Presentations. Session 1. Slide 1. Earthquake Risk Reduction. 1- Concepts & Terminology

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Presentations. Session 1. Slide 1. Earthquake Risk Reduction. 1- Concepts & Terminology"

Transcription

1 Earthquake Risk Reduction Presentations Session 1 Slide 1 Earthquake Risk Reduction 1- Concepts & Terminology Welcome to the World Bank Institute s (WBI) Distance Learning (DL) course on Earthquake Risk Reduction. This presentation is the first of three PowerPoint sessions of the course. In this first presentation, we will provide an overview of the entire ERR process, and introduce key concepts and terminology. This session is followed by a session on Hazard, Vulnerability and Risk Assessment, and the third session pulls everything together, to show how to develop a Mitigation, or Earthquake Risk Reduction, program. Slide 2 Earthquakes cause death and destruction this is the fundamental problem. In order to manage this problem, we need to understand how and why earthquakes occur, and how and why they cause damage. This presentation provides an overview of earthquakes and their effects, and how the earthquake problem can be managed. The earthquake problem is managed via the Earthquake Risk Reduction process. This slide shows the biggest earthquakes of the last threedecade. Slide 3 These are some of the key words used in this presentation. All key words are defined in the Glossary provided as part of the Course. Each presentation will begin with a listing of key words. For this introductory session the key terms are: Plate Tectonics, Subduction, Fault (i.e., Earthquake Fault), Seismotectonics, Magnitude, Intensity, Vulnerability and Risk Management Slide 4 We begin with the cause of earthquakes. This is a map of the world, with earthquake activity (or seismicity) for the period (source: USGS). Each dot represents an earthquake, color-coded by depth (shown at the right, in kms) note that most are orange, meaning they are shallow earthquakes, which cause the most damage. Certain blocks of the earth, such as Africa, and the Pacific Ocean, are outlined by earthquakes, with very few earthquakes within the outline. These blocks are termed plates, and the science of studying these plates is called plate tectonics (i.e., plate structure ). The actual plates are shown more clearly on the next slide. Slide 5 This shows the plates more clearly there are large plates, such as the Eurasian, Pacific and North American Plates, and smaller plates, such as the Philippine Sea, Cocos and Nazca plates. These plates are all moving, as shown on the next slide. The arrows on each of the larger plates 1

2 show the relative motions of the various plates the Pacific Plate for example, is moving towards Japan, as is the Eurasian plate, with the Philippine Sea plate caught in between. This forces the Philippine Sea plate to slide along the Philippines, and go under Japan (i.e., is subducted under Japan). Similar situations exist elsewhere, such as for the Philippine archipelago, where the Philippine Sea Plate is subducting under the archipelago on the east, and the Eurasian Plate is subducting under the archipelago on the west. In fact, the Philippines is on a wedge of crust Along the west coast of South America, the Nazca Plate is being forced under the South American Plate, whereas along the west coast of North American, the relative motion of the Pacific and North American Plates is such that the Pacific Plate is generally sliding sideways along the North American Plate. (More detailed information on Plate motions can be found at website) Slide 6 This slide shows the entire plate tectonic process, including how one plate goes under, or is subducted under, another plate. Heat in the center of the earth causes molten lava to rise along a mid-ocean trench. When the lava reaches the surface, it cools, solidifies, and becomes crust material. However, more lava rising beneath, forces the lave to the sides. Over millions of years, the lava moves across the surface of the earth, until it meets another plate, at a plate boundary. At that boundary, the two plates may slide past one another, or one plate may be forced under (be subducted) the other plate. The sliding and subduction of the plates is not smooth as they move, their bumping and grinding causes vibrations to be transmitted within the earth. We feel these vibrations, and call them EARTHQUAKES. Earthquakes occur with the Plate (Intraslab) as it bends under the other Plate; even large earthquakes occur due to the sliding of one Plate past another (Interslab); and smaller shallow earthquakes occur with the crust (Crustal) away from the subduction zone, since the crust there is still stressed by the subduction process. This is the cause of most earthquakes the process is termed SEISMOGENESIS (from seismo, meaning earthquake, and genesis, meaning origin). Slide 7 There are a number of effects of earthquakes, all of which can cause damage these are termed agents of damage. The initial agent of damage is the actual displacement of the plates, along a fault. A fault may be the actual plate boundary, or other cracks in the earth, more or less subsidiary to a plate boundary. When an earthquake occurs, the plates move, and if you have one leg on each side of the fault, your legs are moved relative to each other, just as if you put only one foot on an escalator. If you don t do something you, or the building on the fault, will fall down, or collapse. Fault movement under the ocean floor can displace cubic km of water, causing a massive wave, termed a Tsunami, to occur. The Dec. 26, 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami killed more than 250,000 persons. After faulting, the primary earthquake agent of damage is shaking, which is the vibration in the earth s crust due to the fault movement. Other agents of damage include liquefaction (soft loose soil when shaken becomes like a liquid), fire following earthquake, and landsliding. Slide 8 Measuring earthquakes is a first necessary step in understanding them. A number of methods for measuring earthquakes have been developed, but the most common measure today is the Moment Magnitude scale, denoted Mw. Magnitude refers to the size of an earthquake, and is computed from the total energy of the event. On Moment Magnitude scale, a Mw 6 is a damaging earthquake, Mw 7 is a major earthquake, and Mw 8 a potentially catastrophic earthquake. The Dec. 26, 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake was approximately Mw 9, and the third largest 2

