# Lecture 12 Earthquake Magnitude

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 Lecture 12 Earthquake Magnitude Locating Earthquakes Last time, we learned that we could obtain a rough estimate of the distance in miles to an earthquake epicenter by multiplying the S - P time interval by 5.7 In the example above the distance will be 36 x 5.7 = 205 miles (or 331 kilometers) 1

2 More on Locating Earthquakes a graphical approach P-waves are the fastest (about 460 km/minute) S-waves are slower (about 260 km/minute) The time interval between the first arrival of the P- and S-waves (S - P) is used to estimate the distance to an earthquakes epicenter. This is an enlargement of part of the preceding graph. From the graph, we can read that S - P of 36 seconds is equivalent to about 350 km (compare with 331 km from our quick and dirty method ) 2

3 A Real Example Akita, Japan P - S = 71 seconds Pusan, South Korea P - S = 56 seconds Tokyo, Japan P - S = 44 seconds Akita, Japan P - S = 71 seconds Distance = 695 km Pusan, South Korea P - S = 56 seconds Distance = 540 km Tokyo, Japan P - S = 44 seconds Distance = 430 km 3

4 The earthquake (of magnitude 6.9) epicenter was in Kobe, Japan in DETERMINING THE MAGNITUDE OF AN EARTHQUAKE Prior to 1935 the estimation of the intensity of an earthquake was base on a qualitative and subjective interpretation of the Mercalli Intensity Scale. Charles Richter (1935) devised a quantitative method based on the amplitude of the largest waves recorded on a seismogram. The size of the amplitude depends on:- The distance from the epicenter. The intensity or magnitude of the earthquake. (Note - the amplitude can vary many thousands of times) 4

5 Amplitude is measured in millimeters (mm) from the center of the seismic record to the maximum on the trace. In this case the amplitude is 180 mm (Note - you can also measure the maximum width of the trace and divide by 2.) The Richter Scale Large amplitudes imply either:- The earthquake epicenter is very close. The earthquake is far away but very large The scale is LOGARITHMIC and ranges from 1 to 8 Therefore, an earthquake of magnitude 6 on the Richter scale is ten times larger than an earthquake that registers 5 on the Richter scale, and one hundred times larger than one that register 4 on the Richter scale 5

6 Magnitude Changes on the Richter Scale ,000, ,000,000 Richter Scale ,000 10,000 1, The Richter Nomogram In addition to amplitude, we must first determine the distance to the epicenter In this example, we draw a line connecting a distance of 100 km with an amplitude of 1 mm. The magnitude on the Richter scale of the earthquake is given by where this line intersects the center line of the nomogram. (page in text) 6

7 Note that an earthquake of magnitude 4 on the Richter scale at 100 km distance would have an amplitude of 10 mm, whereas one of magnitude 5 at the same 100 km distance would have an amplitude of 100 mm. A Real Example - Loma Prieta (1989) S Eureka,CA P S - P = 49 seconds Distance = 480 km Amplitude = 280 mm 7

8 P S Las Vegas, NV S - P = 64 seconds Distance = 600 km Amplitude = 100 mm P S Elko, NV S - P = 72 seconds Amplitude = 60 mm Distance = 690 km 8

9 Eureka Las Vegas Elko All 3 records give the same magnitude (as they should) of about 7.0 on the Richter scale. The Great Alaskan Earthquake A really big one! March 27, 1964 Magnitude 8.4 (possibly 9.2) Too large to accurately measure!! 9

10 Some facts and figures:- Area involved was along the boundary of the N. American and Pacific plates for about 500 miles (subduction zone). Largest recorded disturbance of the earth s surface in an arc 500 miles long and 200 miles wide (100,000 sq. miles). Average uplift = 6 feet; maximum uplift = 38 feet (50 ft. submarine). Subsidence ranged from 2 to 8 feet. Anchorage moved 6 feet to the south! Valdez moved 38 feet south!#!! Only 180 people were killed Property damage estimated at \$300 million Uplift and subsidence Eight foot uplift of fishing Pier on Prince William Sound Flooding at high tide on Cook Inlet due to 6 ft of subsidence. Shoreline moved 2 miles inland in places. 10

