2 Outline 1. Principles of Transcriptional Regulation 2. Regulation of Transcription Initiation: Lac Operon 3. The Case of Phage λ: Layers of Regulation 2
4 Part 1: Principles of Transcription Regulation 4
5 Fig 7-1 Activation by recruitment of RNA polymerase RNA polymerase a. Absence of Regulatory Proteins: Basal level b. Repressor binding to the operator represses expression Repressor No transcription c. Activator binding activates expression Activator activated level 5
6 Fig 7-2 Allosteric activation of RNA polymerase No transcription Activator activated level Allostery is a mechanism by which activators interact with the stable closed complex and induce a conformational change that causes transition to the open complex. 6
7 Action at a Distance and DNA Looping Fig 7-3 Interaction between proteins and DNA 7
8 Fig 7-4 DNA-bending protein can facilitate interaction between DNA-binding proteins at a distance 8
9 [Watch the animation-regulation of the transcription initiation!] Apply your knowledge! 9
11 Part 2: Regulation of Transcription Initiation : Lac Operon 11
12 Control element Structural genes Fig 7-5 Operon 12
13 Operon: a unit of prokaryotic gene expression and regulation which typically includes: 1. Structural genes for enzymes in a specific biosynthetic and metabolic pathway whose expression is coordinately controlled. 2. Control elements, such as operator sequence. 3. Regulator gene(s) whose products recognize the control elements. These genes are usually transcribed from a different promoter. 13
14 Fig 7-6 Lactose operon The enzymes encoded by lacz, lacy, laca 14 are transcribed at a high level only when lactose is available as the sole carbon source.
15 The lacz, lacy, laca genes are transcribed into a single laczya mrna (polycistronic mrna) under the control of a single promoter P lac. lacz lacy codes for β-galactosidase ( 半乳糖苷酶 ) for lactose hydrolysis encodes a cell membrane protein called lactose permease to transport lactose across the cell wall laca encodes a thiogalactoside transacetylase to get rid of the toxic thiogalacosides 15
16 An activator and a repressor together control the Lac operon expression The activator: CAP (Catabolite Activator Protein) or CRP (camp Receptor Protein); responding to the glucose level. The repressor: lac repressor that is encoded by LacI gene; responding to the lactose. 16
17 Fig 7-7 Expression of the lac genes RNA polymerase Glu Lac Basal level No transcription activated level 17
18 Fig 7-8 The control region of the lac operon 18
19 Fig 7-9 Activation of the lac promoter by CAP a CTD: C-terminal domain of the a subunit of RNAP 19
20 Fig 7-10 Footprinting method for detecting protein-binding site in DNA *--Radioactive labels --cutting sites by DNase --Protein, e.g., Lac repressor Footprint
21 *--Radioactive labels --Protein Fig 7-11 Gel mobility shift assay for identifying proteins that bind DNA
22 CAP and Lac repressor bind DNA using a common structural motif: helix-turn-helix motif Fig 7-12 Binding of a protein with a helixturn-helix domain to DNA 22
23 Lac operon contains three operators: the primary operator and two other operators located 400 bp downstream and 90 bp upstream, respectively. DNA looping Fig 7-13 Lac repressor binds as a tetramer to two operators 23
24 Combinatorial Control : CAP controls other genes as well. A regulator (CAP) works together with different repressors at different genes, this is an example of Combinatorial Control. In fact, CAP acts at more than 100 genes in E.coli, working with an array of partners. 24
25 Part 3: The Case of Bacteriophage l: Layers of Regulation 25
26 Bacteriophage l is a virus that infects E. coli. Upon infection, the phage can propagate in either of two ways : lytically or lysogenically. Fig 7-14 Growth and induction of l lysogen ( 溶原性细菌 ) Bacterial genome l genome Infection induction lytic ( 溶菌性 ) growth l repressor lysogenic( 溶原性 ) growth New phage
27 Recombination proteins of phage Phage DNA replication proteins Lysis proteins The phage l has a 50- kb genome and ~50 genes. Fig 7-15 Map of phage l Head genes Tail genes
28 Fig. 7-16: Transcription in the l control regions in lytic and lysogenic growth lytic lysogenic P R and P L : rightward and leftward promoter, respectively P RM : Promoter for repressor maintenance
29 The ci gene encodes l repressor, which can both activate and repress transcription As a repressor, it binds to sites that overlap the promoter and excludes RNA polymerase As an activator, it works like CAP by recruitment. Fig l repressor
30 Cro (for control of repressor and other things) only represses transcription. It is a single domain protein that binds as a dimer to 17-bp DNA sequences.
31 Fig. 18 Relative positions of promoter and operator sites in O R ci P RM P R cro O R3 O R2 O R1 There are 6 operators in the right (3) and left (3) control regions of bacteriophage l. l repressor and Cro can each bind to any one of six operators, but with dramatically different affinity. l repressor binds O R1 most easily while Cro binds O R3 with the highest affinity.