3 earthquake to occur since By the way, the moment magnitude scale is different from the Richter scale. Charles Richter defined the concept of earthquake magnitude in 1935, but now the moment magnitude scale is generally preferred over the Richter or other magnitude scales. Slide 9 While magnitude is a measure of the overall size of an earthquake, any one earthquake will have effects at many locations virtually everywhere. The effects at each location are measured on the Intensity scale there have been many intensity scales developed the most common is the Modified Mercalli Intensity (MMI) scale, but various scales are used in various countries. Slide 10 This shows the PHIVOLCS Earthquake Intensity Scale (PEIS), used to measure seismic intensity in the Philippines. It is similar to the MMI scale, but modified somewhat for Philippine-specific conditions. Note that Roman Numerals are used. Intensity scales like MMI, MSK etc are not instrumentally measured, but rather are estimated based on damage, human reactions and other indicators. Roman rather than Arabic numbers are therefore used, to indicate their subjective nature. MMI is used in the USA and many other countries. Other scales include the Ross-Forel scale, used in Italy and sometimes in the USA; MSK (Medvedev-Sponheuer-Karnik), developed in the Soviet Union, and used in Europe and some other regions; and JMA, only used in Japan, or by Japanese investigators researching earthquakes overseas. Slide 11 The slide shows the MMI scale and as was mentioned Roman Numerals are used to describe the intensity of the earthquakes. The intensity is subjectively measured by damages caused and human reactions, etc. For example, earthquake intensity V on MMI scale is when almost everyone feels the movement, sleeping people are awakened, doors swing open or close, dishes are broken, pictures on the wall move, small objects move or are turned over, trees might shake, liquids might spill out of open containers. Slide 12 Buildings and other structures are vulnerable to earthquakes and measuring the vulnerability of structures is a key step towards managing their vulnerability. Note that vulnerability is used here in a technical sense. The term vulnerability has several meanings in natural hazards, and is sometimes used to refer to the social vulnerability of a population (rather than the physical vulnerability of a structure), and is sometimes used to refer to the overall set of characteristics of a population or community, that make them vulnerable. Slide 13 In order to measure seismic vulnerability, let s first define this term: Seismic Vulnerability is the degree of damage or loss caused by a given level of seismic intensity. Seismic vulnerability depends on the materials, age, condition and structural layout of a building or other structure. Weak brittle materials, such as adobe, unreinforced masonry, and older reinforced concrete buildings, are very likely to be damaged in an earthquake they have high vulnerability. 3

4 Steel, wood and newer reinforced concrete buildings are less likely to be damaged in an earthquake they have low vulnerability. Slide 14 Quantifying, or measuring, seismic vulnerability, can be done in several ways basically, analytically, or statistically. Analytical models involve development of detailed engineering analysis models of a structure, based on detailed data for that structure, which is compiled in equations, analyzed in a computer and presented in terms of displacements as a function of accelerations (Sa). This work needs to be done by an engineer it is rather time-consuming and expensive, but is very accurate. It is justified when the structure is important, such as a school, city hall, high-rise building, dam, powerplant, etc. The other approach is more general, and involves collecting damage data from several earthquakes, for similar types of buildings, such as houses, and analyzing these statistics to develop correlations of the damage. This approach is less expensive, but is rather general, and provides only average damageability or vulnerability information for a specific building, based on its structural type. The two approaches are analogous to a detailed physical exam by a doctor, versus determining a person s likelihood of a heart attack based only on age and weight. Slide 15 Example of seismic vulnerability of three general building types URM is unreinforced masonry, which will have on average about 50% damage at MMI X; RC Shear Wall is a reinforced concrete building with shear walls, which will have on average 30% damage at MMI X, and Wood Frame is a typical stud wall house, which will on average have about 20% damage at MMI X. Sources of information on structural vulnerability include the literature (e.g., the ATC-13 and HAZUS publications), empirical data, and detailed structural evaluations. Structural engineers determine structural vulnerability. Slide 16 Risk or Loss estimation is the quantification of the loss in value of assets as a result of an earthquake. The estimation of potential loss is a basic first step in managing earthquake risk. It begins with the identification of ASSETS at risk these assets may be people, property, profits or anything else of value. DAMAGE is the physical degradation of these assets (e.g., cracks in the wall). LOSS is the reduction in value of these assets, and might be quantified in terms of the cost of repairs. RISK is the uncertainty in the value of that loss the loss might be small, it might be large, one does not immediately really know which it will be. RISK or LOSS ESTIMATION is the quantification of earthquake loss. Please note that the terms damage and loss are used differently than in other courses of the program (in other courses damage is the impact on stock, or assets and loss is the impact on flows) Slide 17 Once earthquake Risk (i.e., potential Loss) has been estimated, it can be determined if the potential loss is Acceptable, or Not. The determination of Acceptable Risk is complex, and usually decided by a group composed of those who are responsible for the buildings or other structures (ie, the owners ), and those who occupy those buildings or other structures (ie, the risk-bearers ). A risk that is usually NOT acceptable is the probable collapse of buildings in an earthquake. If Not Acceptable, then the risk must be reduced, or mitigated. Since loss is the product of asset value times hazard times vulnerability, each of these factors provides an opportunity to reduce potential loss. That is, breaking the chain of loss causation reduces risk. 4

5 Slide 18 Earthquake Risk Reduction is the process of reducing earthquake risk. The process consists of an initial assessment of the problem, including identifying the assets at risk; more detailed analysis of the risk (i.e., the expected loss); development of a mitigation program; implementation of the program; and maintenance of the program. Each of these aspects is covered in more detail in the next Sessions. Slide 19 The goal of Earthquake Risk Reduction is not to find A SOLUTION, but rather to find the best solution. Best implies decision-making. Decision-making consists of two basic steps: quantifying or Estimating the Risk, and Examining Mitigation Alternatives. If the Risk is not acceptable, and the cost of mitigating the risk is less than the potential Loss, then mitigation is beneficial, and warranted. 5

Volcanoes and Earthquakes. For two-column notes, underlined titles are main ideas

