# Y10 Foundation Revision 101 Questions!

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1 Y0 Foundation Revision 0 Questions! Q. The diagrams show the cross-section of three double glazed windows. The gap between the two sheets of glass can be filled with either air or a mixture of air and argon. The U-values for different types of double glazed windows, using different types of glass X and Y, are given in the table. Type of window 2 mm gap 6 mm gap 20 mm gap Glass type X with air Glass type X with air and argon Glass type Y with air Glass type Y with air and argon (a) Which type of window,, 2, 3 or 4 is the least energy efficient?... () Which two windows should be compared to decide if adding argon to the gap improves the energy efficiency of the window?... () (c) A householder is going to buy new windows. The sales assistant recommends that the householder buys windows with a 20 mm gap. These windows are much more expensive than those with a 6 mm gap. It is not worth the householder paying the extra cost to buy 20 mm windows rather than 6 mm windows. Explain this in terms of energy efficiency. Page

2 (2) (d) Windows are given an energy rating, from A down to G. The diagram shows the energy label from one type of double glazed window. All new double glazed windows must have an energy rating of C or above. Windows having a C rating have a U-value of.9. Which windows given in the table would the householder be unable to buy?... () (e) Glass transmits infrared radiation and visible light. The amount transmitted depends on the type and thickness of the glass. The data from tests on two different types of glass is displayed in the graph below. A homeowner has a glass conservatory built on the back of the house. The homeowner tells the builder that the inside of the conservatory should stay as cool as Page 2

3 possible throughout the summer. Explain why the builder uses Type B glass for the conservatory (2) (Total 7 marks) Q2. The bar chart shows the different energy sources used to generate the UK s electricity in (a) (i) The wind is a renewable energy source. Name one more renewable energy source used to generate electricity. () Complete the following sentence by drawing a ring around the correct line in the box. decrease Using less fossil fuels to generate electricity will not change the increase amount of carbon dioxide emitted into the atmosphere. () Page 3

4 The graph shows how the demand for electricity in the UK varied over one day in the winter. (i) Describe how the demand for electricity varied between 4.00 am and 0.00 am. (2) Which type of power station has the fastest start-up time? Draw a ring around your answer. coal natural gas nuclear oil () (Total 5 marks) Q3. The diagram shows how electricity gets from power stations to consumers. (a) Complete the following sentences by drawing a ring around the correct line in each box. Page 4

5 (i) The network of cables and transformers linking power stations to consumers is called the national grid line network () A step-up transformer decreases voltage increases current increases voltage () (iii) Electricity is supplied to consumers homes at 230 V V V () (iv) Making the current in the cables smaller will increase make no difference to reduce the energy lost in the cables. () Transformers always waste some energy. (i) What effect does the waste energy from a transformer have on the air around the transformer? () Which one of the following describes the efficiency of a transformer? Draw a ring around your answer. always 00 % less than 00 % more than 00% () (Total 6 marks) Q4. (a) Water waves are a renewable energy source. The government wants more electricity to be generated from renewable Page 5

6 energy sources. Some people do not think this is a good idea. What reasons could a government scientist give to show people that using more renewable energy sources is a good idea? (2) The diagram shows a wave-powered generator. The generator transforms kinetic energy from the waves to electrical energy. AQA GCSE SCIENCE CORE FOUNDATION STUDENT S BOOK by Graham Hill, Nigel Heslop, Christine Woodward,Steve Witney and Toby Houghton. Published by Hodder and Stoughton 2006 Reproduced by permission of John Murray (Publishers) Ltd The following sentences describe how the wave generator works. The sentences are in the wrong order. R S T U V Waves push air up and down a chamber inside the building. The turbine turns the generator. The generator transforms kinetic energy to electrical energy. The air rushes through a turbine making it spin. Strong waves move towards the wave-powered generator. Arrange these sentences in the correct order. Start with letter V. V (3) (Total 5 marks) Q5. (a) The graph compares how quickly hot water cooled down in two glass beakers with different surface areas. The volume of water in each beaker was the same. Page 6

