Presentations. Session 1. Slide 1. Earthquake Risk Reduction. 1- Concepts & Terminology

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Presentations. Session 1. Slide 1. Earthquake Risk Reduction. 1- Concepts & Terminology"

Transcription

1 Earthquake Risk Reduction Presentations Session 1 Slide 1 Earthquake Risk Reduction 1- Concepts & Terminology Welcome to the World Bank Institute s (WBI) Distance Learning (DL) course on Earthquake Risk Reduction. This presentation is the first of three PowerPoint sessions of the course. In this first presentation, we will provide an overview of the entire ERR process, and introduce key concepts and terminology. This session is followed by a session on Hazard, Vulnerability and Risk Assessment, and the third session pulls everything together, to show how to develop a Mitigation, or Earthquake Risk Reduction, program. Slide 2 Earthquakes cause death and destruction this is the fundamental problem. In order to manage this problem, we need to understand how and why earthquakes occur, and how and why they cause damage. This presentation provides an overview of earthquakes and their effects, and how the earthquake problem can be managed. The earthquake problem is managed via the Earthquake Risk Reduction process. This slide shows the biggest earthquakes of the last threedecade. Slide 3 These are some of the key words used in this presentation. All key words are defined in the Glossary provided as part of the Course. Each presentation will begin with a listing of key words. For this introductory session the key terms are: Plate Tectonics, Subduction, Fault (i.e., Earthquake Fault), Seismotectonics, Magnitude, Intensity, Vulnerability and Risk Management Slide 4 We begin with the cause of earthquakes. This is a map of the world, with earthquake activity (or seismicity) for the period (source: USGS). Each dot represents an earthquake, color-coded by depth (shown at the right, in kms) note that most are orange, meaning they are shallow earthquakes, which cause the most damage. Certain blocks of the earth, such as Africa, and the Pacific Ocean, are outlined by earthquakes, with very few earthquakes within the outline. These blocks are termed plates, and the science of studying these plates is called plate tectonics (i.e., plate structure ). The actual plates are shown more clearly on the next slide. Slide 5 This shows the plates more clearly there are large plates, such as the Eurasian, Pacific and North American Plates, and smaller plates, such as the Philippine Sea, Cocos and Nazca plates. These plates are all moving, as shown on the next slide. The arrows on each of the larger plates 1

2 show the relative motions of the various plates the Pacific Plate for example, is moving towards Japan, as is the Eurasian plate, with the Philippine Sea plate caught in between. This forces the Philippine Sea plate to slide along the Philippines, and go under Japan (i.e., is subducted under Japan). Similar situations exist elsewhere, such as for the Philippine archipelago, where the Philippine Sea Plate is subducting under the archipelago on the east, and the Eurasian Plate is subducting under the archipelago on the west. In fact, the Philippines is on a wedge of crust Along the west coast of South America, the Nazca Plate is being forced under the South American Plate, whereas along the west coast of North American, the relative motion of the Pacific and North American Plates is such that the Pacific Plate is generally sliding sideways along the North American Plate. (More detailed information on Plate motions can be found at website) Slide 6 This slide shows the entire plate tectonic process, including how one plate goes under, or is subducted under, another plate. Heat in the center of the earth causes molten lava to rise along a mid-ocean trench. When the lava reaches the surface, it cools, solidifies, and becomes crust material. However, more lava rising beneath, forces the lave to the sides. Over millions of years, the lava moves across the surface of the earth, until it meets another plate, at a plate boundary. At that boundary, the two plates may slide past one another, or one plate may be forced under (be subducted) the other plate. The sliding and subduction of the plates is not smooth as they move, their bumping and grinding causes vibrations to be transmitted within the earth. We feel these vibrations, and call them EARTHQUAKES. Earthquakes occur with the Plate (Intraslab) as it bends under the other Plate; even large earthquakes occur due to the sliding of one Plate past another (Interslab); and smaller shallow earthquakes occur with the crust (Crustal) away from the subduction zone, since the crust there is still stressed by the subduction process. This is the cause of most earthquakes the process is termed SEISMOGENESIS (from seismo, meaning earthquake, and genesis, meaning origin). Slide 7 There are a number of effects of earthquakes, all of which can cause damage these are termed agents of damage. The initial agent of damage is the actual displacement of the plates, along a fault. A fault may be the actual plate boundary, or other cracks in the earth, more or less subsidiary to a plate boundary. When an earthquake occurs, the plates move, and if you have one leg on each side of the fault, your legs are moved relative to each other, just as if you put only one foot on an escalator. If you don t do something you, or the building on the fault, will fall down, or collapse. Fault movement under the ocean floor can displace cubic km of water, causing a massive wave, termed a Tsunami, to occur. The Dec. 26, 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami killed more than 250,000 persons. After faulting, the primary earthquake agent of damage is shaking, which is the vibration in the earth s crust due to the fault movement. Other agents of damage include liquefaction (soft loose soil when shaken becomes like a liquid), fire following earthquake, and landsliding. Slide 8 Measuring earthquakes is a first necessary step in understanding them. A number of methods for measuring earthquakes have been developed, but the most common measure today is the Moment Magnitude scale, denoted Mw. Magnitude refers to the size of an earthquake, and is computed from the total energy of the event. On Moment Magnitude scale, a Mw 6 is a damaging earthquake, Mw 7 is a major earthquake, and Mw 8 a potentially catastrophic earthquake. The Dec. 26, 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake was approximately Mw 9, and the third largest 2