Volcanoes and Earthquakes. For two-column notes, underlined titles are main ideas Volcanoes and Earthquakes For two-column notes, underlined titles are main ideas Volcanoes Volcanoes A mountain that forms in the Earth s crust when magma (molten material) reaches the surface and cools

More information

Mw 7.8, Muisne, Ecuador Fri, 16 April 2016 at 23:58:37 UTC M /04/16

Mw 7.8, Muisne, Ecuador Fri, 16 April 2016 at 23:58:37 UTC M /04/16 Earthquake overview Caribbean plate A moment magnitude Mw 7.8 earthquake was registered offshore of the west coast of northern Ecuador Epicentre was located 170km (105.6mi) north west of the capital city

More information

Stick-slip: Elastic Rebound Theory

Stick-slip: Elastic Rebound Theory Earthquake Machine Stick-slip: Elastic Rebound Theory Jerky motions on faults produce EQs Three Fs of earthquakes: forces, faults, and friction. Slow accumulation and rapid release of elastic energy. World

More information

Volcanoes and Earthquakes. Part 1: Volcanoes

Volcanoes and Earthquakes. Part 1: Volcanoes Volcanoes and Earthquakes Part 1: Volcanoes Introduction Earth s crust is made of cool, solid rock. Yet, most of Earth is made of extremely hot rock in the mantle and liquid metal in the core. Sometimes,

More information

Magnitude 7.6 OFFSHORE LOS LAGOS, CHILE

Magnitude 7.6 OFFSHORE LOS LAGOS, CHILE A magnitude 7.6 earthquake has occurred near the southern tip of Chiloe Island in southern Chile. There are no immediate reports of deaths. There are reports of landslides and some damage to highways.

More information

Earthquakes. Terminology of Earthquakes. Elastic Rebound Theory. Geol 104: Earthquakes. What are they? What causes them?

Earthquakes. Terminology of Earthquakes. Elastic Rebound Theory. Geol 104: Earthquakes. What are they? What causes them? Earthquakes What are they? An earthquake is a trembling or shaking of the ground. What causes them? Earthquakes are caused by the sudden release of stored [elastic] strain energy by brittle fracture. Terminology

More information

The Sendai Earthquake an update

The Sendai Earthquake an update Geography Today The Sendai Earthquake an update Professor David Petley Executive Director, Institute of Hazard, Risk and Resilience, Durham University, United Kingdom Email: d.n.petley@durham.ac.uk Why

More information

Earthquakes and Volcanoes

Earthquakes and Volcanoes Chapter Review Earthquakes and Volcanoes Part A. Vocabulary Review Directions: Write the correct term in the spaces after each definition. Unscramble the boxed letters to answer question 17. 1. wave that

More information

Earthquakes. Earthquakes. Earth s Interior. Earthquake Fracture. Earthquake Energy. Earthquake Terms

Earthquakes. Earthquakes. Earth s Interior. Earthquake Fracture. Earthquake Energy. Earthquake Terms Earthquake Terms Chapter 13 Earthquakes Earthquake Seismic Wave Focus Epicenter Body wave P-wave S-wave Surface wave Rayleigh wave Love wave Seismometer Seismograph Richter Magnitude Moment magnitude Subduction

More information

Unit 4 Lesson 5 Earthquakes. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

Unit 4 Lesson 5 Earthquakes. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Let s Focus What is an earthquake? Earthquakes are ground movements that occur when blocks of rock in Earth move suddenly and release energy. The energy is released as seismic waves that cause the ground

More information

Types of Plate Boundaries. Prentice Hall-Inside Earth, pages 34-35

Types of Plate Boundaries. Prentice Hall-Inside Earth, pages 34-35 Types of Plate Boundaries Prentice Hall-Inside Earth, pages 34-35 The Theory of Plate Tectonics All pieces of the Earth s lithosphere are in slow, constant motion, driven by convection currents in the

More information

FORCES ON EARTH UNIT 3.2. An investigation into how Newton s Laws of Motion are applied to the tectonic activity on Earth.

FORCES ON EARTH UNIT 3.2. An investigation into how Newton s Laws of Motion are applied to the tectonic activity on Earth. FORCES ON EARTH UNIT 3.2 An investigation into how Newton s Laws of Motion are applied to the tectonic activity on Earth. GEOLOGY Geologists scientists who study the forces that make and shape the Earth

More information

EARTHQUAKES & VOLCANOES

EARTHQUAKES & VOLCANOES EARTHQUAKES & VOLCANOES EFFECTS OF PLATE TECTONICS When plates move, they bump into each other Depending on the type of plate boundary, different deformations result Two special events/formations happen

More information

Earthquakes. Measuring the Strength of Earthquakes: Richter Scale 9-1. Even if there isn t a fault initially in place one can still get an earthquake:

Earthquakes. Measuring the Strength of Earthquakes: Richter Scale 9-1. Even if there isn t a fault initially in place one can still get an earthquake: 9-1 Earthquakes Unfortunately, faults blocks do not slide smoothly by each other. Friction between the blocks will lock them into place for a time. Even if there isn t a fault initially in place one can

More information

Q1. Someone was sitting on one of these Mars bars for a while! Which one? How do you know? Q2. What do you think made the Mars bar go soft?

Q1. Someone was sitting on one of these Mars bars for a while! Which one? How do you know? Q2. What do you think made the Mars bar go soft? STRESSED OUT! People say they re stressed when they are under pressure. But other things get stressed too... Look at what happened when we tried to break these Mars bars. A B Q. Someone was sitting on

More information

Earth and Space Science. Semester 2 Exam Review. Part 1. - Convection currents circulate in the Asthenosphere located in the Upper Mantle.

