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2 2 of 37 What are earthquakes? Earthquakes Earthquakes are vibrations caused by earth movements at plate boundaries and at major fault lines (cracks in the earth s surface). They can occur at all four major plate boundaries but the most severe earthquakes are normally found at conservative and destructive plate boundaries. conservative destructive

3 Destructive plate boundary 3 of 37

4 Conservative plate boundary 4 of 37

5 Why do earthquakes happen? 5 of 37

6 6 of 37 Earthquakes Page 126

7 Learning objectives 7 of 37 What are earthquakes and where do they occur? What causes earthquakes? How are earthquakes measured? What is the difference between the epicentre and the focus? How can we limit the damage caused by earthquakes? What is a tsunami?

8 How can we measure earthquakes? 8 of 37 The Richter Scale This measures the magnitude of a tremor (how powerful it is) using an instrument called a seismograph. On the Richter Scale, magnitude is expressed in whole numbers and decimal fractions. Although the Richter Scale has no upper limit, the largest earthquake ever recorded was in 1960 in Chile. It measured 9.5 on the Richter Scale. It is a logarithmic scale which means that a size 6 on the Richter Scale is 10 times larger than a size 5 and 100 times larger than a size 4.

9 How can we measure earthquakes? 9 of 37 The Japanese earthquake in Kobe (September 1995) measured 7.2 on the Richter Scale. The Greek earthquake (June 1995) measured 6.2 on the Richter Scale. How many times greater was the Japanese earthquake? The Japanese earthquake was 10 times more powerful than the Greek earthquake.

10 A seismograph 10 of 37

11 11 of 37 Mercalli Scale Mercalli Scale The Mercalli scale measures how much damage is caused by the earthquake based on observations. It is measured on a scale between 1 and 12.

12 Activity 12 of 37 Design your own cartoon based on the Mercalli Scale descriptions below. I Felt by almost no one. II Felt by very few people. III Tremor noticed by many, but they often do not realise it is an earthquake. IV Felt indoors by many. Feels like a truck has struck the building. V Felt by everyone; many people are awakened. Swaying trees and poles may be observed. VI Felt by all; many people run outdoors. Furniture is moved. VII Everyone runs outdoors. Poorly built structures considerably damaged. Slight damage elsewhere. VIII Specially designed structures damaged slightly, others collapse. IX All buildings considerably damaged, many shift off foundations. Noticeable cracks in the ground. X Many structures destroyed. Ground badly cracked. XI Almost all structures fall. Bridges wrecked. XII Total destruction. Waves seen on ground surfaces.

13 Learning objectives 13 of 37 What are earthquakes and where do they occur? What causes earthquakes? How are earthquakes measured? What is the difference between the epicentre and the focus? How can we limit the damage caused by earthquakes? What is a tsunami?

14 Epicentre and focus 14 of 37 The focus is the point at which the rock moves. Seismic waves start at the focus. The epicentre is directly above the focus on the earth s surface.

15 Epicentre and focus 15 of 37

16 Epicentre and focus 16 of 37 Focus Epicentre An earthquake has occurred along this fault line. Match the letter with the correct label.

17 Epicentre and focus 17 of 37 An earthquake has occurred in this area. Which area (the town or the forest) will receive the stronger earthquake? Which area will receive more damage from the earthquake?

18 Epicentre and focus 18 of 37 If the epicentre of an earthquake is at A, which settlement will be damaged the most? Give reasons for your answer.

19 Learning objectives 19 of 37 What are earthquakes and where do they occur? What causes earthquakes? How are earthquakes measured? What is the difference between the epicentre and the focus? How can we limit the damage caused by earthquakes? What is a tsunami?

20 How can we limit earthquake damage? 20 of 37 predict plan protect water levels can rise in wells and lakes because of cracks in the rock a tiltmeter can check any movement within the rocks Predict foreshocks before the main quake can be detected by a seismometer animals can act strangely before the earthquake

21 How can we limit earthquake damage? 21 of 37 Plan and protect

22 How can we limit earthquake damage? 22 of 37 Plan and protect What should people pack in their emergency kit? Design a poster reminding people what to do in an earthquake.

23 Building regulations in earthquake zones 23 of 37 What other measures would make buildings less likely to collapse in an earthquake?

24 Buildings in earthquake zones 24 of 37 Which shape of building would be most earthquake proof? Explain your answer.

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