11 Damage caused by ground shaking Damage caused by ground slumping Ground under road slid sideways, causing road to crack open. Seward Peninsula, land slid into sea leaving bites in the coastline (also tsunami damage). 11

12 More slumping Anchorage, ground sank, leaving a graben. Detail from upper slide, showing edge of graben, which has dropped down about 6 feet. Anchorage - 11 ft subsidence Turnagain Heights - houses and ground slid 2000 ft in response to liquefaction of underlying rocks. Anchorage - landslide dropped school about 30 ft. to the left 12

13 Damage caused by fire Burning oil storage tanks at Valdez. Whole waterfront destroyed by fire. Tsunami damage Tsunami produced 40 ft waves that lashed the shoreline and continued for about 8 hours. 13

14 Summary Largest recorded movement of the earth s crust. A subduction zone related earthquake. Included all three of the major destructive characteristics of earthquakes. Fire Ground Shaking Tsunami 14

### 14. Print out the page that shows your Virtual Seismologist Certificate and ANSWERS 15. After getting all 4, turn it into the teacher.

The Process 1. Go to the website: http://www.sciencecourseware.org 2. Click on: GEOLOGY LABS ONLINE 3. Click on VIRTUAL EARTHQUAKE 4. NEXT click on: NEW: A completely revised version of Virtual Earthquake

### Locating the Epicenter and Determining the Magnitude of an Earthquake

Locating the and Determining the Magnitude of an Earthquake Locating the Measuring the S-P time interval There are hundreds of seismic data recording stations throughout the United States and the rest

### Seismic Waves Practice

1. Base your answer to the following question on the diagram below, which shows models of two types of earthquake waves. Model A best represents the motion of earthquake waves called 1) P-waves (compressional

### EARTHQUAKES. Compressional Tensional Slip-strike

Earthquakes-page 1 EARTHQUAKES Earthquakes occur along faults, planes of weakness in the crustal rocks. Although earthquakes can occur anywhere, they are most likely along crustal plate boundaries, such

Earthquakes Table of Contents Section 1 What Are Earthquakes? Section 2 Earthquake Measurement Section 3 Earthquakes and Society http://youtu.be/lcvwan8w-jo http://youtu.be/xe7mfz8dnjw Section 1 What Are

### Earthquake: A vibration caused by the sudden breaking or frictional sliding of rock in the Earth. Fault: A fracture on which one body of rock slides

Earthquake: A vibration caused by the sudden breaking or frictional sliding of rock in the Earth. Fault: A fracture on which one body of rock slides past another. Focus: The location where a fault slips

### Seismic Earthquakes. The most common quakes occur from fault lines

Earthquakes GE 4150- Natural Hazards Slides and images taken from Dr. Jim Diehl, Jason R. Evans, Joanne M. Scott and Benfiled Greig Hazard Research Centre (C471 Geohazards) Tectonic Earthquakes Seismic

### Name: Lab: Earthquake Epicenters Adapted from Exploration in Earth Science, The Physical Setting, United Publishing Company, Inc

Name: Lab: Earthquake Epicenters Adapted from Exploration in Earth Science, The Physical Setting, United Publishing Company, Inc INTRODUCTION: Earthquakes occur when there is movement along a fault. The

### Earthquakes. Earthquakes: Big Ideas. Earthquakes

Earthquakes Earthquakes: Big Ideas Humans cannot eliminate natural hazards but can engage in activities that reduce their impacts by identifying high-risk locations, improving construction methods, and

### Chapter 7 Earthquake Hazards Practice Exam and Study Guide

Chapter 7 Earthquake Hazards Practice Exam and Study Guide 1. Select from the following list, all of the factors that affect the intensity of ground shaking. a. The magnitude of the earthquake b. Rather