Earth and Space Science. Semester 2 Exam Review. Part 1. - Convection currents circulate in the Asthenosphere located in the Upper Mantle. Earth and Space Science Semester 2 Exam Review Part 1 Convection -A form of heat transfer. - Convection currents circulate in the Asthenosphere located in the Upper Mantle. - Source of heat is from the

More information

Interactive Plate Tectonics

Interactive Plate Tectonics Interactive Plate Tectonics Directions: Go to the following website and complete the questions below. http://www.learner.org/interactives/dynamicearth/index.html How do scientists learn about the interior

More information

An introduction to processes at plate boundaries

An introduction to processes at plate boundaries Student tasks 1. Draw diagrams of the three main types of plate boundary. a. Destructive plate boundary b. Constructive plate boundary www.teachitgeography.co.uk 2016 25655 Page 1 of 5 c. Conservative

More information

4 Deforming the Earth s Crust

4 Deforming the Earth s Crust CHAPTER 4 4 Deforming the Earth s Crust SECTION Plate Tectonics BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What happens when rock is placed under stress?

More information

Earthquakes and Volcanoes

Earthquakes and Volcanoes Earthquakes and Volcanoes Earthquakes What are earthquakes? Imagine bending a stick until it breaks. When the stick snaps, it vibrates, releasing energy. Earthquakes release energy in a similar way. Earthquakes

More information

EARTHQUAKES THE BIG IDEA REVIEW VOCABULARY CHAPTER 6. So What?! 11/16/2015. fault LESSON 1: EARTHQUAKES AND PLATE BOUNDARIES. Normal S.A.F.

EARTHQUAKES THE BIG IDEA REVIEW VOCABULARY CHAPTER 6. So What?! 11/16/2015. fault LESSON 1: EARTHQUAKES AND PLATE BOUNDARIES. Normal S.A.F. EARTHQUAKES CHAPTER 6 THE BIG IDEA Earthquakes cause seismic waves that can be devastating to humans and other organisms. Lesson 1: Earthquakes and Plate Boundaries Most earthquakes occur at plate boundaries

More information

TECTONICS ASSESSMENT

TECTONICS ASSESSMENT Tectonics Assessment / 1 TECTONICS ASSESSMENT 1. Movement along plate boundaries produces A. tides. B. fronts. C. hurricanes. D. earthquakes. 2. Which of the following is TRUE about the movement of continents?

More information

Earthquakes Module 1. - How Are Earthquakes Created? -

Earthquakes Module 1. - How Are Earthquakes Created? - 1 2 - How Are Earthquakes Created? - Hugh plates shape earth's surface Plates move slowly Plates can lock together Energy accumulates Energy is released Sudden and rapid shaking of the ground 3 1 - Characteristics

More information

Earthquake Hazards and Effects

Earthquake Hazards and Effects BUILDING SCIENCES SEMINAR: MULTIHAZARD DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS Earthquake Hazards and Effects Christopher Arnold, FAIA,RIBA Course Objectives Participants will be able to: Understand the nature of earthquakes

More information

Magnitude 7.2 GUERRERO, MEXICO

Magnitude 7.2 GUERRERO, MEXICO A powerful magnitude-7.2 earthquake shook central and southern Mexico on Friday. The earthquake occurred at a depth of 24 km (15 miles). Its epicenter was in the western state of Guerrero, near the seaside

More information

PHSC 1011 Fall 2016 L05 1. Plate Tectonics. This lecture will help you understand: Chapter 21 Lecture

PHSC 1011 Fall 2016 L05 1. Plate Tectonics. This lecture will help you understand: Chapter 21 Lecture Chapter 21 Lecture Plate Tectonics This lecture will help you understand: : Folds and Faults L05 1 Plate tectonics is the unifying theory that explains the dramatic, changing surface features of the Earth.

More information

Earthquake Revision. Why do some earthquakes cause more damage than others?

Earthquake Revision. Why do some earthquakes cause more damage than others? Earthquake Revision What is an Earthquake? Earthquakes are vibrations in the earth's crust they occur along all plate boundaries but are more destructive usually at destructive plate boundaries Where do

More information

Magnitude 9.0 NEAR THE EAST COAST OF HONSHU, JAPAN

Magnitude 9.0 NEAR THE EAST COAST OF HONSHU, JAPAN Japan was struck by a magnitude 9.0 earthquake off its northeastern coast Friday. This is one of the largest earthquakes that Japan has ever experienced. In downtown Tokyo, large buildings shook violently

More information

Tectonic processes. 2.1 Where do earthquakes and volcanoes occur?

Tectonic processes. 2.1 Where do earthquakes and volcanoes occur? 2 Tectonic processes In this chapter you will study: how the Earth s crust is broken into different types of tectonic s what type of tectonic activity occurs at the boundaries what can happen during earthquakes

More information

Magnitude 7.8 SW OF SUMATRA, INDONESIA

Magnitude 7.8 SW OF SUMATRA, INDONESIA A 7.8 magnitude earthquake occurred 800 km off the west coast of southern Sumatra, Indonesia, as a result of strike-slip faulting within the mantle lithosphere of the Indo-Australia Plate. There are currently

More information

Earthquake: A vibration caused by the sudden breaking or frictional sliding of rock in the Earth. Fault: A fracture on which one body of rock slides

Earthquake: A vibration caused by the sudden breaking or frictional sliding of rock in the Earth. Fault: A fracture on which one body of rock slides Earthquake: A vibration caused by the sudden breaking or frictional sliding of rock in the Earth. Fault: A fracture on which one body of rock slides past another. Focus: The location where a fault slips

More information

2015 San Andreas Movie Los Angeles Earthquake

2015 San Andreas Movie Los Angeles Earthquake 2015 San Andreas Movie Japan 2011 Earthquake Footage Japan 2011 Tsunami Footage 2014 Los Angeles Earthquake 1 Earthquakes a rapid release of built up elastic energy that travels via seismic waves the study

More information

Magnitude 7.7 SOLOMON ISLANDS

Magnitude 7.7 SOLOMON ISLANDS A 7.7 magnitude earthquake struck offshore in the Solomon Islands. The earthquake occurred less than 30 kilometers off the island of Makira, at a depth of 48.7 km (30.3 miles), and 70 kilometers southwest

More information

Earthquakes and Tsunamis: The Thunder From Down Under

Earthquakes and Tsunamis: The Thunder From Down Under Buffalo Geosciences Program: Lesson Plan#3 Earthquakes and Tsunamis: The Thunder From Down Under Objectives: To have an understanding of Earthquakes and making the connections between earthquakes and the

More information

Section 1 What Are Earthquakes?