3 earthquake to occur since By the way, the moment magnitude scale is different from the Richter scale. Charles Richter defined the concept of earthquake magnitude in 1935, but now the moment magnitude scale is generally preferred over the Richter or other magnitude scales. Slide 9 While magnitude is a measure of the overall size of an earthquake, any one earthquake will have effects at many locations virtually everywhere. The effects at each location are measured on the Intensity scale there have been many intensity scales developed the most common is the Modified Mercalli Intensity (MMI) scale, but various scales are used in various countries. Slide 10 This shows the PHIVOLCS Earthquake Intensity Scale (PEIS), used to measure seismic intensity in the Philippines. It is similar to the MMI scale, but modified somewhat for Philippine-specific conditions. Note that Roman Numerals are used. Intensity scales like MMI, MSK etc are not instrumentally measured, but rather are estimated based on damage, human reactions and other indicators. Roman rather than Arabic numbers are therefore used, to indicate their subjective nature. MMI is used in the USA and many other countries. Other scales include the Ross-Forel scale, used in Italy and sometimes in the USA; MSK (Medvedev-Sponheuer-Karnik), developed in the Soviet Union, and used in Europe and some other regions; and JMA, only used in Japan, or by Japanese investigators researching earthquakes overseas. Slide 11 The slide shows the MMI scale and as was mentioned Roman Numerals are used to describe the intensity of the earthquakes. The intensity is subjectively measured by damages caused and human reactions, etc. For example, earthquake intensity V on MMI scale is when almost everyone feels the movement, sleeping people are awakened, doors swing open or close, dishes are broken, pictures on the wall move, small objects move or are turned over, trees might shake, liquids might spill out of open containers. Slide 12 Buildings and other structures are vulnerable to earthquakes and measuring the vulnerability of structures is a key step towards managing their vulnerability. Note that vulnerability is used here in a technical sense. The term vulnerability has several meanings in natural hazards, and is sometimes used to refer to the social vulnerability of a population (rather than the physical vulnerability of a structure), and is sometimes used to refer to the overall set of characteristics of a population or community, that make them vulnerable. Slide 13 In order to measure seismic vulnerability, let s first define this term: Seismic Vulnerability is the degree of damage or loss caused by a given level of seismic intensity. Seismic vulnerability depends on the materials, age, condition and structural layout of a building or other structure. Weak brittle materials, such as adobe, unreinforced masonry, and older reinforced concrete buildings, are very likely to be damaged in an earthquake they have high vulnerability. 3