### Unit 4 Lesson 6 Measuring Earthquake Waves. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

Shake, Rattle, and Roll What happens during an earthquake? As plates of the lithosphere move, the stress on rocks at or near the edges of the plates increases. This stress causes faults to form. A fault

### CHAPTER 4 EARTHQUAKES

CHAPTER 4 EARTHQUAKES Important Concepts 1. An earthquake occurs when movement along a fault zone results in a sudden release of built-up strain energy in the lithosphere. Most earthquakes occur at plate

### Chapter 5: Earthquakes

Chapter 5: Earthquakes 1. Experiencing an Earthquake firsthand 2. The Science of Ghost Forests and Megaearthquakes 3. Faults, Earthquakes, and Plate Tectonics 4. Seismic Waves and Earthquake Detection

### NATURAL HAZARDS & NATURAL DISASTERS

NATURAL HAZARDS & NATURAL DISASTERS The World is always changing. Natural disasters are changes which are so great they may cause damage to the shape of the land or to the lives of people and other living

### Name Crustal Interactions E-Science Date Midterm Review Science Department

Name Crustal Interactions E-Science Date Midterm Review Science Department 1 Base your answer to the following question on the cross section below, which shows the paths of seismic waves traveling from

### Name: Date: Class: Finding Epicenters and Measuring Magnitudes Worksheet

Example Answers Name: Date: Class: Finding Epicenters and Measuring Magnitudes Worksheet Objective: To use seismic data and an interactive simulation to triangulate the location and measure the magnitude

### Section 8.1 What Is an Earthquake? This section explains what earthquakes and faults are and what causes earthquakes.

Section 8.1 What Is an Earthquake? This section explains what earthquakes and faults are and what causes earthquakes. Reading Strategy Building Vocabulary As you read this section, write a definition for

### How do scientists measure earthquakes?

Name: Source: http://www.scholastic.com/browse/article.jsp?id=4892 http://gizmodo.com/5833688/what-do-earthquake-magnitudes-mean http://www.kids-fun-science.com/moment-magnitude-scale.html http://tremor.nmt.edu/faq/how.html

### The earthquake source

Global seismology: The earthquake source Reading: Fowler p111-140 and Bolt Appendix G Earthquake location Earthquake focus: Latitude, longitude, depth Earthquake epicenter: Latitude, longitude Earthquakes

### Name Date Class. By studying the Vocabulary and Notes listed for each section below, you can gain a better understanding of this chapter.

CHAPTER 7 VOCABULARY & NOTES WORKSHEET Earthquakes By studying the Vocabulary and Notes listed for each section below, you can gain a better understanding of this chapter. SECTION 1 Vocabulary In your

### 89.325 Geology for Engineers Earthquakes

89.325 Geology for Engineers Earthquakes Name I. Introduction The crust of the earth behaves in a brittle manner. Stress is the force applied to a brittle substance and strain represents the build-up of

### Presentations. Session 1. Slide 1. Earthquake Risk Reduction. 1- Concepts & Terminology

Earthquake Risk Reduction Presentations Session 1 Slide 1 Earthquake Risk Reduction 1- Concepts & Terminology Welcome to the World Bank Institute s (WBI) Distance Learning (DL) course on Earthquake Risk

### Teacher Workbooks. Science and Nature Series Cloze Paragraphs Natural Disasters Theme, Vol. 1

Teacher Workbooks Science and Nature Series Cloze Paragraphs Natural Disasters Theme, Vol. 1 Copyright 2005 Teachnology Publishing Company A Division of Teachnology, Inc. For additional information, visit

### Earthquake Lab. A. Locate the Epicenter. Name: Lab Section:

Earthquake Lab Name: Lab Section: The goal of this portion of the lab is to learn how recording of earthquakes seismograms are used to locate earthquakes, determine their magnitudes, and to understand

### Earthquake Hazards and Risks

Page 1 of 7 EENS 3050 Tulane University Natural Disasters Prof. Stephen A. Nelson Earthquake Hazards and Risks This page last updated on 28-Aug-2013 Earthquake Risk Many seismologists have said that "earthquakes