Section 1 What Are Earthquakes? Section 1 What Are Earthquakes? Key Concept Sudden motions along breaks in Earth s crust can release energy in the form of seismic waves. What You Will Learn Earthquakes are ground motions that result

More information

Earthquakes. Copyright 2008 LessonSnips

Earthquakes. Copyright 2008 LessonSnips Earthquakes Have you ever watched raindrops fall onto a lake? Each droplet forms ripples after it hits the water. The ripples move out from the center in all directions. Earthquake waves move in the same

More information

The Theory of Plate Tectonics

The Theory of Plate Tectonics CHAPTER 10 Plate Tectonics SECTION 2 The Theory of Plate Tectonics KEY IDEAS As you read this section, keep these questions in mind: What is the theory of tectonics? What are the three types of boundaries?

More information

Class Notes: Plate Tectonics

Class Notes: Plate Tectonics Name: Date: Period: Tectonics The Physical Setting: Earth Science Class Notes: Tectonics I. Continental Drift Continental Drift -! Pangaea -! Alfred Wegener (1915) German and Proposed the theory of! Hypothesized

More information

Exam #3 - All numbered questions are given equal weight in the multiple choice part.

Exam #3 - All numbered questions are given equal weight in the multiple choice part. Exam #3 - All numbered questions are given equal weight in the multiple choice part. Multiple Choice Mark only one answer for each question. 1) On a global map of earthquakes, the locations of the earthquakes

More information

8. Earth's Moving Plates

8. Earth's Moving Plates 8. Earth's Moving Plates Many of the important discoveries about the structure of the earth were made by scientists who found evidence in the oceanic crust for regular patterns of crustal movement. As

More information

Earth's Internal Heat

Earth's Internal Heat Earth's Internal Heat Earth's interior is the site of great amounts of heat. Most of this heat is produced by the decay of radioactive elements. Overall, the flow of Earth's internal heat is outward toward

More information

Big Bend in the San Andreas Fault

Big Bend in the San Andreas Fault Big Bend in the San Andreas Fault * Many faults in Southern California other than San Andreas (SAF) * Most are right-lateral (like SAF) but many in So-Cal are not (thrust, normal, blind thrust) * Right-lateral

More information

Plate tectonics states that the Earth's crust and upper mantle are broken into sections, called plates.

Plate tectonics states that the Earth's crust and upper mantle are broken into sections, called plates. Notes on Plate Tectonics Plate tectonics states that the Earth's crust and upper mantle are broken into sections, called plates. These plates move around the mantle. Plates are composed of the crust and

More information

Chapter 6: Overview. Introduction to Environmental Geology, 5e. Earthquakes. Case History: Earthquake. Causes for Earthquakes 10/19/2012

Chapter 6: Overview. Introduction to Environmental Geology, 5e. Earthquakes. Case History: Earthquake. Causes for Earthquakes 10/19/2012 Chapter 6: Overview Introduction to Environmental Geology, 5e Chapter 6 Earthquakes Jennifer Barson Spokane Falls Community College Understand earthquakes, faulting, and estimation of magnitude Know earthquake

More information

Magnitude 7.7 PAKISTAN

Magnitude 7.7 PAKISTAN A powerful earthquake has killed at least 208 people in Pakistan's remote south-west province. Many houses were flattened and thousands of people have spent the night in the open. The earthquake was felt

More information

Teacher Workbooks. Science and Nature Series Cloze Paragraphs Natural Disasters Theme, Vol. 1

Teacher Workbooks. Science and Nature Series Cloze Paragraphs Natural Disasters Theme, Vol. 1 Teacher Workbooks Science and Nature Series Cloze Paragraphs Natural Disasters Theme, Vol. 1 Copyright 2005 Teachnology Publishing Company A Division of Teachnology, Inc. For additional information, visit

More information

Eighth Grade Science QUARTERLY ASSESSMENT. Zanesville City Schools 1

Eighth Grade Science QUARTERLY ASSESSMENT. Zanesville City Schools 1 Eighth Grade Science 1 2 3 4 QUARTERLY ASSESSMENT Name Teacher Period Zanesville City Schools 1 1. [ES8.9] [ES 2] [K2] Examine the illustration of a tectonic plate boundary. Movement of the plates is indicated

More information

Magnitude 7.1 SOUTHERN ALASKA

Magnitude 7.1 SOUTHERN ALASKA A magnitude-7.1 earthquake knocked items off shelves and walls in Alaska early Sunday. The earthquake was widely felt because it was close to Alaska s population centers. There were no reports of injuries,

More information

Unit 13: Earthquakes

Unit 13: Earthquakes Unit 13: Earthquakes A. Earthquakes 1. Earthquake vibration of Earth produced by the rapid release of energy 2. Focus The point within Earth where the earthquake starts 3. Epicenter Location on the surface

More information

Plate Tectonics Tutoiral. Questions. Teacher: Mrs. Zimmerman. Plate Tectonics and Mountains Practice Test

Plate Tectonics Tutoiral. Questions. Teacher: Mrs. Zimmerman. Plate Tectonics and Mountains Practice Test Teacher: Mrs. Zimmerman Print Close Plate Tectonics and Mountains Practice Test Plate Tectonics Tutoiral URL: http://www.hartrao.ac.za/geodesy/tectonics.html Questions 1. Fossils of organisms that lived