7 Describe how the surface area of the water affected how fast the water cooled down () Some foxes live in a hot desert environment. This type of fox has very large ears. Explain how the size of the fox s ears help it to keep cool in a hot desert (2) (c) Polar bears and reindeer are adapted to live in cold environments. Use the words in the box to complete the following sentences. Page 7

8 conduction convection radiation (i) The white colour of a polar bear s fur helps to keep the polar bear warm by reducing the heat lost by.... () The hairs of a reindeer are hollow. The air trapped inside the hairs reduces the heat lost by.... () (Total 5 marks) Q6. (a) The graph shows the temperature inside a flat between 5 pm and 9 pm. The central heating was on at 5 pm. (i) What time did the central heating switch off? () Closing the curtains reduces heat loss from the flat. What time do you think the curtains were closed? Give a reason for your answer. (2) Page 8

9 Less heat is lost through double-glazed windows than through single-glazed windows. Complete the following sentences by choosing the correct words from the box. Each word may be used once or not at all. conduction conductor convection evaporation insulator radiation Air is a good.... When trapped between two sheets of glass it reduces heat loss by... and... (3) (c) The table gives information about three types of house insulation. Type of insulation Cost to install Money save each year on heating bills Payback time Double glazing years Loft insulation years Cavity wall insulation (i) Use the information in the table to calculate the payback time for cavity wall insulation. () Page 9

10 Explain why people often install loft insulation before installing double glazing or cavity wall insulation. (2) (Total 9 marks) Q7. People do a number of things to reduce the energy loss from their homes. (a) Describe one thing they may do to cut down the energy loss through: (i) the roof; () the outside walls; () (iii) the glass in the windows; () (iv) gaps around the front and back doors. () A house is more difficult to keep warm in cold weather. What other type of weather makes it difficult to keep a house warm?... () (Total 5 marks) Q8. (a) The block diagram shows the important parts of a coal burning power station. Use words from the box to complete the block diagram boiler condenser furnace generator (2) Page 0

11 The diagram shows the energy transformations in a coal burning power station. Calculate the efficiency of the power station. Write down the equation you use, and then show clearly how you work out your answer Efficiency =... (2) (c) Draw a ring around the correct answer to complete the following sentence. If fewer coal burning power stations are used to generate electricity the amount of decrease. carbon dioxide emitted into the atmosphere will not change. increase. () (d) Some types of power station generate electricity by burning a biofuel. Give one example of a biofuel.... () (e) Nuclear power stations generate electricity without burning a fuel. Page

12 Name the process by which a nuclear fuel provides the energy needed to generate electricity.... Now some harder ones C/D Questions!! () (Total 7 marks) Q9. (a) Coal, gas, oil and wood are all examples of fuels. (i) What are fuels? () Write the names of these fuels in the table below to show which are renewable and which are non-renewable. (2) The list below shows energy resources which are not fuels. geothermal nuclear solar tides wind Write the names of the energy resources in the table below to show which are renewable and which are non-renewable. Page 2

13 (2) (c) Why is it better to use more renewable energy resources rather than non-renewable resources? (2) (Total 7 marks) Q0. State and explain the advantages and disadvantages of using nuclear power stations to produce electricity (Total 4 marks) Page 3

14 Q. (a) Electricity is distributed from power stations to consumers along the National Grid. (i) Transformers are part of the National Grid. Transformers are efficient devices. What is meant by a device being efficient? () When electricity flows through a cable, some energy is transformed into heat. Explain how the National Grid system reduces the amount of energy lost as heat. (2) Read this information taken from a recent newspaper article. Researchers have found that children living close to overhead power cables are more likely to develop leukaemia. The researchers studied two groups of children. One group had developed leukaemia, the other group was healthy. Although the researchers found a link, they are unable to explain why it happened. They say that the results may have happened by chance. Other factors that have not been investigated, such as the environment, the geographical area or the children s genes, could be important. A cancer research charity said that childhood leukaemia was most likely to be caused by factors that parents were unable to control. (i) Why did the researchers study a group of healthy children? () The information does not say how many children were studied. Why should this data have been included in the article? () Page 4

