Cells and Organelles (Learning Objectives)

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Cells and Organelles (Learning Objectives)"

Transcription

1 Cells and Organelles (Learning Objectives) Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. List their similarities and differences. Learn the three domains of living organisms and the 6 emergent feature of cells and living organisms. Compare and contrast gamete, zygote, somatic cells, and germ cells. Review the structure of membranes and explain the importance of different proteins for creating intracellular membranous compartments where different cellular functions can take place. Learn the structure and functions of each of the following, and where applicable relate to specific known genetic diseases; a. Plasma membrane b. Cytoskeleton c. Nucleus d. Endoplasmic reticulum (smooth and rough) e. Golgi apparatus & vescilces f. Lysosomes g. Peroxisomes h. Mitochondria Explain the coordination of functions of several organelles that bring about cellular functions such as secretion and flow of genetic information from DNA to protein

2 Types of Cells on Earth Prokaryotic cells - Lack a nucleus Eukaryotic cells - Possess a nucleus and other organelles Figure 2.2

3 Domains of Life Three broad categories of organisms Archaea Unicellular prokaryotes Bacteria Unicellular prokaryotes Eukarya Includes both unicellular and multicellular eukaryotes

4 Ascending Non-living Atoms/Elements Molecules Chemical world Organelle Cell Living Tissue Organ Organ system Organism Biological World (Family) Population Community Descending Ecosystem Biosphere

5 Emergent properties of life shared by cells and all levels if the biological organization Order Regulation of internal conditions (Homeostasis)

6 Growth and development Energy use Response to environmental stimuli The ability to reproduce

7 Basic concepts Cells Interact: send, receive, respond to signals aggregate to form tissues, organs and organ systems Health state- balance between cell division and cell death Specialization of cell function- expression of different subsets of genes.

8 Nuclei containing DNA Sperm cell Human Development Unspecialized replicating cells Different specialized cells Egg cell Fertilized egg with DNA from both parents (Zygote) Embyro s cells with copies of inherited DNA Offspring with traits inherited from both parents

9 Human Cells Gametes: sperms and eggs haploid Zygote diploid Somatic cells: body cells diploid Germ cells: gonad cells that produce gametes diploid Meiosis Haploid gametes (n = 23) n Egg cell n Sperm cell Diploid zygote Multicellular (2n = 46) 2n diploid adults (2n = 46) Mitosis and development Fertilization

10 Cellular activities and abnormalities underlie our inherited traits, quirks, and illnesses Figure 2.1 Lack of dystrophin Muscular Dystrophy

11 A animal cell is a living unit greater than the sum of its parts Boundary-plasma membrane Cytoplasm: Compartment (division of labor) o Cytosol (soluble components) o Organelles surrounded by membranes to partition functions Nucleus DNA-information

12 Figure 2.3 Rough endoplasmic reticulum Smooth endoplasmic reticulum NUCLEUS: Nuclear envelope Chromosomes Nucleolus Lysosome Centriole Peroxisome CYTOSKELETON: Microtubule Intermediate filament Microfilament Ribosomes Golgi apparatus Plasma membrane Mitochondrion

13 Role of cell membranes in compartmentalization of cellular functions Hydrophilic head A phospholipid bilayer - Phosphate end (hydrophilic) - Fatty acid chains (hydrophobic) Hydrophobic tail Figure 2.8

14 Compartmentalized functions of animal cells Manufacturing, processing, and shipping of molecules to appropriate destination: DNA, proteins, carbohydrates, lipids Breakdown of molecules: large structures, lipids, detoxification of certain substances Energy processing: forming cellular energy form Structural support, movement, and communication

15 Plasma Membrane Forms a selective barrier Contains proteins, glycoproteins, and glycolipids - Important to cell function and interactions - May be receptors - Form channels for ions Figure 2.3 Figure 2.9

16 Inherited Diseases caused by Faulty Ion Channels Sodium channels - Mutations lead to absence or extreme pain Potassium channels - Mutations lead to impaired heart function and one form of deafness Chloride channels - Mutations lead to cystic fibrosis Reading 2.2, page 27 Figure 2.3

17 A meshwork of protein rods and tubules Includes three major types of proteins - Microtubules - Microfilaments - Intermediate filaments Cytoskeleton Figure 2.3 Figure 2.10

18 Cytoskeleton Functions Maintain cell shape Connect cells to each other Transport organelles and small molecules Provide cell motility (some cell types) Move chromosomes in cell division Compose cilia Figure 2.3

19 Cytoskeleton A network of protein fibers that functions in cell structural support and motility Nucleus Nucleus Actin subunit Fibrous subunits Tubulin subunit 7 nm 10 nm 25 nm Microfilament Intermediate filament Microtubule

20 Inherited Disease caused by faulty connections between the plasma membrane and the cytoskeleton Hereditary Spherocytosis page 29 Figure 2.3

21 The Nucleus The largest structure in a cell Surrounded by a double-layered nuclear envelope Contains: - Nuclear pores that allow movement of some molecules in and out - Nucleolus, which is the site of ribosome production - Chromosomes composed of DNA and proteins Figure 2.3

22 The Nucleus Figure 2.4 Figure 2.3 Figure 2.4

23 Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Interconnected membranous tubules & sacs Winds from the nuclear envelope to the plasma membrane Rough ER contains ribosomes and is involved in protein synthesis Smooth ER does not contain ribosomes and is important in lipid synthesis Figure 2.3