More information

Earthquake Hazards and Risks

Earthquake Hazards and Risks Page 1 of 7 EENS 3050 Tulane University Natural Disasters Prof. Stephen A. Nelson Earthquake Hazards and Risks This page last updated on 28-Aug-2013 Earthquake Risk Many seismologists have said that "earthquakes

More information

causes volcanoes to form. As the plates join or separate some of the molten rock is exposed.

causes volcanoes to form. As the plates join or separate some of the molten rock is exposed. Volcanoes The cause of it all What causes volcanoes to erupt??? The shift in the Earth s plates are what causes volcanoes to form. As the plates join or separate some of the molten rock is exposed. viscosity,

More information

Magnitude 8.6 OFF W COAST NORTHERN SUMATRA

Magnitude 8.6 OFF W COAST NORTHERN SUMATRA A magnitude 8.6 earthquake occurred about 260 miles off the Aceh coast of northern Sumatra. This M 8.6 great earthquake was followed by a (continuing) vigorous aftershock sequence including a M 8.2 about

More information

CHAPTER 4 EARTHQUAKES

CHAPTER 4 EARTHQUAKES CHAPTER 4 EARTHQUAKES Important Concepts 1. An earthquake occurs when movement along a fault zone results in a sudden release of built-up strain energy in the lithosphere. Most earthquakes occur at plate

More information

EARTHQUAKE MAGNITUDE

EARTHQUAKE MAGNITUDE EARTHQUAKE MAGNITUDE Earliest measure of earthquake size Dimensionless number measured various ways, including M L local magnitude m b body wave magnitude M s surface wave magnitude M w moment magnitude

More information

What we ll learn today:!

What we ll learn today:! Learning Objectives (LO) Lecture 15: Earthquakes Read: Chapter 11 Homework #13 due Tuesday 12pm What we ll learn today:! 1. Describe different earthquake hazards! 2. List 4 types of seismic waves! 3. Describe

More information

Focus, Epicenter, and Fault. 8.1 What Is an Earthquake? Elastic Rebound Hypothesis. 8.1 What Is an Earthquake? 8.1 What Is an Earthquake?

Focus, Epicenter, and Fault. 8.1 What Is an Earthquake? Elastic Rebound Hypothesis. 8.1 What Is an Earthquake? 8.1 What Is an Earthquake? 8.1 What Is an Earthquake? Focus, Epicenter, and Fault Earthquakes 1. An earthquake is the vibration of Earth produced by the rapid release of energy Focus and Epicenter a. Focus is the point within Earth

More information

H1) Earthquakes. Earthquakes occur in three main situations:

H1) Earthquakes. Earthquakes occur in three main situations: H1) Earthquakes The plates that make up the earth's lithosphere are constantly in motion. The rate of motion is a few centimetres per year, or approximately 0.1 mm per day (about as fast as your fingernails

More information

Chapter 5: Earthquakes

Chapter 5: Earthquakes Chapter 5: Earthquakes 1. Experiencing an Earthquake firsthand 2. The Science of Ghost Forests and Megaearthquakes 3. Faults, Earthquakes, and Plate Tectonics 4. Seismic Waves and Earthquake Detection

More information

SIXTH GRADE PLATE TECTONICS 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES

SIXTH GRADE PLATE TECTONICS 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES SIXTH GRADE PLATE TECTONICS 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES PLATE TECTONIC CYCLE OVERVIEW OF SIXTH GRADE VOLCANOES WEEK 1. PRE: Comparing the structure of different types of volcanoes. LAB: Plotting

More information

Continental Drift: An Idea Before Its Time

Continental Drift: An Idea Before Its Time Continental Drift: An Idea Before Its Time Alfred Wegener (1880 1930) Continental drift hypothesis: The world's continents are in motion and have been drifting apart into different configurations over

More information

Restless Earth. Inside the Earth, Continental Crust forms the land and is mostly made of granite. It is low density and about km thick.

Restless Earth. Inside the Earth, Continental Crust forms the land and is mostly made of granite. It is low density and about km thick. Restless Earth Inside the Earth the interior of the earth. Earth s heat island how the earth s core drives the process of plate movement. Plate tectonics how the earth s plates move and plate boundaries.

More information

Earthquake, its causes, classification, seismic zones of India and geological consideration for construction of building, projects in seismic areas.

Earthquake, its causes, classification, seismic zones of India and geological consideration for construction of building, projects in seismic areas. Earthquake, its causes, classification, seismic zones of India and geological consideration for construction of building, projects in seismic areas. An earthquake is a sudden vibration of earth surface

More information

Some interesting information!

Some interesting information! Some interesting information! The largest recorded earthquake in the United States was a magnitude 9.2 that struck Prince William Sound, Alaska on Good Friday, March 28, 1964 The largest recorded earthquake

More information

Regents Earth Science Unit 11: The Dynamic Crust Crustal Changes Principle of Original Horizontality - sedimentary rocks form in a horizontal position

Regents Earth Science Unit 11: The Dynamic Crust Crustal Changes Principle of Original Horizontality - sedimentary rocks form in a horizontal position Regents Earth Science Unit 11: The Dynamic Crust Crustal Changes Principle of Original Horizontality - sedimentary rocks form in a horizontal position horizontal any change in the horizontal position is

More information

Do Now Tuesday, March 11, 2014

Do Now Tuesday, March 11, 2014 Do Now Tuesday, March 11, 2014 Take out your notebook / Be seated Take out your reading The Earth s Interior from yesterday If you have a highlighter, take one out In your notebook, set up TOC with Layers

More information

Magnitude 7.0 OFFSHORE EL SALVADOR

Magnitude 7.0 OFFSHORE EL SALVADOR A magnitude 7.0 earthquake struck off the Pacific coast of Central America Thursday at a depth of 10.3 kilometers (6.4 miles). Its epicenter was located 149 km (93 miles) south-southwest of Puerto Triunfo