### Earthquakes and Seismic Waves (pages 51 57)

Earthquakes and Seismic Waves (pages 51 57) Types of Seismic Waves (pages 52 53) Key Concept: Seismic waves carry energy from an earthquake away from the focus, through Earth s interior, and across the

### The Severity of an Earthquake - ---- U.S. Department of the Interior/Geological Survey

The Severity of an Earthquake - ---- U.S. Department of the Interior/Geological Survey ----~ Earthquakes can be measured in terms of either the effect of the earthquake (intensity) or of the energy released

### DYNAMIC CRUST: Unit 4 Exam Plate Tectonics and Earthquakes

DYNAMIC CRUST: Unit 4 Exam Plate Tectonics and Earthquakes NAME: BLOCK: DATE: 1. Base your answer to the following question on The block diagram below shows the boundary between two tectonic plates. Which

### EARTHQUAKE PREDICTION

Lecture 15 Earthquake Prediction EARTHQUAKE PREDICTION To successfully predict an earthquake we would like to know:- PLACE TIME MAGNITUDE (rather like a weather forecast) 1 Evidence must be integrated

### The Dynamic Crust 2) EVIDENCE FOR CRUSTAL MOVEMENT

The Dynamic Crust 1) Virtually everything you need to know about the interior of the earth can be found on page 10 of your reference tables. Take the time to become familiar with page 10 and everything

### SCIENCE 10 Unit 4: Earth Science Review

SCIENCE 10 Unit 4: Earth Science Review Use the following diagram to answer questions 1 and 2. 1. Which location has the youngest crust? A. A B. B C. C D. D 2. Which location is associated with subduction?

### Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering

Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering by Dr. Deepankar Choudhury Professor Department of Civil Engineering IIT Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400 076, India. Email: dc@civil.iitb.ac.in URL: http://www.civil.iitb.ac.in/~dc/

### Earthquakes. www.earthquakes.bgs.ac.uk

Earthquakes www.earthquakes.bgs.ac.uk Introduction Earthquakes are among the most deadly natural hazards. There are around 100 earthquakes each year of a size that could cause serious damage. They strike

### Name: Date: Period: 1. The Grand Canyon was formed by. It was carved by the. 6. Landmasses that were once separated by oceans, have collided to form

Name: Date: Period: By Jack Erickson and Sylvia Lewandowski Provided by Tasa Graphic Arts, Inc. for The Theory of Plate Tectonics CD-ROM http://www.tasagraphicarts.com/progplate.html 1. The Grand Canyon

### Earthquakes and Tsunamis By: Sue Peterson

www.k5learning.com Objective sight words (tectonic plates, terrifying, anxiety-ridden, panic, equipped, imperative, aftershocks, subsided, horrified, urgent, reassemble, disorder, winding, treacherous);

### Earthquakes. www.earthquakes.bgs.ac.uk. Seismograph stations operated by the British Geological Survey

Seismograph stations operated by the British Geological Survey Earthquakes Photograph supplied by Andy Thompson, Arup Advanced Technology, EEFIT Mission www.earthquakes.bgs.ac.uk Introduction Earthquakes

### Structure of the Earth

Structure of the Earth Have you ever wondered how Earth is put together? Most people live their lives every day. They don t think about what is under their feet. Some people wonder about Earth. They think

### Geology 112 Earthquakes. Activity 1 Worksheet Introduction to the Course. What is a Fault? What is an Earthquake?

Geology 112 Earthquakes Name Activity 1 Worksheet Introduction to the Course. What is a Fault? What is an Earthquake? Activity 1 Objectives: Introduce student to the topics, requirements and format of

### EARTHQUAKE MAGNITUDE

EARTHQUAKE MAGNITUDE Earliest measure of earthquake size Dimensionless number measured various ways, including M L local magnitude m b body wave magnitude M s surface wave magnitude M w moment magnitude

### Class Notes: Plate Tectonics

Name: Date: Period: Tectonics The Physical Setting: Earth Science Class Notes: Tectonics I. Continental Drift Continental Drift -! Pangaea -! Alfred Wegener (1915) German and Proposed the theory of! Hypothesized

### Earth and Space Science. Semester 2 Exam Review. Part 1. - Convection currents circulate in the Asthenosphere located in the Upper Mantle.