24 Golgi Apparatus Stack of flat membrane-enclosed sacs Processing center of added sugars that form glycoproteins and glycolipids Site of final protein folding Products are released into vesicles that bud off to the plasma membrane Figure 2.3

25 Secretion Coordination of function of organelles Figure 2.5 Protein Trafficking

26 Transport vesicle buds off 4 Ribosome Secretory protein inside transport vesicle 1 3 Sugar chain Polypeptide 2 Glycoprotein Rough ER

27 Nucleus Nuclear membrane Rough ER Smooth ER Transport vesicle Transport vesicle Golgi apparatus Lysosome Vacuole Plasma membrane

28 Lysosomes Membrane-bound sacs containing > 40 types of digestive enzymes Break down bacteria, cellular debris, and nutrients Tay-Sachs is an inherited lysosomal storage disorder Figure 2.3 Figure 2.6

29 Lysosomes Membrane-bounded sacs of hydrolytic enzymes that digestive enzymes

30 Peroxisomes Sacs with one membrane filled with several types of enzymes - Break down lipids, rare biochemicals - Synthesize bile acids - Detoxify compounds from free radicals, H 2 O 2, and alcohol - Abundant in liver and kidney cells Lorenzo s oil Adrenoleukodystrophy absence of a peroxisomal enzyme leads to accumulation of long-chain fatty acids in brain and spinal cord Figure 2.3

31 Mitochondria Surrounded by two membranes Site of ATP (energy) production Contain their own circular DNA Human mitochondrial DNA is inherited only from the mother Figure 2.7 Lou Gehrig Disease Figure 2.3

32 Structures and Functions of Organelles Table 2.1

33 Prokaryotic & Eukaryotic Animal and Plant cells Secretion

Chapter 4: A Tour of the Cell. 1. Cell Basics. Limits to Cell Size. 1. Cell Basics. 2. Prokaryotic Cells. 3. Eukaryotic Cells

Chapter 4: A Tour of the Cell. 1. Cell Basics. Limits to Cell Size. 1. Cell Basics. 2. Prokaryotic Cells. 3. Eukaryotic Cells Chapter 4: A Tour of the Cell 1. Cell Basics 2. Prokaryotic Cells 3. Eukaryotic Cells 1. Cell Basics Limits to Cell Size There are 2 main reasons why cells are so small: If cells get too large: 1) there

More information

7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure

7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure 2 of 49 Eukaryotic Cell Structures Eukaryotic Cell Structures Structures within a eukaryotic cell that perform important cellular functions are known as organelles. Cell biologists divide the eukaryotic

More information

Cytology. Living organisms are made up of cells. Either PROKARYOTIC or EUKARYOTIC cells.

Cytology. Living organisms are made up of cells. Either PROKARYOTIC or EUKARYOTIC cells. CYTOLOGY Cytology Living organisms are made up of cells. Either PROKARYOTIC or EUKARYOTIC cells. A. two major cell types B. distinguished by structural organization See table on handout for differences.

More information

Basic Characteristics of Cells. Cell Structure and Function. Each Cell Has Three Primary Regions. Basic Characteristics of Cells. The Plasma Membrane

Basic Characteristics of Cells. Cell Structure and Function. Each Cell Has Three Primary Regions. Basic Characteristics of Cells. The Plasma Membrane Basic Characteristics of Cells Cell Structure and Function Chapter 3 Smallest living subdivision of the human body Diverse in structure and function Small Basic Characteristics of Cells Each Cell Has Three

More information

Biology. Biology. Slide 1 of 49. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

Biology. Biology. Slide 1 of 49. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Biology Biology 1 of 49 2 of 49 Comparing the Cell to a Factory 1. Eukaryotic Cell Structures A.Organelles: Structures within a eukaryotic cell perform important cellular functions B. Cytoplasm: * Gel/liquid

More information

Lecture 4 Cell Membranes & Organelles

Lecture 4 Cell Membranes & Organelles Lecture 4 Cell Membranes & Organelles Structure of Animal Cells The Phospholipid Structure Phospholipid structure Encases all living cells Its basic structure is represented by the fluidmosaic model Phospholipid

More information

Cells. Structure, Function and Homeostasis

Cells. Structure, Function and Homeostasis Cells Structure, Function and Homeostasis Characteristics of Cells Basic unit of life anything alive is made of cells Plasma membrane (skin) that separates them from the environment. Skeletonsfor protection

More information

Cell Structure & Function!

Cell Structure & Function! Cell Structure & Function! Chapter 3! The most exciting phrase to hear in science, the one that heralds new discoveries, is not 'Eureka!' but 'That's funny.! -- Isaac Asimov Animal Cell Plant Cell Cell

More information

Compartmentalization of the Cell. Objectives. Recommended Reading. Professor Alfred Cuschieri. Department of Anatomy University of Malta

Compartmentalization of the Cell. Objectives. Recommended Reading. Professor Alfred Cuschieri. Department of Anatomy University of Malta Compartmentalization of the Cell Professor Alfred Cuschieri Department of Anatomy University of Malta Objectives By the end of this session the student should be able to: 1. Identify the different organelles

More information

Chapter 2: Cell Structure and Function pg. 70-107

Chapter 2: Cell Structure and Function pg. 70-107 UNIT 1: Biochemistry Chapter 2: Cell Structure and Function pg. 70-107 Organelles are internal structures that carry out specialized functions, interacting and complementing each other. Animal and plant

More information

7.2 Cell Structure. Lesson Objectives. Lesson Summary. Cell Organization Eukaryotic cells contain a nucleus and many specialized structures.