More information

Lecture 12 Earthquake Magnitude

Lecture 12 Earthquake Magnitude Lecture 12 Earthquake Magnitude Locating Earthquakes Last time, we learned that we could obtain a rough estimate of the distance in miles to an earthquake epicenter by multiplying the S - P time interval

More information

1 What Are Earthquakes?

1 What Are Earthquakes? CHAPTER 5 SECTION Earthquakes 1 What Are Earthquakes? BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: Where do most earthquakes happen? What makes an earthquake

More information

Plate Tectonics. The Theory of Plate Tectonics. The Plate Tectonics Theory

Plate Tectonics. The Theory of Plate Tectonics. The Plate Tectonics Theory Tectonics The Theory of Tectonics The Tectonics Theory When you blow into a balloon, the balloon expands. Its surface area also increases. As more air is added to the balloon, the balloon gets larger.

More information

Magnitude 7.1 NEW ZEALAND

Magnitude 7.1 NEW ZEALAND A magnitude 7.1 earthquake has occurred 166.8 km (103 miles) north-northeast of Gisborne, New Zealand below the Pacific Ocean at a depth of 19 km (11 miles). There are no immediate reports of serious damage

More information

10/23/ build up of strain. Elastic Rebound Theory: -- apply stress. What is an Earthquake?

10/23/ build up of strain. Elastic Rebound Theory: -- apply stress. What is an Earthquake? Earthquakes Earthquakes Where Do Earthquakes Occur? Topics Where do earthquakes occur? Earthquake Fundamentals What is an Earthquake? Seismic Waves Locating an Earthquake Sizes of Earthquakes Earthquakes

More information

Earthquakes: Causes and Impacts

Earthquakes: Causes and Impacts An international scientific organization dedicated to the reduction of disaster risk in complex metropolises Earthquakes: Causes and Impacts A Harry S. Pasimio Jr. EMI 22 April 2-16 A member of the U.N.

More information

3. When an earthquake occurs, energy radiates in all directions from its source, which is called the. a. epicenter c. fault b. focus d.

3. When an earthquake occurs, energy radiates in all directions from its source, which is called the. a. epicenter c. fault b. focus d. NAME EARTH SCIENCE CHAPTER 8 1. A fault is. a. a place on Earth where earthquakes cannot occur b. a fracture in the Earth where movement has occurred c. the place on Earth s surface where structures move

More information

Reading Science! Name: Date: Tectonic Plates

Reading Science! Name: Date: Tectonic Plates Name: ate: Tectonic Plates 6.10: Tectonic Plates 1 2 On March 11, 2011, an earthquake measuring 8.9 on the Richter Scale shook the ocean floor. It made a giant wave which grew up to 30 feet (9.14 meters)

More information

Geology. Earth s Interior, Plate Tectonics, Earthquakes & Volcanoes

Geology. Earth s Interior, Plate Tectonics, Earthquakes & Volcanoes Geology Earth s Interior, Plate Tectonics, Earthquakes & Volcanoes Earth s Interior 1. Earth s interior is divided into the: a. Crust surface b. Mantle c. Outer core d. Inner core center of earth 2. The

More information

Features of Plate Tectonics

Features of Plate Tectonics Features of Plate Tectonics Section 12.2 Summary Textbook pages 518 537 Before You Read Earthquakes frequently occur in British Columbia. State what you already know about earthquakes in the lines below.

More information

Seismic Earthquakes. The most common quakes occur from fault lines

Seismic Earthquakes. The most common quakes occur from fault lines Earthquakes GE 4150- Natural Hazards Slides and images taken from Dr. Jim Diehl, Jason R. Evans, Joanne M. Scott and Benfiled Greig Hazard Research Centre (C471 Geohazards) Tectonic Earthquakes Seismic

More information

James S. Reichard Georgia Southern University. Student Name

James S. Reichard Georgia Southern University. Student Name 21 Exercise 3 Earthquake Hazards James S. Reichard Georgia Southern University Student Name Section In this lab you will: examine various earthquake hazards and some of the techniques that can help minimize

More information

Name: Lab: Exploring Patterns in Regional Seismicity. Lev Horodyskyj v1.1 - June 2009

Name: Lab: Exploring Patterns in Regional Seismicity. Lev Horodyskyj v1.1 - June 2009 Name: Lab: Exploring Patterns in Regional Seismicity Lev Horodyskyj LevH@psu.edu; v1.1 - June 2009 Content Objectives - By the end of the exercise, students should be able to: - Describe the basic properties

More information

Plate Tectonics. The Theory of Plate Tectonics

Plate Tectonics. The Theory of Plate Tectonics CHAPTER 6 LESSON 3 Tectonics The Theory of Tectonics Key Concepts What is the theory of plate tectonics? What are the three types of plate boundaries? Why do tectonic plates move? What do you think? Read

More information

Environmental Geology Chapter 6 EARTHQUAKES and ENVIRONMENT

Environmental Geology Chapter 6 EARTHQUAKES and ENVIRONMENT Environmental Geology Chapter 6 EARTHQUAKES and ENVIRONMENT Violent ground-shaking phenomenon by the sudden release of strain energy stored in rocks. This is one of the most catastrophic and devastating

More information

Plate Tectonics, Earthquakes, and Volcanoes Test sp 12

Plate Tectonics, Earthquakes, and Volcanoes Test sp 12 Plate Tectonics, Earthquakes, and Volcanoes Test sp 12 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Earthquakes generally occur at plate boundaries,

More information

Tsunamis are sometimes referred to as seismic sea waves because submarine and near-coast earthquakes are their primary cause.