32 Fig Layer (1): Cooperative binding of l repressor to DNA Monomer Without cooperativity, a tenfold higher concerntration of repressor would be needed to bind O R2. Dimer Tetramer Not bound Low affinity High affinity
33 Fig Cooperative binding reaction Cooperative binding of a repressor to its operator sites. Binding of a protein to a single site
34 Fig Layer (2): l Repressor and Cro bind in different patterns to control lytic and lysogenic growth Lysogen ci l Repressor cro Lytic growth ci O R3 O R2 O R1 induction cro cro P RM P R
35 1. DNA damage activates RecA in E. coli 2. RecA stimulates l repressor to undergo autocleavage, resulting in the removal the C- terminal domain and the immediate loss of dimerization and binding cooperativity. 3. Repressor dissociates from O R1 -O R2 & O R1 -O R2. Loss of repression triggers transcription from P R and P L, leading to lytic growth. Fig Layer (3): Lytic induction requires proteolytic cleavage of l repressor lytic ci cro lysogenic P L ci P RM P R cro
36 For induction to work efficiently, the level of l repressor in a lysogen must be tightly regulated. Layer (4): Keep it not too low by positive autoregulation: l repressor binding at O R2 activates its own transcription from P RM. Layer (5): Keep it not too high by negative autoregulation: when the repressor level goes too high, it will bind to O R3 as well, which will prevent transcription from P RM. 36
37 Fig Interaction of l repressors at O R and O L Negative autoregulation of repressor requires long-distance interactions and a large DNA loop: cooperative binding at O R3 and O L3 to prevent the synthesis of new l repressor.
38 Fig Layer (6): Another activator, l cii, controls the decision between lytic and lysogenic growth upon infection of a new host. cii is transcribed from P R and ciii is transcribed from P L. cii protein is a transcriptional activator that binds to P RE and stimulates the transcription of ci gene (l repressor).
39 Fig Establishment of lysogeny
40 Establishment of lysogeny 1. P R and P L are constitutive promoters that promote transcription once the phage enter the cells. 2. P R directs the synthesis of both Cro and cii proteins. Cro favors lytic development while cii favors lysogenic growth by activating the synthesis of l repressor. 3. The efficiency with which cii directs transcription of ci gene (l repressor) is critical in deciding the lysogeny. 40
41 Growth conditions of E. coli control the stability of cii protein and thus the lytic/lysogenic choice. --cii is degraded by a specific protease FtsH. --Layer (7): If growth conditions is good, cii is unstable, repressor is not made, and the phage tend to grow lytically. --Layer (8): When conditions are poor for bacterial growth, cii becomes stable, repressor accumulates, and lysogens form. --cii are stabilized by ciii, which serves as an alternative substrate for FtsH.
42 Layer (9): Transcriptional Antitermination in l development --Two l phage regulatory proteins N and Q are called antiterminators. --The transcripts controlled by l N and Q proteins terminate a few hundred to a thousand nucleotides downstream of the promoter in the absence of N and Q proteins. --l N and Q proteins prevent the termination at some termination sites by regulating RNA polymerase and promote the transcription of the early and late genes for the lytic growth of the phage.
43 Fig Binding sites for proteins N and Q N protein binds to the RNA transcribed from DNA containing a nut sequence, while Q protein binds to the QBE DNA site 43
44 Layer (10): Retroregulation : An interplay of controls on RNA synthesis and stability determines int gene expression The Int protein is the enzyme that integrates the phage genome into that of the host cell during formation of lysogen. The cii protein activates the promoter P I that directs expression of the int gene as well as the promoter P RE responsible for repressor synthesis. The int gene is transcribed from both P L and P I, but the int mrna initiated at P L is degraded by cellular nucleases.
45 Site of termination in absence of N protein Int gene Transcribed from P I in the absence of N protein, resistant to degradation Fig Transcribed from P L in the presence of N protein, going beyond the terminator and targeted for degradation
46 Summary for 10-layer regulations in phage l (1) Cooperative binding of l repressor to DNA at O R2. (2) l Repressor and Cro bind in different patterns to control lytic and lysogenic growth. (3) Upon DNA damage, proteolytic cleavage of l repressor. (4) Positive autoregulation: l repressor binding at O R2 (5) Negative autoregulation: cooperative binding of repressor at O R3 and O L3. (6) cii protein stimulates the transcription of ci gene (encoding l repressor ) in a new host. (7) cii degradation by a specific protease FtsH under good growth conditions. (8) cii stabilization by ciii, another substrate for FtsH. (9) l N and Q proteins prevent the transcriptional termination of the degradable Int mrna. (10)Retroregulation : targeted degradation of Int mrna for lytic growth.
47 Summary of Chapter 7 1. Principles of gene regulation. Activator, repressor, operator, recruitment, allostery. 2. Regulation of transcription initiation in bacteria: the Lac operon. The activator: CAP The repressor: Lac repressor 3. The case of phage l 10 layers of regulation l repressor and Cro and their binding; proteolytic cleavage of l repressor (lytic induction); autoregulation; control of the decision to lytic or lysogenic growth by l cii; antiterminators; retroregulation of Int gene. 47
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