7.2 Cell Structure. Lesson Objectives. Lesson Summary. Cell Organization Eukaryotic cells contain a nucleus and many specialized structures. 7.2 Cell Structure Lesson Objectives Describe the structure and function of the cell nucleus. Describe the role of vacuoles, lysosomes, and the cytoskeleton. Identify the role of ribosomes, endoplasmic

More information

Eukaryotic Cell Structure. Section 7-3 p.179-187

Eukaryotic Cell Structure. Section 7-3 p.179-187 Eukaryotic Cell Structure Section 7-3 p.179-187 Group work vs. Cell Parts? Plasma membrane Cell wall Cellular Boundaries Fairly rigid structure located outside the plasma membrane that provides additional

More information

Biology 101 Chapter 4 Cells as the Basic Unit of Life. The Cell Theory Major Contributors: Galileo = first observations made with a microscope

Biology 101 Chapter 4 Cells as the Basic Unit of Life. The Cell Theory Major Contributors: Galileo = first observations made with a microscope Biology 101 Chapter 4 Cells as the Basic Unit of Life The Cell Theory Major Contributors: Galileo = first observations made with a microscope Robert Hooke = first to observe small compartments in dead

More information

Cells & Cell Organelles

Cells & Cell Organelles Cells & Cell Organelles The Building Blocks of Life H Biology Types of cells bacteria cells Prokaryote - no organelles Eukaryotes - organelles animal cells plant cells Cell size comparison Animal cell

More information

Plasma Membrane hydrophilic polar heads

Plasma Membrane hydrophilic polar heads The Parts of the Cell 3 main parts in ALL cells: plasma membrane, cytoplasm, genetic material this is about the parts of a generic eukaryotic cell Plasma Membrane -is a fluid mosaic model membrane is fluid

More information

The Cell Interior and Function

The Cell Interior and Function The Cell Interior and Function 5 5.0 CHAPTER PREVIEW Investigate and understand the organization and function of the cell interior. Define the differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cell structure.

More information

The Cell: Organelle Diagrams

The Cell: Organelle Diagrams The Cell: Organelle Diagrams Fig 7-4. A prokaryotic cell. Lacking a true nucleus and the other membrane-enclosed organelles of the eukaryotic cell, the prokaryotic cell is much simpler in structure. Only

More information

Biol 101 Exam 2: Cells & Cell Membranes Fall 2008

Biol 101 Exam 2: Cells & Cell Membranes Fall 2008 MULTIPLE CHOICE. There are 60 questions on this exam. All answers go on the Scantron. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. The cell theory is one of

More information

1.1.1 Cell Structure. Relevant Past Paper Questions. Condensed Notes By Specification Point. 2013 January 5 e f i j. 2012 June 2 e f g i

1.1.1 Cell Structure. Relevant Past Paper Questions. Condensed Notes By Specification Point. 2013 January 5 e f i j. 2012 June 2 e f g i 1.1.1 Cell Structure Relevant Past Paper Questions Paper Question Specification point(s) tested 2013 January 5 e f i j 2012 June 2 e f g i 2012 January 4 a b d f 2011 June 1 part a only f 2011 January

More information

Microscopes. Eukaryotes Eukaryotic cells are characterized by having: DNA in a nucleus that is bounded by a membranous nuclear envelope

Microscopes. Eukaryotes Eukaryotic cells are characterized by having: DNA in a nucleus that is bounded by a membranous nuclear envelope CH 6 The Cell Microscopy Scientists use microscopes to visualize cells too small to see with the naked eye. In a light microscope (LM), visible light is passed through a specimen and then through glass

More information

Quiz: Cell Organelles and Their Functions 1. This organelle functions in cellular respiration: lysosome endoplasmic reticulum mitochondrion golgi

Quiz: Cell Organelles and Their Functions 1. This organelle functions in cellular respiration: lysosome endoplasmic reticulum mitochondrion golgi Quiz: Cell Organelles and Their Functions 1. This organelle functions in cellular respiration: lysosome mitochondrion 2. The organelle functions to package and deliver proteins: lysosome mitochondrion

More information

Biol115 The Thread of Life

Biol115 The Thread of Life Biol115 The Thread of Life Lecture 13 A panoramic tour of the cell It is the cells which create and maintain in us, during the span of our lives, our will to live and survive, to search and experiment,

More information

Section 7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure

Section 7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure Name Class Date Section 7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure (pages 174-181) Key Concept What are the functions of the major cell structures? Comparing a Cell to a Factory (page 174) 1. What is an organelle?

More information

Name Class Date. What are the parts of a eukaryotic cell? What is the function of each part of a eukaryotic cell?

Name Class Date. What are the parts of a eukaryotic cell? What is the function of each part of a eukaryotic cell? CHAPTER 1 2 SECTION Cells: The Basic Units of Life Eukaryotic Cells BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What are the parts of a eukaryotic cell? What

More information

The correct answer is d A. Answer a is incorrect. The cell theory states that all living things are composed of one or more cells.

