring around your answer. Australia France Japan UK USA () Suggest a reason why an average value is used for the standby energy wasted in the homes () (b) (i) Australia has one of the lowest electricity prices in the world. How does this low price seem to affect the amount of standby energy wasted? () In Australia, most electricity is generated in coal-burning power stations. The Australian government wants less electricity to be wasted. Wasting less electricity would be good for the Australian environment. Explain why (c) Energy is not usually measured in kilowatt-hours. Which one of the following units is usually used to measure energy? Draw a ring around your answer. hertz joule watt () Page 25 of 40

26 (d) (i) Electricity in Japan costs the equivalent of 7 pence per kilowatt-hour. Use the information in the bar chart and the equation in the box to calculate how much the standby energy used in an average Japanese home costs each year. total cost = number of kilowatt-hours cost per kilowatt-hour Show clearly how you work out your answer. Give your answer in pence Cost =... pence (3) In Japan, the largest proportion of electricity is generated using nuclear fuels. Which one of the following statements gives a good reason for using nuclear fuels to generate electricity? Put a tick ( ) in the box next to your answer. A nuclear power station is very expensive to build. A small amount of nuclear fuel generates a large amount of electricity. It is easy to store nuclear waste safely. () (Total 0 marks) Page 26 of 40

27 M. (a) boiler generator (b) 0.3 or 30% allow mark for substitution of 2 correct values taken from the Sankey diagram into correct equation 2 (c) decrease (d) any named biofuel eg wood, ethanol, straw (e) (nuclear) fission [7] M2. (a) (i) grid accept any way of indicating correct answer (iii) (iv) increases voltage accept any way of indicating correct answer 230 V accept any way of indicating correct answer reduce accept any way of indicating correct answer (b) (i) increases the temperature accept make it hotter / heat goes into the air accept convection currents accept sensible comment eg sound energy / it buzzes ignore pollutes the air less than 00% [6] Page 27 of 40

28 M3. (a) (i) red-shift expanding (b) C it is furthest from the Earth or it is furthest away or it has the largest red-shift or it is moving (away) the fastest only score if C is chosen [4] M4. (a) (i) L N (c) the answer should be in the form: not inside the eye either for both marks an arrangement which could demonstrate visibly light travels in straight lines full credit should be given for answer presented as a diagram and an explanation of how it shows the straightness or for one mark named device which uses principle of light travelling in straight lines to work examples light (from a street lamp) strikes an object producing a shadow laser light travelling through (fine) dust shows a straight beam three pieces of card with central holes need to be lined up to be able to see through the third hole from the first ray box type experiment using mirrors/prisms, etc beams on paper or in smoke torch beams through smoke Page 28 of 40

29 example devices: pinhole camera (qualification may get second mark) periscope optical fibre reflection in a mirror 2 [4] M5. (a) Quality of written communication: Correct use of 2 of the words, angle, critical, normal and reflection any two from light is reflected / bounces off if angle between ray and normal angle of incidence is greater than critical angle idea that no refraction bending if ray at 90 2 (b) mark for reflection at X if ray would reach the lower prism mark for subsequent reflection at Y mark for subsequent ray emerging from prism in direction of front of eye accept dotted or dashed lines ignore any arrows 3 [6] Page 29 of 40

30 M6. (a) (i) oscillation direction correct order only sound (b).6 allow mark for correct substitution into correct equation ie 2 x (c) as the wavelength increases so does the wave speed extra information eg wave speed increases faster between 0-40 m than between m or not in proportion [7] M7. (a) C (only) (b) A (only) [2] M8. (a) b c correct order only (b) mirror opposite road junction mirror facing correct way, angle correct judged by eye [4] Page 30 of 40

31 M9. (a) (i) 20 (iii) convection fit draughtproof strips accept lay carpet accept fit curtains accept close doors / windows / curtains accept any reasonable suggestion for reducing a draught double glazing alone is insufficient (b) air is (a good) insulator or air is a poor conductor accept air cavity / it for air reducing heat transfer by conduction accept stops for reduces ignore convection do not accept radiation do not accept answers in terms of heat being trapped (c) (i) most cost effective accept it is cheaper or lowest cost accept shortest payback time accept in terms of reducing heat loss by the largest amount do not accept it is easier ignore most heat is lost through the roof 4 [7] M0. (a) (i) replaced faster than it is used accept replaced as quick as it is used accept will never run out do not accept can be used again Page 3 of 40

32 any two from: two sources required for the mark wind waves(*) tides(*) (*)do not accept water / oceans accept OTEC fall of water accept hydroelectric biomass geothermal accept a named biomass / biofuel eg wood (b) (i) any two from: increases from 20 to 30 reaches maximum value at 30 then decreases from 30 same pattern for each month accept peaks at 30 for both marks accept goes up then down for mark ignore it s always the lowest at an answer of 08 gains 2 marks allow mark for using 720 value only from table allow 2 marks for answers 852, 86, 768, 825 allow mark for answers 06.5, 02, 96, 03 (.25) 3 (c) the solar cells will not meet demand at all times of the year / day accept to maintain a constant supply of electricity / energy or to make up the shortfall in energy required at certain times of the year or to be able to sell surplus electricity (to the National Grid) accept to provide energy at night do not accept because it s cloudy on it s own [8] Page 32 of 40