Earth and Space Science Semester 2 Exam Review Part 1 Convection -A form of heat transfer. - Convection currents circulate in the Asthenosphere located in the Upper Mantle. - Source of heat is from the

### Earthquake source mechanics

Earthquake source mechanics Lecture 6 Seismic moment Earthquake magnitude Richter magnitude scale M = log A( ) - log A 0 ( ) where A is max trace amplitude at distance and A 0 is at 100 km Surface wave

### FOURTH GRADE EARTHQUAKES 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES

FOURTH GRADE EARTHQUAKES 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES PLATE TECTONIC CYCLE OVERVIEW OF FOURTH GRADE VOLCANOES WEEK 1. PRE: Comparing different structures of volcanoes. DURING: Modeling three types

### Earthquakes: Risk & Insurance Issues

Earthquakes: Risk & Insurance Issues An earthquake is a sudden and rapid shaking of the earth caused by the breaking and shifting of rock beneath the earth s surface. This shaking can sometimes trigger

### FOURTH GRADE PLATE TECTONICS 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES

FOURTH GRADE PLATE TECTONICS 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES PLATE TECTONIC CYCLE OVERVIEW OF FOURTH GRADE VOLCANOES WEEK 1. PRE: Comparing different structures of volcanoes. LAB: Modeling three types

### Unit 6 Earthquakes and Volcanoes

Unit 6 Earthquakes and Volcanoes Earthquakes and Volcanoes: Essential Questions What evidence can students observe that the Earth is changing? How do scientists know what s inside the Earth? What processes

### Plate Tectonics: Ridges, Transform Faults and Subduction Zones

Plate Tectonics: Ridges, Transform Faults and Subduction Zones Goals of this exercise: 1. review the major physiographic features of the ocean basins 2. investigate the creation of oceanic crust at mid-ocean

### TECTONICS ASSESSMENT

Tectonics Assessment / 1 TECTONICS ASSESSMENT 1. Movement along plate boundaries produces A. tides. B. fronts. C. hurricanes. D. earthquakes. 2. Which of the following is TRUE about the movement of continents?

### 1. Notice that there are two predominate colors on this map. What are the elevations represented by these two primary colors on this map?

Geology 101 Plate Tectonics Study Guide Addendum Part I: Observations- Four maps of world are positioned around the room. Answer the questions associated with each map and record your general observations

### Magnitude 8.8 OFFSHORE MAULE, CHILE

A great 8.8-magnitude struck central Chile early Saturday. The quake hit 200 miles (325 kilometers) southwest of the capital Santiago. The epicenter was just 70 miles (115 kilometers) from Concepcion,

### Q1. Someone was sitting on one of these Mars bars for a while! Which one? How do you know? Q2. What do you think made the Mars bar go soft?

STRESSED OUT! People say they re stressed when they are under pressure. But other things get stressed too... Look at what happened when we tried to break these Mars bars. A B Q. Someone was sitting on

### SECTION 6 Geotechnical Engineering Field Investigation

SECTION 6 Geotechnical Engineering Field Investigation Equipment to Take 1. Hand-held inclinometer. 2. Optical survey equipment. 3. Maps. Every effort should be made to acquire a reasonable topographic

### Glossary. continental crust: the sections of crust, the outermost layer of the earth, that include the continents

aftershock: an earthquake that follows a larger earthquake or main shock and originates in or near the rupture zone of the larger earthquake. Generally, major earthquakes are followed by a number of aftershocks

### Task: Your task is to use earthquake data to map a possible fault line and then evaluate the risk of damage from earthquakes near this fault line.