The correct answer is d A. Answer a is incorrect. The cell theory states that all living things are composed of one or more cells. 1. Which of the following statements is NOT part of the cell theory? a. All organisms are composed of one or more cells. b. Cells come from other cells by division. c. Cells are the smallest living things.

More information

Bacterial (Prokaryotic) Cell. Common features of all cells. Tour of the Cell. Eukaryotic Cell. Plasma Membrane defines inside from outside

Bacterial (Prokaryotic) Cell. Common features of all cells. Tour of the Cell. Eukaryotic Cell. Plasma Membrane defines inside from outside www.denniskunkel.com Tour of the Cell www.denniskunkel.com Today s Topics Properties of all cells Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes Functions of Major Cellular Organelles Information, Synthesis&Transport,, Vesicles

More information

Review of the Cell and Its Organelles

Review of the Cell and Its Organelles Biology Learning Centre Review of the Cell and Its Organelles Tips for most effective learning of this material: Memorize the names and structures over several days. This will help you retain what you

More information

Cell Cell Cell-membrane, Cytoplasm and Nucleus. Cytoplasm Cytosol and Cell Organelles

Cell Cell Cell-membrane, Cytoplasm and Nucleus. Cytoplasm Cytosol and Cell Organelles Cell, Mitosis and Cell Membrane Transport Cell Theory 4 basic concepts of cell theory are: Cells are the units of structure (building blocks) of all animals and plants. Cells are the smallest unit of function

More information

Cell Structure and Function

Cell Structure and Function Open the TI-Nspire document Cell Structure and Function.tns. All living things are made of cells. Some organisms, like bacteria or yeast, have only one cell. Other organisms, like you, are multicellular,

More information

Table of Contents. North Carolina Essential Standards Correlation Chart... 6

Table of Contents. North Carolina Essential Standards Correlation Chart... 6 Table of Contents North Carolina Essential Standards Correlation Chart........ 6 Objectives Chapter 1 Cell Biology................................. 9 Lesson 1 Cell Structure...............................

More information

cells - relatively simple cells - lack nuclear membrane and many organelles - bacteria and their relatives are all prokaryotic

cells - relatively simple cells - lack nuclear membrane and many organelles - bacteria and their relatives are all prokaryotic Cell Biology A cell is chemical system that is able to maintain its structure and reproduce. Cells are the fundamental unit of life. All living things are cells or composed of cells. 1 The interior contents

More information

Quick Hit Activity Using UIL Science Contests For Formative and Summative Assessments of Pre-AP and AP Biology Students

Quick Hit Activity Using UIL Science Contests For Formative and Summative Assessments of Pre-AP and AP Biology Students Quick Hit Activity Using UIL Science Contests For Formative and Summative Assessments of Pre-AP and AP Biology Students Activity Title: Quick Hit Goal of Activity: To perform formative and summative assessments

More information

Chapter 4 Lecture Notes: Eukaryotic Cell Structure and Function

Chapter 4 Lecture Notes: Eukaryotic Cell Structure and Function Chapter 4 Lecture Notes: Eukaryotic Cell Structure and Function I. Overview: What is a eukaryote? A. Organisms whose cell/cells have a membrane-enclosed nucleus B. Have numerous other intracellular membranes

More information

Eukaryotes. www.njctl.org PSI Biology Eukaryotes & Gene Expression

Eukaryotes. www.njctl.org PSI Biology Eukaryotes & Gene Expression Eukaryotes The Eukaryotic Cell Classwork 1. Identify two characteristics that are shared by all cells. 2. Suppose you are investigating a cell that contains a nucleus. Would you categorize this cell as

More information

Organelles and Their Functions

Organelles and Their Functions Organelles and Their Functions The study of cell organelles and their functions is a fascinating part of biology. The current article provides a brief description of the structure of organelles and their

More information

Chapter 3. Cellular Structure and Function Worksheets. 39 www.ck12.org

Chapter 3. Cellular Structure and Function Worksheets. 39 www.ck12.org Chapter 3 Cellular Structure and Function Worksheets (Opening image copyright by Sebastian Kaulitzki, 2010. Used under license from Shutterstock.com.) Lesson 3.1: Introduction to Cells Lesson 3.2: Cell

More information

Cell Structure and Function

Cell Structure and Function Bio 100 - Cells 1 Cell Structure and Function Tenets of Cell Theory 1. All living things are made up of one or more cells 2. Cells are the basic living units within organisms, and the chemical reactions

More information

Objectives List scientists who contributed to the cell theory List the components of the cell theory Compare prokaryote and eukaryote cells Label a

Objectives List scientists who contributed to the cell theory List the components of the cell theory Compare prokaryote and eukaryote cells Label a Objectives List scientists who contributed to the cell theory List the components of the cell theory Compare prokaryote and eukaryote cells Label a plant and an animal cell Know the functions of cell organelles

More information

Ch 1 - The Cell & Cell Processes

Ch 1 - The Cell & Cell Processes Ch 1 - The Cell & Cell Processes P All cells have Cell membrane - phospholipid bilayer surrounding cell parts Cytoplasm - everything between cell membrane + nucleus P Most cells have Nucleus - brain of

More information

Given these characteristics of life, which of the following objects is considered a living organism? W. X. Y. Z.