33 M. (a) decrease in oil PLUS any one from: increase in (proportion of) coal increase in (proportion of) nuclear increase in (proportion of) gas must have decrease in (proportion of) oil and increase in (proportion of) coal / nuclear / gas (b) (i) (nuclear) fission accept fision do not accept any answer that looks like fusion (iii) water heated to produce (high pressure) steam steam turns turbine which drives generator any two from: produces no pollutant gases accept named gas or greenhouse gases accept no atmospheric pollution accept harmful for pollutant accept does not contribute to global warming do not accept no pollution on its own do not accept better for the environment unless qualified it is reliable or can generate all of the time concentrated energy source or produces a lot of energy from a small mass produces only small volume of (solid) waste fossil fuels will last longer accept a named fossil fuel accept fossil fuels are running out do not accept fossil fuels are non-renewable unless qualified will need to buy less fuel from other countries accept no new fossil fuel power stations needed do not accept it is cheap do not accept import less electricity 2 Page 33 of 40

34 (iv) it is / can be radioactive do not accept answers in terms of kills cells / cancer or emits radiation (from the nuclei) accept emits gamma (rays) (c) coal (burning) power stations / burning coal produces carbon dioxide they refers to coal-burning power stations accept sulfur dioxide / nitrogen oxides for CO 2 (increased) CO 2 increases / contributes to / causes global warming / greenhouse effect mention of ozone layer negates this mark do not accept CO 2 warms atmosphere [9] M2. (a) (i) makes it warmer / raises the temperature accept produces convection (current) accept makes it less dense reduced or slows down (b) (i) electrical energy (to run the pump) must be paid for accept electricity for electrical energy accept electricity is needed for the pump accept it uses electricity accept because of the pump more useful (heat) energy is transferred into the house than the energy used to operate the pump or reduced cost of heating the house is greater than the cost of running the (electrical) pump or costs little to run compared to the savings made accept for mark reduces energy bills or reduced fuel costs / heating costs owtte do not accept it s cheap 2 [5] Page 34 of 40

35 ## (i) X-rays infra red (rays) radio (waves) all three in correct order allow mark for correct 2 to kill cancer cells (iii) energy [4] M4. (a) because black is a good absorber of radiation there will be a faster transfer of energy allow the temperature of the water rises faster (b) allow mark for substitution into correct equation ie (c) 7 allow ecf from part (b) Page 35 of 40

36 (d) Marks awarded for this answer will be determined by the Quality of Written Communication (QWC) as well as the standard of the scientific response. No relevant content. There is a brief description of the advantages and disadvantages of using solar energy to heat the water rather than using an electric immersion heater, including either advantages or disadvantages from the examples below. There is a description of some of the advantages and disadvantages of using solar energy to heat the water rather than using an electric immersion heater, with at least one advantage and one disadvantage from the examples below. There is a clear, balanced and detailed description of the advantages and disadvantages of using solar energy to heat the water rather than using an electric immersion heater, with a minimum of two advantages and two disadvantages from the examples below. 0 marks Level (-2 marks) Level 2 (3-4 marks) Level 3 (5-6 marks) examples of the points made in the response advantages accept specific examples of polluting gases a renewable energy source energy is free does not pollute the atmosphere no fuel is burnt energy can be stored (in the water) disadvantages accept unreliable energy source only available in daylight hours availability fluctuates insufficient hours of sunlight in some countries average low intensity in some countries [] Page 36 of 40

37 M5. (a) the observed wavelength of the dark line from the distant galaxy has increased therefore the distant galaxy must be moving away from the Earth suggesting the Universe is expanding outwards from a small initial point (b) existence of cosmic microwave background radiation accept existence of CMBR [4] M6. (a) 35 (m) allow mark for indicating the correct area allow mark for obtaining correct figures from the graph allow mark for calculating area of triangle (25) but omitting the rectangle underneath (2 x 5) 3 (b) allow mark for correct substitution into the correct equation ie / [5] M7. (a) (i) France Page 37 of 40

38 any one from: different homes have different appliances(*) different homes have different numbers of appliances(*) (*) accept all homes are different standby power not the same for all appliances some people will switch appliances off accept named appliances accept people waste different amounts of energy homes have different numbers of residents can t measure every (individual) home accept any sensible suggestions do not accept answers in terms of accurate / precise etc (b) (i) increases amount of energy wasted accept (encourages) people to leave appliances on (standby) accept increases it any two from: less electricity needed / generated fewer power stations needed less coal is burned do not accept coal is non-renewable / running out answers in terms of fuel stocks neutral less pollutant gases produced accept named gases accept harmful for pollutant accept greenhouse gases accept reduce / slow / stop global warming accept reduces acid rain 2 (c) joule (d) (i) 6800 accept 68 for 3 marks an answer of 68 gains 2 marks allow 2 marks for correct substitution ie allow mark for obtaining 400 answers of 7480, 4760, 2920, 4080 gain 2 marks 3 Page 38 of 40

39 a small electricity [0] Page 39 of 40

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The bar chart compares the average amount of standby energy wasted each year in every home in five countries.

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