Tsunamis are sometimes referred to as seismic sea waves because submarine and near-coast earthquakes are their primary cause. 1 What is a Tsunami? A tsunami is a very long ocean wave that is generated by a sudden displacement of the sea floor. The term is derived from a Japanese word meaning harbor wave. Tsunamis are sometimes

More information

Assessment Schedule 2014 Earth and Space Science: Demonstrate understanding of the causes of extreme Earth events in New Zealand (91191)

Assessment Schedule 2014 Earth and Space Science: Demonstrate understanding of the causes of extreme Earth events in New Zealand (91191) NCEA Level 2 Earth and Space Science (91191) 2014 page 1 of 6 Assessment Schedule 2014 Earth and Space Science: Demonstrate understanding of the causes of extreme Earth events in New Zealand (91191) Evidence

More information

FOURTH GRADE PLATE TECTONICS 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES

FOURTH GRADE PLATE TECTONICS 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES FOURTH GRADE PLATE TECTONICS 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES PLATE TECTONIC CYCLE OVERVIEW OF FOURTH GRADE VOLCANOES WEEK 1. PRE: Comparing different structures of volcanoes. LAB: Modeling three types

More information

Plate Tectonics Review. Geologist have used two main types of evidence to learn about Earth s interior: Rock samples and Seismic waves

Plate Tectonics Review. Geologist have used two main types of evidence to learn about Earth s interior: Rock samples and Seismic waves Plate Tectonics Review I. Earth s Interior Geologist have used two main types of evidence to learn about Earth s interior: Rock samples and Seismic waves Seismic waves When earthquakes occur, they produce

More information

DISASTER RESISTANCE EARTHQUAKES AND STRUCTURES

DISASTER RESISTANCE EARTHQUAKES AND STRUCTURES DISASTER RESISTANCE EARTHQUAKES AND STRUCTURES EARTHQUAKES Origin of earthquakes The earth was a single land about two hundred million years ago. This land split progressively over a long period of time

More information

Earth Layers, Earthquakes and Volcanoes Test

Earth Layers, Earthquakes and Volcanoes Test Name: Date: 1. The road shown below was suddenly broken by a natural event. 3. Which of the following provides evidence for plate tectonics? A. sea-floor topography B. ocean currents C. Coriolis effect

More information

Magnitude 5.8 BAJA CALIFORNIA, MEXICO

Magnitude 5.8 BAJA CALIFORNIA, MEXICO Residents along the California-Mexico border reported intense shaking but no major damage or injuries from today's 5.8 earthquake. There was minor damage reported in the Mexicali area, including cracked

More information

Plate Tectonics: Ridges, Transform Faults and Subduction Zones

Plate Tectonics: Ridges, Transform Faults and Subduction Zones Plate Tectonics: Ridges, Transform Faults and Subduction Zones Goals of this exercise: 1. review the major physiographic features of the ocean basins 2. investigate the creation of oceanic crust at mid-ocean

More information

Name: Class: Date: EN: EARTHQUAKES

Name: Class: Date: EN: EARTHQUAKES Name: Class: Date: EN: EARTHQUAKES 1. What causes earthquakes? Earthquakes occur when forces within the Earth become so great that the ground breaks along zones of weakness, known as geologic faults. The

More information

What are Earthquakes?

What are Earthquakes? What are Earthquakes? The shaking or trembling caused by the sudden release of energy Usually associated with faulting or breaking of rocks Continuing adjustment of position results in aftershocks What

More information

PLATE TECTONICS 1/10/2011. Hadean Eon ( bya) Extraterrestrial barrage New, noxious atmosphere Heating Earths interior Magma ocean CHAPTER 3

PLATE TECTONICS 1/10/2011. Hadean Eon ( bya) Extraterrestrial barrage New, noxious atmosphere Heating Earths interior Magma ocean CHAPTER 3 PLATE TECTONICS CHAPTER 3 Copyright 2011 by John Wiley & Sons Inc. Thingvellir National Park, Iceland, lies on the boundary of two plates that are pulling away from each other. What geologic hazards are

More information

Earthquakes and Volcanoes

Earthquakes and Volcanoes chapter 38 Earthquakes and Volcanoes section 1 Earthquakes Before You Read Have you ever experienced an earthquake or perhaps seen an earthquake in a movie or on TV? On the lines below, describe an earthquake.

More information

Tsunami THE ULTIMATE GUIDE. School Kit

Tsunami THE ULTIMATE GUIDE. School Kit Tsunami THE ULTIMATE GUIDE School Kit TSunami: The ultimate Guide 2 TSunami BaSicS Review chapter One: Tsunami Basics and complete the following workbook. WHAT Is A TsUnAMI? WHAT DoEs THE WorD TsUnAMI

More information

Earthquakes, Volcanoes, and Plate Tectonics

Earthquakes, Volcanoes, and Plate Tectonics Earthquakes, Volcanoes, and Plate Tectonics Chapter 11 Section 3 SPI 0707.7.6 Describe the relationship between plate movements and earthquakes, mountain building, volcanoes, and sea floor spreading. Earth

More information

Magnitude 7.1 NORTHERN MID-ATLANTIC RIDGE

Magnitude 7.1 NORTHERN MID-ATLANTIC RIDGE A major magnitude 7.1 earthquake occurred on the North America Eurasia Plate boundary. The epicenter ( ) was located ~1170km SE of Greenland in the middle of the North Atlantic Ocean. Image courtesy of

More information

A Violent Pulse: Earthquakes

A Violent Pulse: Earthquakes A Violent Pulse: Earthquakes What is an Earthquake? Earth shaking caused by a rapid release of energy. tectonic stress build up rock break. energy moves outward as an expanding sphere of waves. waveform

More information

3 The Theory of Plate Tectonics

3 The Theory of Plate Tectonics CHAPTER 4 3 The Theory of Plate Tectonics SECTION Plate Tectonics BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What is the theory of plate tectonics? What

More information