15 (iii) The researchers could not be certain that the overhead power cables were responsible for the increased chance of children developing leukaemia. Explain why....(2) (iv) The results of the research carried out by scientists may worry some people. What do you think scientists should do? Put a tick ( ) in the box next to your choice. Scientists should publish their research findings straight away. Scientists should not publish their research findings until they have found out as many facts as possible. Give a reason for your choice. () (Total 8 marks) Q2. A vacuum flask is designed to reduce the rate of heat transfer. (a) (i) Complete the table to show which methods of heat transfer are reduced by each of the features labelled in the diagram. Page 5

16 The first row has been done for you. Feature Conduction Convection Radiation vacuum silvered surfaces plastic cap (2) Explain why the vacuum between the glass walls of the flask reduces heat transfer by conduction and convection. (2) The diagram shows a gas flame patio heater. (i) Explain why the top surface of the reflecting hood should be a light, shiny surface rather than a dark, matt surface. (2) Most of the chemical energy in the gas is transformed into heat. A small amount of chemical energy is transformed into light. Draw and label a Sankey diagram for the patio heater. Page 6

17 (iii) State why the total energy supplied to the patio heater must always equal the total energy transferred by the patio heater. () (Total 9 marks) Q3. The diagram shows potatoes being baked in a gas oven. Each potato has a metal skewer pushed through it. (a) Explain how heat is transferred by the process of convection from the gas flame at the bottom of the oven to the potatoes at the top of the oven (3) The metal skewers help the potatoes to cook by transferring heat to the inside of the potatoes. By what method is heat transferred through a metal skewer?... () (c) When the potatoes are taken from the oven, they start to cool down. Suggest one factor that will affect how fast a potato cools down.... () (d) If the potatoes need to be kept hot, they may be wrapped in shiny aluminium foil. Why does this help to keep the potatoes hot? Page 7

18 ... () (Total 6 marks) Q4. (a) When an electric kettle is switched on it will take a few minutes to boil the water. Once switched off it will gradually cool down. (i) When the kettle is switched on the water heats. Explain how all of the water is heated The kettle is now switched off and begins to cool. () Describe how heat energy is transferred through the walls of the kettle (2) Describe how the heat energy is transferred from the walls of the kettle (iii) Describe how heat losses from the surface of a metal kettle may be kept small (4) A shiny metal can and a dull black can are filled with the same amounts of cold water. A radiant heater is placed exactly half way between the cans as shown in the diagram below. Page 8

19 Two thermometers are used to measure the temperature of the water in each can every minute. (i) Suggest how the temperature of the water in the dull can would be different from the temperature of the water in the shiny can after ten minutes Explain your answer to part (i) (3) (c) The radiant heater was removed and both the cans were filled with the same amount of boiling water, as shown in the diagram below. Page 9

20 The temperature was recorded every minute for ten minutes. (i) Suggest how the temperature of the water in the dull can would be different from the temperature of the water in the shiny can after ten minutes Explain your answer to part (i) (3) (Total 0 marks) Q5. There are many forms of energy. Some of these forms of energy can be stored ready to be used when the energy is needed. The chemical energy in fuels is one example of stored energy. (a) Complete the following sentences by adding the missing words. The chemical energy in fuels such as coal came originally from the.... Energy from fuels can be used to.... (2) An electric milk float has its batteries charged up overnight. Early in the morning the milkman sets off on his round. Describe the energy transfers which take place in the milk float as the milkman does his rounds Page 20

21 (4) (c) Give another example of energy other than fuels which can be classed as stored energy. Give a use of the stored energy. Type of stored energy... Use..... (2) (Total 8 marks) M. (a) 3 and 4 or and 2 (c) U-values for the 20 mm windows are the same or higher than those for the 6 mm windows therefore the 20 mm windows are no more energy efficient than 6 mm windows accept so the 6 mm windows are as energy efficient as 20 mm windows (d) and 2 must have both and no other (e) Type B glass transmits less infrared than Type A glass accept radiation / heat for infrared accept Type B glass absorbs more infrared than Type A glass and as infrared has a heating effect the conservatory will remain cooler [7] Page 2