Given these characteristics of life, which of the following objects is considered a living organism? W. X. Y. Z. Cell Structure and Organization 1. All living things must possess certain characteristics. They are all composed of one or more cells. They can grow, reproduce, and pass their genes on to their offspring.

More information

MCAS Biology. Review Packet

MCAS Biology. Review Packet MCAS Biology Review Packet 1 Name Class Date 1. Define organic. THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE 2. All living things are made up of 6 essential elements: SPONCH. Name the six elements of life. S N P C O H 3. Elements

More information

Cell Structure and Function. Eukaryotic Cell: Neuron

Cell Structure and Function. Eukaryotic Cell: Neuron Cell Structure and Function Eukaryotic Cell: Neuron Cell Structure and Function Eukaryotic Cells: Blood Cells Cell Structure and Function Prokaryotic Cells: Bacteria Cell Structure and Function All living

More information

Keystone Study Guide Module A: Cells and Cell Processes

Keystone Study Guide Module A: Cells and Cell Processes Keystone Study Guide Module A: Cells and Cell Processes Topic 1: Biological Principles Cells and the Organization of Life Characteristics of Life all living things share the following characteristics:

More information

Bell Ringer. What do you already know about cells? What types of cells have you heard of? Do you know what kind of cell this is?

Bell Ringer. What do you already know about cells? What types of cells have you heard of? Do you know what kind of cell this is? Bell Ringer Do you know what kind of cell this is? What do you already know about cells? What types of cells have you heard of? WHAT CELL IS IT? In your groups, look at the picture of a cell you have been

More information

RAD 223. Radiography physiology. Lecture Notes. First lecture: Cell and Tissue

RAD 223. Radiography physiology. Lecture Notes. First lecture: Cell and Tissue RAD 223 Radiography physiology Lecture Notes First lecture: Cell and Tissue Physiology: the word physiology derived from a Greek word for study of nature. It is the study of how the body and its part work

More information

AP Biology Mt. Mansfield Union High School Cell Theory and Structure

AP Biology Mt. Mansfield Union High School Cell Theory and Structure Cell Organelles Organelles- membrane bound, sub-cellular structures that perform specialized tasks. 1) Physically separate different chemical reactions 2) Separate different chemical reactions that take

More information

CHAPTER 7 A TOUR OF THE CELL. Section B: A Panoramic View of the Cell

CHAPTER 7 A TOUR OF THE CELL. Section B: A Panoramic View of the Cell CHAPTER 7 A TOUR OF THE CELL Section B: A Panoramic View of the Cell 1. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells differ in size and complexity 2. Internal membranes compartmentalize the functions of a eukaryotic

More information

Biological cell membranes

Biological cell membranes Unit 14: Cell biology. 14 2 Biological cell membranes The cell surface membrane surrounds the cell and acts as a barrier between the cell s contents and the environment. The cell membrane has multiple

More information

CELLS: PLANT CELLS 20 FEBRUARY 2013

CELLS: PLANT CELLS 20 FEBRUARY 2013 CELLS: PLANT CELLS 20 FEBRUARY 2013 Lesson Description In this lesson we will discuss the following: The Cell Theory Terminology Parts of Plant Cells: Organelles Difference between plant and animal cells

More information

Cells (ScienceGHSGT1) 1. Which part of the cell provides energy through the process of cellular respiration?

Cells (ScienceGHSGT1) 1. Which part of the cell provides energy through the process of cellular respiration? Name: Date: 1. Which part of the cell provides energy through the process of cellular respiration? A. cell wall B. cytoplasm C. mitochondrion D. cell membrane 2. All cells must have a A. cell membrane.

More information

Ultrastructure and biochemical organization of an eukaryotic cell. General considerations Cell membrane Organelles with membrane

Ultrastructure and biochemical organization of an eukaryotic cell. General considerations Cell membrane Organelles with membrane Ultrastructure and biochemical organization of an eukaryotic cell General considerations Cell membrane Organelles with membrane Functions must be understood in terms of structures; structures must be understood

More information

INTRODUCTION TO THE CELL

INTRODUCTION TO THE CELL CHAPTER 1: STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF THE CELL INTRODUCTION TO THE CELL Both living and non-living things are composed of molecules made from chemical elements such as Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Nitrogen.

More information

Chapter 5 Organelles. Lesson Objectives List the organelles of the cell and their functions. Distinguish between plant and animal cells.

Chapter 5 Organelles. Lesson Objectives List the organelles of the cell and their functions. Distinguish between plant and animal cells. Chapter 5 Organelles Lesson Objectives List the organelles of the cell and their functions. Distinguish between plant and animal cells. Check Your Understanding What is a cell? How do we visualize cells?