4 Steel, wood and newer reinforced concrete buildings are less likely to be damaged in an earthquake they have low vulnerability. Slide 14 Quantifying, or measuring, seismic vulnerability, can be done in several ways basically, analytically, or statistically. Analytical models involve development of detailed engineering analysis models of a structure, based on detailed data for that structure, which is compiled in equations, analyzed in a computer and presented in terms of displacements as a function of accelerations (Sa). This work needs to be done by an engineer it is rather time-consuming and expensive, but is very accurate. It is justified when the structure is important, such as a school, city hall, high-rise building, dam, powerplant, etc. The other approach is more general, and involves collecting damage data from several earthquakes, for similar types of buildings, such as houses, and analyzing these statistics to develop correlations of the damage. This approach is less expensive, but is rather general, and provides only average damageability or vulnerability information for a specific building, based on its structural type. The two approaches are analogous to a detailed physical exam by a doctor, versus determining a person s likelihood of a heart attack based only on age and weight. Slide 15 Example of seismic vulnerability of three general building types URM is unreinforced masonry, which will have on average about 50% damage at MMI X; RC Shear Wall is a reinforced concrete building with shear walls, which will have on average 30% damage at MMI X, and Wood Frame is a typical stud wall house, which will on average have about 20% damage at MMI X. Sources of information on structural vulnerability include the literature (e.g., the ATC-13 and HAZUS publications), empirical data, and detailed structural evaluations. Structural engineers determine structural vulnerability. Slide 16 Risk or Loss estimation is the quantification of the loss in value of assets as a result of an earthquake. The estimation of potential loss is a basic first step in managing earthquake risk. It begins with the identification of ASSETS at risk these assets may be people, property, profits or anything else of value. DAMAGE is the physical degradation of these assets (e.g., cracks in the wall). LOSS is the reduction in value of these assets, and might be quantified in terms of the cost of repairs. RISK is the uncertainty in the value of that loss the loss might be small, it might be large, one does not immediately really know which it will be. RISK or LOSS ESTIMATION is the quantification of earthquake loss. Please note that the terms damage and loss are used differently than in other courses of the program (in other courses damage is the impact on stock, or assets and loss is the impact on flows) Slide 17 Once earthquake Risk (i.e., potential Loss) has been estimated, it can be determined if the potential loss is Acceptable, or Not. The determination of Acceptable Risk is complex, and usually decided by a group composed of those who are responsible for the buildings or other structures (ie, the owners ), and those who occupy those buildings or other structures (ie, the risk-bearers ). A risk that is usually NOT acceptable is the probable collapse of buildings in an earthquake. If Not Acceptable, then the risk must be reduced, or mitigated. Since loss is the product of asset value times hazard times vulnerability, each of these factors provides an opportunity to reduce potential loss. That is, breaking the chain of loss causation reduces risk. 4

5 Slide 18 Earthquake Risk Reduction is the process of reducing earthquake risk. The process consists of an initial assessment of the problem, including identifying the assets at risk; more detailed analysis of the risk (i.e., the expected loss); development of a mitigation program; implementation of the program; and maintenance of the program. Each of these aspects is covered in more detail in the next Sessions. Slide 19 The goal of Earthquake Risk Reduction is not to find A SOLUTION, but rather to find the best solution. Best implies decision-making. Decision-making consists of two basic steps: quantifying or Estimating the Risk, and Examining Mitigation Alternatives. If the Risk is not acceptable, and the cost of mitigating the risk is less than the potential Loss, then mitigation is beneficial, and warranted. 5

Tectonic plates push together at convergent boundaries.

Tectonic plates push together at convergent boundaries. KEY CONCEPT Plates converge or scrape past each other. BEFORE, you learned Plates move apart at divergent boundaries In the oceans, divergent boundaries mark where the sea floor spreads apart On land,

More information

Magnitude 8.8 OFFSHORE MAULE, CHILE

Magnitude 8.8 OFFSHORE MAULE, CHILE A great 8.8-magnitude struck central Chile early Saturday. The quake hit 200 miles (325 kilometers) southwest of the capital Santiago. The epicenter was just 70 miles (115 kilometers) from Concepcion,

More information

Earthquakes: Risk & Insurance Issues

Earthquakes: Risk & Insurance Issues Earthquakes: Risk & Insurance Issues An earthquake is a sudden and rapid shaking of the earth caused by the breaking and shifting of rock beneath the earth s surface. This shaking can sometimes trigger

More information

HAZARD MAPPING, RISK ASSESSMENT, AND INSURANCE COVERAGE OF NATURAL CATASTROPHE RISK

HAZARD MAPPING, RISK ASSESSMENT, AND INSURANCE COVERAGE OF NATURAL CATASTROPHE RISK SESSION III HAZARD MAPPING, RISK ASSESSMENT, AND INSURANCE COVERAGE OF NATURAL CATASTROPHE RISK Mr. Sumarjono Insurance Bureau of The Ministry of Finance of the Republic of Indonesia Geological Position

More information

Between a Subduction Zone and a Hard Spot!