22 M2. (a) (i) any one from: waves do not accept water tides falling water accept hydroelectric biofuel / biomass solar accept sun / sunlight do not accept light accept solar cells / panels geothermal do not accept heat decrease (i) increases from 4am (to 8am) remains constant from 8am (to 0am) accept increases from accept stays constant from allow mark for goes up then stays the same for full credit must be some indication of time or power 2 natural gas [5] M3. (a) (i) grid accept any way of indicating correct answer (iii) (iv) increases voltage accept any way of indicating correct answer 230 V accept any way of indicating correct answer reduce accept any way of indicating correct answer (i) increases the temperature accept make it hotter / heat goes into the air accept convection currents accept sensible comment eg sound energy / it buzzes ignore pollutes the air Page 22

23 less than 00% M4. (a) any two from: [6] (burning) fossil fuels produces greenhouse gases / pollutant gases / acid rain / leads to global warming accept a named fossil fuel accept a named pollutant gas nuclear fuels produce dangerous waste accept radioactive for dangerous accept reference to dangers of nuclear fuels fossil fuels are non-renewable accept running out of fuels renewable energy resources produce no pollutant gases large amounts of energy are available accept renewable won t run out running costs are low accept any reasonable benefit of renewables accept any reasonable drawback of non-renewables do not accept better for the environment on its own 2 R U S T all in correct order allow 2 marks for 2 correct allow mark for one correct 3 [5] M5. (a) the bigger the surface area, the faster the water cools down / temperature falls answers must imply rate accept heat for temperature provided rate is implied do not accept cools down more unless qualified any two from: the ears: have large surface / area not just has large ears radiate heat accept loses heat, but does not score if the reason given for heat loss is wrong keep blood cooler 2 Page 23

24 (c) (i) radiation conduction [5] M6. (a) (i) 7pm accept 9.00 / 900 8pm accept / 2000 insulator temperature drops more slowly accept heat for temperature accept line is less steep conduction * convection * * answers can be either way around (c) (i) 4 (years) it is the cheapest / cheaper / cheap do not accept answers in terms of heat rising or DIY has the shortest / shorter payback time do not accept short payback time [9] M7. (a) (i) (insulate it) with fibre glass or foam or felt or polystyrene beads or rockwool or (aluminium) foil an example must be included do not credit loft insulation fill the cavity with fibre glass or foam or mineral wool or polystyrene or named liner inside wall or making walls thicker an example must be included do not credit cavity wall insulation (iii) double glaze or draw the curtains or Page 24

25 blinds or thicker glass or secondary glazing described do not credit fit smaller windows (iv) put in draught excluder (or described) or strip or description of filling gaps or seal gaps or double glazed doors or build porch or curtains inside door or mat under door do not credit just carpet accept buy new doors accept premise that gap is between frame and wall as well as between frame and door windy or stormy or wet or snow or rain or sleet or hail or fog or mist do not credit frosty [5] M8. (a) boiler generator 0.3 or 30% allow mark for substitution of 2 correct values taken from the Sankey diagram into correct equation 2 (c) decrease (d) any named biofuel eg wood, ethanol, straw Page 25

26 (e) (nuclear) fission [7] M9. (a) (i) sources of energy for mark wood coal oil gas all correct gains 2 marks 3 correct gains mark 3 geothermal nuclear tides wind solar all correct gains 2 marks 4 correct gains mark 2 (c) non-renewable fuels cause pollution (or reverse) conserve/limit use of coal/gas/oil; so supplies last longer/renewable sources can be replaced any 2 from 4 for mark each 2 [7] M0. Read all the answer first. See below. Mark the first two advantages and disadvantages ( or X) ignoring neutral answers. Only allow a third advantage if there is only one Page 26