More information

Biology Chapter 7 Practice Test

Biology Chapter 7 Practice Test Biology Chapter 7 Practice Test Multiple Choice Write the letter that best answers the question or completes the statement on the line provided. 1. The work of Schleiden and Schwann can be summarized by

More information

Visualizing Cell Processes

Visualizing Cell Processes Visualizing Cell Processes A Series of Five Programs produced by BioMEDIA ASSOCIATES Content Guide for Program 1 Cells and Molecules Copyright 2000 BioMEDIA ASSOCIATES Each of the five video programs in

More information

CELLS THE CELL IS THE SMALLEST UNIT OF LIFE. ALL ORGANISMS ARE COMPOSED OF CELLS. SOME ARE A SINGLE CELL, OTHERS ARE

CELLS THE CELL IS THE SMALLEST UNIT OF LIFE. ALL ORGANISMS ARE COMPOSED OF CELLS. SOME ARE A SINGLE CELL, OTHERS ARE CELLS THE CELL IS THE SMALLEST UNIT OF LIFE. ALL ORGANISMS ARE COMPOSED OF CELLS. SOME ARE A SINGLE CELL, OTHERS ARE MULTICELLULAR. THE CELL THEORY STATES: 1. ALL ORGANISMS RE COMPOSED OF ONE OR MORE CELLS,

More information

CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION Textbook Connection McDougal Littell Biology 1.1, 3.1-3.2, 18.5

CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION Textbook Connection McDougal Littell Biology 1.1, 3.1-3.2, 18.5 CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION Textbook Connection McDougal Littell Biology 1.1, 3.1-3.2, 18.5 Revised 2012-2013 Objectives: 1. Differentiate between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. 2. Describe the internal

More information

AP BIOLOGY 2006 SCORING GUIDELINES. Question 1

AP BIOLOGY 2006 SCORING GUIDELINES. Question 1 AP BIOLOGY 2006 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 1 A major distinction between prokaryotes and eukaryotes is the presence of membrane-bound organelles in eukaryotes. (a) Describe the structure and function

More information

3.1 AS Unit: Cells, Exchange and Transport

3.1 AS Unit: Cells, Exchange and Transport 3.1 AS Unit: Cells, Exchange and Transport Module 1: Cells 1.1.1 Cell Structure Candidates should be able to: (a) state the resolution and magnification that can be achieved by a light microscope, a transmission

More information

2.3: Eukaryotic Evolution and Diversity pg. 67. For about 1.5 billion years Prokaryotes were on the only living organism on Earth.

2.3: Eukaryotic Evolution and Diversity pg. 67. For about 1.5 billion years Prokaryotes were on the only living organism on Earth. 2.3: Eukaryotic Evolution and Diversity pg. 67 For about 1.5 billion years Prokaryotes were on the only living organism on Earth. 3.5 to 2 billion years ago Prokaryotes thrive in many different environments.

More information

Plant and Animal Cells

Plant and Animal Cells Plant and Animal Cells a. Explain that cells take in nutrients in order to grow, divide and to make needed materials. S7L2a b. Relate cell structures (cell membrane, nucleus, cytoplasm, chloroplasts, and

More information

Biology I. Chapter 7

Biology I. Chapter 7 Biology I Chapter 7 Interest Grabber NOTEBOOK #1 Are All Cells Alike? All living things are made up of cells. Some organisms are composed of only one cell. Other organisms are made up of many cells. 1.

More information

Keystone Review Practice Test Module A Cells and Cell Processes. 1. Which characteristic is shared by all prokaryotes and eukaryotes?

Keystone Review Practice Test Module A Cells and Cell Processes. 1. Which characteristic is shared by all prokaryotes and eukaryotes? Keystone Review Practice Test Module A Cells and Cell Processes 1. Which characteristic is shared by all prokaryotes and eukaryotes? a. Ability to store hereditary information b. Use of organelles to control

More information

Comparing Plant And Animal Cells

Comparing Plant And Animal Cells Comparing Plant And Animal Cells http://khanacademy.org/video?v=hmwvj9x4gny Plant Cells shape - most plant cells are squarish or rectangular in shape. amyloplast (starch storage organelle)- an organelle

More information

Lesson Aim To explain the human body at a microscopic level, including the structure and function of cells, tissues and membranes.

Lesson Aim To explain the human body at a microscopic level, including the structure and function of cells, tissues and membranes. LESSON 1. CELLS & TISSUES Lesson Aim To explain the human body at a microscopic level, including the structure and function of cells, tissues and membranes. THE CELL All living matter is composed of functional

More information

The Cell Teaching Notes and Answer Keys

The Cell Teaching Notes and Answer Keys The Cell Teaching Notes and Answer Keys Subject area: Science / Biology Topic focus: The Cell: components, types of cells, organelles, levels of organization Learning Aims: describe similarities and differences

More information

THE HISTORY OF CELL BIOLOGY

THE HISTORY OF CELL BIOLOGY SECTION 4-1 REVIEW THE HISTORY OF CELL BIOLOGY Define the following terms. 1. cell 2. cell theory Write the correct letter in the blank. 1. One early piece of evidence supporting the cell theory was the

More information

Lecture 8. Protein Trafficking/Targeting. Protein targeting is necessary for proteins that are destined to work outside the cytoplasm.

Lecture 8. Protein Trafficking/Targeting. Protein targeting is necessary for proteins that are destined to work outside the cytoplasm. Protein Trafficking/Targeting (8.1) Lecture 8 Protein Trafficking/Targeting Protein targeting is necessary for proteins that are destined to work outside the cytoplasm. Protein targeting is more complex

More information

A light microscope works by passing visiblelight through a specimen, such as a

A light microscope works by passing visiblelight through a specimen, such as a 1 A light microscope works by passing visiblelight through a specimen, such as a microorganism or a thin slice of animal or plant tissue. MAGNIFICATION-is the increase in the apparent size of an object.