Name Date Per Task: Your task is to use earthquake data to map a possible fault line and then evaluate the risk of damage from earthquakes near this fault line. Materials: Seismograms showing the arrival

### Earthquakes Volcanoes Mountains

Earthquakes Volcanoes Mountains Sea Floor Spreading Where is it located? How does it form? How does it change the Earth s surface? Earthquakes Where are earthquakes located? Most earthquakes happen around

### Seismographs. Lesson 7. Seismographs recording activity on Kilauea

Seismographs Lesson 7 E arthquakes generate seismic waves that travel all around the world and can be detected by sensitive instruments called seismographs. The earliest instrument to detect earthquakes

### Georgia Performance Standards Framework for Natural Disasters 6 th Grade

The following instructional plan is part of a GaDOE collection of Unit Frameworks, Performance Tasks, examples of Student Work, and Teacher Commentary. Many more GaDOE approved instructional plans are

### EARTH SCIENCE ACTIVITY #1 Tsunami in a Bottle

EARTH SCIENCE ACTIVITY #1 Tsunami in a Bottle Grades 3 and Up This activity is one of several in a basic curriculum designed to increase student knowledge about earthquake science and preparedness. The

### Magnitude 7.2 GUERRERO, MEXICO

A powerful magnitude-7.2 earthquake shook central and southern Mexico on Friday. The earthquake occurred at a depth of 24 km (15 miles). Its epicenter was in the western state of Guerrero, near the seaside

### Evaluating an Illinois Earthquake

Evaluating an Illinois Earthquake Grade Level: 7-8 Adapted from an activity by Robert A. Bauer, GeoActivity HAZD-1, ISGS GeoActivities Series, Activities and Other Resources for Teaching Geology, Illinois

### Study Guide Questions Earth Structure and Plate Tectonics

Study Guide Questions Earth Structure and Plate Tectonics What evidence did Alfred Wegener present in 1912 to support the idea of continental drift? Why did most geologists at the time dismiss Wegener

### -4- Wa vereflected at core-mantle boundary (e.g. ScS) i

2.3 VELOCITY STRUCTURE OF THE EARTH In the following years, increasingly sophisticated models were developed. It became possible to compute travel time curves for media where velocity varies continously

### Chapter 7 Earthquake Hazards

Chapter 7 Earthquake Hazards by G.H. Girty, Department of Geological Sciences, San Diego State University Page 1 Introduction Any given earthquake produced by slip along a fault can produce a number of

### Tsunami Practice Questions and Answers Revised November 2008

Tsunami Practice Questions and Answers Revised November 2008 1. What happened on 26 December 2004 off the west coast of Sumatra? 2. What is the final estimate of the magnitude of the Sumatra 26 December

### Earthquakes: Risk and Insurance Issues

Page 1 of 8 HOT TOPICS & INSURANCE ISSUES Earthquakes: Risk and Insurance Issues THE TOPIC JULY 2003 An earthquake is a sudden and rapid shaking of the earth caused by the breaking and shifting of rock

### EARTHQUAKE. Definition of Hazard. History of Hazard as it Affects the City of Kent. Hazard Identification

EARTHQUAKE Definition of Hazard Earthquakes are defined as the sudden release of energy occurring from the collision or shifting of crustal plates on the earth s surface or from the fracture of stressed

### Lab 8A: Investigating Tectonic Plate Boundaries Using Online Geospatial Technology. MAP URL:

Lab 8A: Investigating Tectonic Plate Boundaries Using Online Geospatial Technology NAME: PERIOD: SCORE: Activity: Discover and investigate tectonic plate boundaries by analyzing maps showing seismic and

### Interactive Plate Tectonics

Interactive Plate Tectonics Directions: Go to the following website and complete the questions below. http://www.learner.org/interactives/dynamicearth/index.html How do scientists learn about the interior

### Regents Questions: Plate Tectonics

Earth Science Regents Questions: Plate Tectonics Name: Date: Period: August 2013 Due Date: 17 Compared to the oceanic crust, the continental crust is (1) less dense and more basaltic (3) more dense and