Between a Subduction Zone and a Hard Spot! Between a Subduction Zone and a Hard Spot! The Kodiak Experience FUNDING FOR VULNERABLE SCHOOL FACILITES Bud Cassidy, Kodiak Island Borough Manager Local Government Representative Alaska Seismic Hazards

More information

Earthquake Preparedness Tips & Strategies

Earthquake Preparedness Tips & Strategies Earthquake Preparedness Tips & Strategies What to Do BEFORE an Earthquake What to Do DURING an Earthquake BE PREPARED! For more information, log onto: www.gema.ga.gov www.ready.ga.gov www.geophysics.eas.gatech.edu

More information

Some Processes that Change the Earth s Surface

Some Processes that Change the Earth s Surface PART ONE Some Processes that Change the Earth s Surface Science standards To prepare students to understand the Essential Academic Learning Requirements (EALRs) introduced at middle school, this series

More information

Georgia Performance Standards Framework for Science Grade 6. Unit Organizer: Geology: Inside the Earth (Approximate Time: 7 Weeks)

Georgia Performance Standards Framework for Science Grade 6. Unit Organizer: Geology: Inside the Earth (Approximate Time: 7 Weeks) The following instructional plan is part of a GaDOE collection of Unit Frameworks, Performance Tasks, examples of Student Work, and Teacher Commentary. Many more GaDOE approved instructional plans are

More information

Earthquakes and Data Centers

Earthquakes and Data Centers 7x24 Exchange Fall Symposium September 11, 2013 Hilton Bellevue Andrew W. Taylor, Ph.D., S.E., FACI Earthquake Hazards 2 September 11, 2013 1 Cascadia Earthquake Sources Figure Credit: Craig Weaver, Pacific

More information

Chapter 3 DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION FEATURES IMPORTANT TO SEISMIC PERFORMANCE

Chapter 3 DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION FEATURES IMPORTANT TO SEISMIC PERFORMANCE Chapter 3 DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION FEATURES IMPORTANT TO SEISMIC PERFORMANCE To satisfy the performance goals of the NEHRP Recommended Seismic Provisions, a number of characteristics are important to the

More information

Anti-seismic construction handbook. Arch. Wilfredo Carazas Aedo Arch. Alba Rivero Olmos. CRATerre-EAG

Anti-seismic construction handbook. Arch. Wilfredo Carazas Aedo Arch. Alba Rivero Olmos. CRATerre-EAG REHABILITATION Anti-seismic construction handbook Arch. Wilfredo Carazas Aedo Arch. Alba Rivero Olmos CRATerre-EAG PRELUDE Earthquakes have a considerable effect on adobe houses built with a large number

More information

Seismic Risk Prioritization of RC Public Buildings

Seismic Risk Prioritization of RC Public Buildings Seismic Risk Prioritization of RC Public Buildings In Turkey H. Sucuoğlu & A. Yakut Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey J. Kubin & A. Özmen Prota Inc, Ankara, Turkey SUMMARY Over the past

More information

KCC Event Brief: 2014 La Habra Earthquake

KCC Event Brief: 2014 La Habra Earthquake KAREN CLARK & COMPANY KCC Event Brief: 2014 La Habra Earthquake June 2014 2 COPLEY PLACE BOSTON, MA 02116 T: 617.423.2800 F: 617.423.2808 Overview On Friday, March 28, 2014 at 9:09pm, a magnitude 5.1 earthquake

More information

( 1 ) Overview of Safety Measures ( 2 ) Overview of Measures for Attaining Greater Safety and Reliability