More information

Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes. Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes. Learning Objective. Molecular & Cell Biology

Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes. Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes. Learning Objective. Molecular & Cell Biology All living organisms are classified into two broad categories, prokaryotes & eukaryote. Prokaryotes are those organisms whose cells lack a cell nucleus while eukaryotes possess a well-defined, membrane

More information

Alison Stewart 11/12/06 Prokaryotic Cells, Eukaryotic cells and HIV: Structures, Transcription and Transport Section Handout Discussion Week #7

Alison Stewart 11/12/06 Prokaryotic Cells, Eukaryotic cells and HIV: Structures, Transcription and Transport Section Handout Discussion Week #7 Alison Stewart 11/12/06 Prokaryotic Cells, Eukaryotic cells and HIV: Structures, Transcription and Transport Section Handout Discussion Week #7 Compare and contrast the organization of eukaryotic, prokaryotic

More information

BME 42-620 Engineering Molecular Cell Biology. Lecture 02: Structural and Functional Organization of

BME 42-620 Engineering Molecular Cell Biology. Lecture 02: Structural and Functional Organization of BME 42-620 Engineering Molecular Cell Biology Lecture 02: Structural and Functional Organization of Eukaryotic Cells BME42-620 Lecture 02, September 01, 2011 1 Outline A brief review of the previous lecture

More information

Chapter 4 Functional Anatomy of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells

Chapter 4 Functional Anatomy of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells Chapter 4 Functional Anatomy of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells Comparing prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells: Overview Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells are chemically similar o Contain nucleic acids, proteins,

More information

the plant & animal cell

the plant & animal cell 6.1 Basic unit of life Biology Biology Structure & functions of 06 the plant & animal cell In 1665, Robert Hooke observed a section of a cork using a microscope prepared by him. He discovered a structure

More information

Anatomy and Physiology Placement Exam 2 Practice with Answers at End!

Anatomy and Physiology Placement Exam 2 Practice with Answers at End! Anatomy and Physiology Placement Exam 2 Practice with Answers at End! General Chemical Principles 1. bonds are characterized by the sharing of electrons between the participating atoms. a. hydrogen b.

More information

Date: Student Name: Teacher Name: Jared George. Score: 1) A cell with 1% solute concentration is placed in a beaker with a 5% solute concentration.

Date: Student Name: Teacher Name: Jared George. Score: 1) A cell with 1% solute concentration is placed in a beaker with a 5% solute concentration. Biology Keystone (PA Core) Quiz Homeostasis and Transport - (BIO.A.4.1.1 ) Plasma Membrane, (BIO.A.4.1.2 ) Transport Mechanisms, (BIO.A.4.1.3 ) Transport Facilitation Student Name: Teacher Name: Jared

More information

CELL ANALOGY: AIRPORT. By: Joe Behrmann and Isaac Thompson

CELL ANALOGY: AIRPORT. By: Joe Behrmann and Isaac Thompson CELL ANALOGY: AIRPORT By: Joe Behrmann and Isaac Thompson MITOCHONDRIA Location: The Mitochondria of a cell is located in both plant and animal cells. They are found floating throughout the cell. Function:

More information

CHARACTERISTICS OF PROKARYOTIC AND EUKARYOTIC CELLS

CHARACTERISTICS OF PROKARYOTIC AND EUKARYOTIC CELLS CHARACTERISTICS OF PROKARYOTIC AND EUKARYOTIC CELLS CHAPTER 4 Cellular Characteristics Cellular Characteristics 2 Domains, then Phyla 1 Domain, 4 kingdoms, then Phyla Prokaryotic Cells Sizes 0.5-2µm (average)

More information

* The cell is the basic structural and functional unit of life. * Organismal activity depends on individual and collective activity of cells.

* The cell is the basic structural and functional unit of life. * Organismal activity depends on individual and collective activity of cells. Define Cell * The cell is the basic structural and functional unit of life. * Organismal activity depends on individual and collective activity of cells. * Biochemical activities of cells are dictated

More information

The Cell Structure and Function

The Cell Structure and Function The Cell Structure and Function The cell is the lowest level of structure capable of performing all the activities of life. The first cells were observed and named by Robert Hooke in 1665 from slice of

More information

3.2. Cell Organelles. Cells have an internal structure.

3.2. Cell Organelles. Cells have an internal structure. 3.2 Cell Organelles VOCABULARY cytoskeleton endoplasmic reticulum vesicle lysosome centriole cell wall chloroplast Key Concept Eukaryotic cells share many similarities. S Cells have an internal structure.

More information

THE LIVING CELL. Cells also have variety of shapes. Plant cells are often rectangular or polygonal, while egg cells are usually spherical.

THE LIVING CELL. Cells also have variety of shapes. Plant cells are often rectangular or polygonal, while egg cells are usually spherical. THE LIVING CELL A Tour of the cell The cell is the smallest and the basic unit of structure of all organisms. There are two main types or categories of cells: prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells. Prokaryotic

More information

3 Domains of Life Eukaryotic Cell (non bacterial) Prokaryotic Cell (bacteria)

3 Domains of Life Eukaryotic Cell (non bacterial) Prokaryotic Cell (bacteria) Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells Two Main Classes of Cells Prokaryotic (Bacteria and Archaea) Pro = Before ; Karyon = Kernel No nucleus, DNA coiled up inside cell Eukaryotic (Everything else) Eu = True

More information

AP Biology-Chapter #6 & 7 Review

AP Biology-Chapter #6 & 7 Review DO NOT WRITE ON THIS TEST- USE ANSWER DOCUMENT AP Biology-Chapter #6 & 7 Review Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. All of the following are

More information

Objective: On a team of no more than (2). Build to illustrate a 3D model of a PLANT or ANIMAL cell. 10 pts.