### How Did These Ocean Features and Continental Margins Form?

298 10.14 INVESTIGATION How Did These Ocean Features and Continental Margins Form? The terrain below contains various features on the seafloor, as well as parts of three continents. Some general observations

### HAZARD MAPPING, RISK ASSESSMENT, AND INSURANCE COVERAGE OF NATURAL CATASTROPHE RISK

SESSION III HAZARD MAPPING, RISK ASSESSMENT, AND INSURANCE COVERAGE OF NATURAL CATASTROPHE RISK Mr. Sumarjono Insurance Bureau of The Ministry of Finance of the Republic of Indonesia Geological Position

### GLG 110 ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY AND NATURAL DISASTERS WITH LAB

GLG 110 ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY AND NATURAL DISASTERS WITH LAB (TITLE CHANGE ONLY OCT. 2013) PRESENTED AND APPROVED: DECEMBER 7, 2012 EFFECTIVE: FALL 2013-14 Prefix & Number GLG 110 Course Title: Environmental

### Shake, Rattle, and Roll. Tina Moore, Denise Robinette, & Matt Utz

Shake, Rattle, and Roll Tina Moore, Denise Robinette, & Matt Utz Shake, Rattle, and Roll - Earthquakes Lesson Plan - Day One I. Objective: A. Student will be able to read and label a two axis graph. B.

### AP ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 2014 SCORING GUIDELINES

AP ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 2014 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 3 (a) Japan, Indonesia, and the Philippines are examples of volcanic island chains that have formed along subduction zones between plates in the

### Joy of Science Experience the evolution of the Universe, Earth and Life

Joy of Science Experience the evolution of the Universe, Earth and Life Review Introduction Main contents Quiz Unless otherwise noted, all pictures are taken from wikipedia.org Review 1 Which is not included

### February 28 Earthquake: We got off easy

February 28 Earthquake: We got off easy State Geologist John Beaulieu Lucky may not be the first word that comes to mind after an earthquake that injured more than 200 and caused more than \$1 billion damage,

### Oxfam Education Lesson 3: Earthquake - definitions Age Range: 7-11 years Time: 1 hour. Outline

Lesson 3: Earthquake - definitions Age Range: 7-11 years Time: 1 hour Outline Pupils will consider what kind of questions about the Haiti earthquake geographical story they have asked: easy to answer,

### Learn Words About a New Subject

Words About Earthquakes Learn Words About a New Subject Materials Needed Student Reproducibles, pp. 287 288 Transparency 2, p. 416 Getting Started Mystery Word of the Week Clue 1 We first felt the earthquake

### Use this document for reference. Answer questions on a separate sheet of paper. Introduction to Plate Tectonics

Use this document for reference. Answer questions on a separate sheet of paper. Introduction to Plate Tectonics In this lab you will learn the basics of plate tectonics, including locations of the plate

### LESSON PLAN 2. Key Terms and Concepts. continental crust convection currents convergent plates divergent plates. Purposes. Objectives.

LESSON PLAN 2 Plates of the World Earthquakes 6 8 Young people will understand where most seismic activity occurs and why by learning about the plates of the earth. Key Terms and Concepts Earthquake Science

### Earthquakes: Interesting Facts and F.A.Q.

Earthquakes: Interesting Facts and F.A.Q. Earthquakes kill approximately 8,000 people each year and have caused an estimated 13 million deaths in the past 4,000 years. The moment magnitude scale (MMS)

### How do you compare numbers? On a number line, larger numbers are to the right and smaller numbers are to the left.

The verbal answers to all of the following questions should be memorized before completion of pre-algebra. Answers that are not memorized will hinder your ability to succeed in algebra 1. Number Basics

### Unit: Restless Earth Lesson: Earth s Interior

Melissa Duran, Hoover Middle School, San Jose, CA 1/9/03 Bay Area Science Museum Collaboratory Project Unit: Restless Earth Lesson: Earth s Interior Introduction Standards: 1.b, 7.e Objectives Students

### Lecture 21 Mount St. Helens

Lecture 21 Mount St. Helens Debris Avalanches Volcanoes are not very stable structures. From time to time, they collapse producing large rock and ash avalanches that travel at high speeds down valleys.