27 disadvantage given. Only allow a third disadvantage if only one advantage is given. max. 3 advantages (e.g. cheap fuel, good availability, saving fossil fuels, low running costs, reliable, more energy / kg, less fuel needed, no greenhouse gases emitted, no SO 2 causing acid rain) max. 3 disadvantages (e.g. danger to health of local community, non renewable, high cost of decommissioning, long half life of waste materials, need for safe storage of waste, high cost of commissioning, danger involved in transporting fuel / waste) max. 4 marks [4] M. (a) (i) small proportion of energy / power is wasted accept little / less energy / power / heat is wasted do not accept it wastes no energy / power or transfers most / more / a lot of energy power usefully it decreases the current / uses low current or it increases the voltage / potential difference accept pd for potential difference or uses high voltage / potential difference smaller the current the smaller the energy loss accept power / heat for energy (i) as a control accept to make a comparison do not accept fair test on its own so people know how much data the link was based on accept idea that larger numbers are better Page 27

28 or people can judge the significance / reliability of the link do not accept significance / reliability on its own ignore reference to accuracy (iii) other possible factors may be responsible or have not been investigated named factor eg environment / genetic (iv) first box ticked plus reason acceptable reason such as so people know there may be a risk as soon as possible / so that other scientists can use findings or second box plus reason acceptable reason such as no point to worry / confuse / panic people (until the research has been confirmed) accept idea that it may lead to wrong advice do not accept in case they are wrong [8] M2. (a) (i) silvered surfaces more than the correct number of ticks in a row negates the mark radiation plastic cap conduction, convection (both required) 2 vacuum conduction convection radiation silvered surfaces () Page 28

29 plastic cap () any mention of air or any other substance in a vacuum scores zero because there are no particles in a vacuum accept atoms / molecules for particles accept vacuum is empty space accept there is nothing in a vacuum accept there is no air / gas in the vacuum conduction and convection need particles / medium need reference to both conduction and convection accept correct descriptions 2 (i) less heat lost (to air above the heater) do not accept no heat lost light shiny surfaces are poor emitters (of radiation) accept radiators for emitters references to reflection are neutral or dull, matt surfaces are good emitters (of radiation) do not credit answers which infer reflection from the underside of the hood ignore correct reference to absorption 2 correct diagram drawn with one output arrow narrower than the other ignore input arrows correctly labelled with energy form eg flow charts score zero 2 (iii) energy cannot be destroyed Page 29

30 accept (principle of) conservation of energy do not accept because energy cannot be lost without clarification [9] M3. (a) any three from: ignore reference to skewer (air) particles / molecules / atoms gain energy (air) particles / molecules / atoms move faster do not accept move more do not accept move with a bigger amplitude / vibrate more (air) particles / molecules / atoms move apart air expands do not accept particles expand air becomes less dense warm / hot air rises do not accept heat rises if credit is to be given for answers in terms of particles it must be clear they are air particles not gas particles 3 conduction accept conductor (c) any one from: temperature of the potato do not accept heat for temperature temperature of the surroundings / room / surface / atmosphere accept how hot the potato / room is size / mass / weight / volume of the potato shape of the potato surface area of the potato potato cut open insufficient Page 30

31 nature of the surface of the potato type of surface it is placed on in a draught type of potato whether the skewers are left in or taken out (d) (foil) reflects heat (back towards potato) reduces heat loss is insufficient do not accept reflects hot air or (foil) is a poor emitter (of heat radiation) accept reduces / stops heat loss by radiation do not accept heat is trapped [6] M4. (a) (i) Carries heat up (as convection current) (iii) () By conduction or from molecule to molecule (2) By radiation or as IR Use shiny surface (inside or outside) or small area 2 (i) Rise more quickly Dull surface good absorber (accept attract = absorb if context correct, then penalise spg mark. Shiny surface poor absorber 2 (c) (i) Fall more quickly Dull surface good emitter Shiny surface poor emitter Page 3

32 2 [0] M5. (a) Sun Any valid for mark each 2 From electric/pe or chemical in battery for mark to ke, light, sound, heat 3 for mark each 4 (c) Gravitational pe OR just pe For any gravity feed OR Elastic pe any valid OR Food For maintaining body/life etc. OR Any descriptive answer e.g. water in a high lake used to produce hydroelectric power 2 for mark each 2 [8] Page 32

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