( 1 ) Overview of Safety Measures ( 2 ) Overview of Measures for Attaining Greater Safety and Reliability Contents 1 Effort for New Regulatory Requirements ( 1 ) Overview of a Gist of New Regulatory Requirements in Nuclear Regulation Authority ( 2 ) Major Requirements of a Gist of New Regulatory Requirements

More information

ENGINEERING-BASED EARTHQUAKE RISK MANAGEMENT

ENGINEERING-BASED EARTHQUAKE RISK MANAGEMENT ENGINEERING-BASED EARTHQUAKE RISK MANAGEMENT MRP Engineering Newsletter February 2012 The world recently experienced several major earthquakes, which caused severe local impacts and major worldwide repercussions.

More information

Earthquakes: Risk and Insurance Issues

Earthquakes: Risk and Insurance Issues Page 1 of 8 HOT TOPICS & INSURANCE ISSUES Earthquakes: Risk and Insurance Issues THE TOPIC JULY 2003 An earthquake is a sudden and rapid shaking of the earth caused by the breaking and shifting of rock

More information

Date, Time and Place: Presented by: Presented to: 22 August 2013, 0900 hrs, Pier 1 The Embarcadero, San Francisco

Date, Time and Place: Presented by: Presented to: 22 August 2013, 0900 hrs, Pier 1 The Embarcadero, San Francisco Date, Time and Place: 22 August 2013, 0900 hrs, Pier 1 The Embarcadero, San Francisco Presented by: Nick Rogers, Mike Jacka, Kate Williams, Sjoerd van Ballegooy and Rick Wentz, Tonkin & Taylor International

More information

Insurance B.C. Construction Round Table Seminar. Order of Presentation. June 23, 2011. Lindsay Olson Vice-President BC, SK, MB

Insurance B.C. Construction Round Table Seminar. Order of Presentation. June 23, 2011. Lindsay Olson Vice-President BC, SK, MB Earthquake Risk and Insurance B.C. Construction Round Table Seminar June 23, 2011 Lindsay Olson Vice-President BC, SK, MB Order of Presentation Canada s P&C Insurance Industry Canadian Earthquake Risk

More information

Prepared For San Francisco Community College District 33 Gough Street San Francisco, California 94103. Prepared By

Prepared For San Francisco Community College District 33 Gough Street San Francisco, California 94103. Prepared By Project Structural Conditions Survey and Seismic Vulnerability Assessment For SFCC Civic Center Campus 750 Eddy Street San Francisco, California 94109 Prepared For San Francisco Community College District

More information

COSMOS 2012: Earthquakes in Action COSMOS 2012

COSMOS 2012: Earthquakes in Action COSMOS 2012 COSMOS 2012 What is SFSI and why is it important? Soil issues in Earthquakes Structures where SFSI important Retaining structures (lateral earth pressure) Foundations (spread and pile footings, bearing

More information

City of San Diego s Efforts to Promote Seismic Safety

City of San Diego s Efforts to Promote Seismic Safety City of San Diego s Efforts to Promote Seismic Safety Building Safety, Policy & Emergency Response 2011 EERI Annual Meeting San Diego February 10, 2011 I. Local Seismic Codes, Standards, Policies Outline

More information

Georgia Performance Standards Framework for Natural Disasters 6 th Grade

Georgia Performance Standards Framework for Natural Disasters 6 th Grade The following instructional plan is part of a GaDOE collection of Unit Frameworks, Performance Tasks, examples of Student Work, and Teacher Commentary. Many more GaDOE approved instructional plans are

More information

Residential Seismic Strengthening

Residential Seismic Strengthening CITY OF PORTLAND, OREGON BUREAU OF DEVELOPMENT SERVICES 1900 SW 4th Avenue, Portland, Oregon 97201 (503) 823-7300 www.portlandoregon.gov/bds Residential Seismic Strengthening Methods to Reduce Potential

More information

NAM Groningen 2013 Preliminary Structural Upgrading Strategy for Groningen

NAM Groningen 2013 Preliminary Structural Upgrading Strategy for Groningen NAM Groningen 2013 Preliminary Structural Upgrading Strategy for Groningen Issue 5 30 July 2013 This report takes into account the particular instructions and requirements of our client. It is not intended