### 8-3.1 Summarize the three layers of Earth crust, mantle, and core on the basis of relative position, density, and composition.

Earth s Structure and Processes 8-3 The student will demonstrate an understanding of materials that determine the structure of Earth and the processes that have altered this structure. 8-3.1 Summarize

### ABSG Consulting, Tokyo, Japan Email: tkubo@absconsulting.co.jp 2. Professor, Kogakuin University, Tokyo, Japan 3

Application of Earthquake Early Warning System and Real-time Strong-motion Monitoring System to Earthquake Disaster Mitigation of a High-Rise Building in Tokyo, Japan Tomohiro Kubo 1, Yoshiaki Hisada 2,

### TSUNAMI DAMAGE TO OIL STORAGE TANKS

TSUNAMI DAMAGE TO OIL STORAGE TANKS Y. Goto Senior researcher, Institute of Environment and Disaster Research, Fuji Tokoha University, Fuji City, Shizuoka, Japan Email:gotoyozo@mti.biglobe.ne.jp ABSTRACT

### Rapid Changes in Earth s Surface

TEKS investigate rapid changes in Earth s surface such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and landslides Rapid Changes in Earth s Surface Constant Changes Earth s surface is constantly changing. Wind,

### DISASTER RESISTANCE EARTHQUAKES AND STRUCTURES

DISASTER RESISTANCE EARTHQUAKES AND STRUCTURES EARTHQUAKES Origin of earthquakes The earth was a single land about two hundred million years ago. This land split progressively over a long period of time

### Plate Tectonic Boundaries

Plate Tectonic Boundaries The Crust (The surface) The thin rigid outermost layer of the Earth is the crust. The thinnest crust (oceanic) is 3 miles and the thickest (continental) is 50 miles. The Mantle

### Seismic Waves and Earth s Structure

Earth s Interior EARTHQUAKES Seismic Waves and Earth s Structure Abrupt changes in seismic-wave velocities that occur at particular depths helped seismologists conclude that Earth must be composed of distinct

### Reading Science! Name: Date: Tectonic Plates

Name: ate: Tectonic Plates 6.10: Tectonic Plates 1 2 On March 11, 2011, an earthquake measuring 8.9 on the Richter Scale shook the ocean floor. It made a giant wave which grew up to 30 feet (9.14 meters)

### Earthquake Preparedness Tips & Strategies

Earthquake Preparedness Tips & Strategies What to Do BEFORE an Earthquake What to Do DURING an Earthquake BE PREPARED! For more information, log onto: www.gema.ga.gov www.ready.ga.gov www.geophysics.eas.gatech.edu

### Plate tectonics states that the Earth's crust and upper mantle are broken into sections, called plates.

Notes on Plate Tectonics Plate tectonics states that the Earth's crust and upper mantle are broken into sections, called plates. These plates move around the mantle. Plates are composed of the crust and

### Activity #1-HS What is a Seismometer? High School Level

Activity #1-HS What is a Seismometer? High School Level Objective Students will learn that a seismometer detects 3 components of motion and that a seismogram is the record of an earthquake. Background

### II. Earth Science (Geology) Section (9/18/2013)

EAPS 100 Planet Earth Lecture Topics Brief Outlines II. Earth Science (Geology) Section (9/18/2013) 1. Interior of the Earth Learning objectives: Understand the structure of the Earth s interior crust,

### Earthquakes. Was anyone hur t? 358 Chuck Nacke/TimeLife Pictures/Getty Images

Academic Standard 3: Students collect and organize data to identify relationships between physical objects, events, and processes. They use logical reasoning to question their own ideas as new information

### Earthquakes and Plate Boundaries Deborah Jordan and Samuel Spiegel

Earthquakes and Plate Boundaries Deborah Jordan and Samuel Spiegel Jordan, Deborah and Spiegel, Samuel: Learning Research Development Center, University of Pittsburgh. Earthquakes and Plate Boundaries.