Objective: On a team of no more than (2). Build to illustrate a 3D model of a PLANT or ANIMAL cell. 10 pts. THE CELL model: Activity 4.1 Science / Biology Objective: On a team of no more than (2). Build to illustrate a 3D model of a PLANT or ANIMAL cell. - Your models should clearly demonstrate the following

More information

The human respiratory system includes the nose, the larynx, and the lungs. This body system helps maintain homeostasis by

The human respiratory system includes the nose, the larynx, and the lungs. This body system helps maintain homeostasis by Study Island 1. During heatstroke, the body can't dispose of excess heat. As a result, the homeostatic balance is disturbed, and internal body temperatures can reach as much as 110. Heatstroke is dangerous

More information

COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL. Cells. Review. Structure and Function of the Cell

COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL. Cells. Review. Structure and Function of the Cell 8682-3 Ch02.F 12/15/00 9:34 AM Page 35 Cells Review Structure and Function of the Cell The cell is the basic functional unit of all living things. The plasma membrane (cell membrane) bounds the cell and

More information

Cell Unit Practice Test #1

Cell Unit Practice Test #1 ell Unit Practice Test #1 Name: ate: 1. Which organelle is primarily concerned with the conversion of potential energy of organic compounds into suitable form for immediate use by the cell?. mitochondria.

More information

to isolate specialized chemical processes in specific parts of the cell

to isolate specialized chemical processes in specific parts of the cell Intracellular transport in eukaryotes Overview Compartmentalization and inner membranes enables eukaryotic cells to be 1000-10000 times larger than prokaryotes to isolate specialized chemical processes

More information

Cellular Structure and Function

Cellular Structure and Function Chapter Test A CHAPTER 7 Cellular Structure and Function Part A: Multiple Choice In the space at the left, write the letter of the term or phrase that best answers each question. 1. Which defines a cell?

More information

Cell and Membrane Practice. A. chromosome B. gene C. mitochondrion D. vacuole

Cell and Membrane Practice. A. chromosome B. gene C. mitochondrion D. vacuole Name: ate: 1. Which structure is outside the nucleus of a cell and contains N?. chromosome. gene. mitochondrion. vacuole 2. potato core was placed in a beaker of water as shown in the figure below. Which

More information

Cell and its organelles -1-

Cell and its organelles -1- http://www.bristol.ac.uk/phys-pharm/media/teaching/ pharm/media/teaching/ Cell and its organelles -1- The main text for this lecture is: Vander s Human Physiology + some additions from Germann & Stanfield

More information

1. Which of the following correctly organizes genetic material from the broadest category to the most specific category?

1. Which of the following correctly organizes genetic material from the broadest category to the most specific category? DNA and Genetics 1. Which of the following correctly organizes genetic material from the broadest category to the most specific category? A. genome chromosome gene DNA molecule B. genome chromosome DNA

More information

BIOLOGY 12 - CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION:

BIOLOGY 12 - CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION: BIOLOGY 12 - CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION: Chapter Notes THE CELL THEORY although different living things may be as unlike as a violet and an octopus, they are all built in essentially the same way. The most

More information

Name Date Class. This section describes cell structure and function in plant cells, animal cells, and bacteria.

Name Date Class. This section describes cell structure and function in plant cells, animal cells, and bacteria. Looking Inside Cells This section describes cell structure and function in plant cells, animal cells, and bacteria. Use Target Reading Skills Before you read, preview Figure 12. Then write two questions

More information

Biology 13A Lab #3: Cells and Tissues

Biology 13A Lab #3: Cells and Tissues Biology 13A Lab #3: Cells and Tissues Lab #3 Table of Contents: Expected Learning Outcomes.... 28 Introduction...... 28 Activity 1: Eukaryotic Cell Structure... 29 Activity 2: Perspectives on Tissue Preparations.

More information

Cell and its organelles -1-

Cell and its organelles -1- http://www.bristol.ac.uk/phys-pharm/media/teaching/ Cell and its organelles -1- Excite with blue colour light Living nerve cells (neurones) imaged using fluorescence in a slice of brain tissue The main

More information

Introduction to the Cell: Plant and Animal Cells

Introduction to the Cell: Plant and Animal Cells Introduction to the Cell: Plant and Animal Cells Tissues, Organs, and Systems of Living Things Cells, Cell Division, and Animal Systems and Plant Systems Cell Specialization Human Systems All organisms

More information

Chapter 4: Cells The Working Units of Life

Chapter 4: Cells The Working Units of Life Chapter Review 1. Most cells are quite small. Limits on cell size are related to limits on the rate of movement of good stuff in and bad stuff out across cell membranes. Movement rates are greatly influenced

More information

Common Characteristics of cells

Common Characteristics of cells Characteristics of Cells Introduction to Cells Biology is the subject of life and living organisms. The living organisms are diverse in almost every aspect. What a great difference exists between human

More information