More information

4.6 GEOLOGIC AND SEISMIC HAZARDS

4.6 GEOLOGIC AND SEISMIC HAZARDS 4.6 GEOLOGIC AND SEISMIC HAZARDS This Section describes the current conditions relating to the geologic and seismic characteristics of the City of Cypress. This Section concludes with an analysis of geologic

More information

6 RETROFITTING POST & PIER HOUSES

6 RETROFITTING POST & PIER HOUSES Retrofitting Post & Pier Houses 71 6 RETROFITTING POST & PIER HOUSES by James E. Russell, P.E. 72 Retrofitting Post & Pier Houses Retrofitting Post & Pier Houses 73 RETROFITTING POST AND PIER HOUSES This

More information

Continental Drift, Sea Floor Spreading and Plate Tectonics

Continental Drift, Sea Floor Spreading and Plate Tectonics Page 1 of 13 EENS 1110 Tulane University Physical Geology Prof. Stephen A. Nelson Continental Drift, Sea Floor Spreading and Plate Tectonics This page last updated on 26-Aug-2015 Plate Tectonics is a theory

More information

Chapter 7 Earthquake Hazards

Chapter 7 Earthquake Hazards Chapter 7 Earthquake Hazards by G.H. Girty, Department of Geological Sciences, San Diego State University Page 1 Introduction Any given earthquake produced by slip along a fault can produce a number of

More information

Recent Earthquakes: Implications for U.S. Water Utilities [Project #4408]

Recent Earthquakes: Implications for U.S. Water Utilities [Project #4408] Recent Earthquakes: Implications for U.S. Water Utilities [Project #4408] ORDER NUMBER: 4408 DATE AVAILABLE: July 2012 PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATORS: John Eidinger and Craig A. Davis PROJECT PURPOSE: The purpose

More information

PACIFIC CATASTROPHE RISK ASSESSMENT AND FINANCING INITIATIVE

PACIFIC CATASTROPHE RISK ASSESSMENT AND FINANCING INITIATIVE PACIFIC CATASTROPHE RISK ASSESSMENT AND FINANCING INITIATIVE NIUE SEPTEMBER 11 COUNTRY RISK PROFILE: NIUE Niue is expected to incur, on average,.9 million USD per year in losses due to earthquakes and

More information

Report on. Wind Resistance of Signs supported by. Glass Fiber Reinforced Concrete (GFRC) Pillars

Report on. Wind Resistance of Signs supported by. Glass Fiber Reinforced Concrete (GFRC) Pillars Report on Wind Resistance of Signs supported by Glass Fiber Reinforced Concrete (GFRC) Pillars Prepared for US Sign and Fabrication Corporation January, 2006 SUMMARY This study found the attachment of

More information

A Preliminary Report The May 19, 2011 Simav, Turkey Earthquake

A Preliminary Report The May 19, 2011 Simav, Turkey Earthquake A Preliminary Report The May 19, 2011 Simav, Turkey Earthquake Ömer AYDAN Tokai University, Shizuoka, Japan Visiting Professor, İstanbul Technical University Halil KUMSAR Pamukkale University May 24, 2011

More information

AN ANALYSIS OF FIRE SPRINKLER SYSTEM FAILURES DURING THE NORTHRIDGE EARTHQUAKE AND COMPARISON WITH THE SEISMIC DESIGN STANDARD FOR THESE SYSTEMS

AN ANALYSIS OF FIRE SPRINKLER SYSTEM FAILURES DURING THE NORTHRIDGE EARTHQUAKE AND COMPARISON WITH THE SEISMIC DESIGN STANDARD FOR THESE SYSTEMS 13 th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering Vancouver, B.C., Canada August 1-6, 2004 Paper No. 2136 AN ANALYSIS OF FIRE SPRINKLER SYSTEM FAILURES DURING THE NORTHRIDGE EARTHQUAKE AND COMPARISON WITH

More information

POST-EVENT DATA COLLECTION USING MOBILE GIS/GPS AND DEVELOPMENT OF SEISMIC EVALUATION TECHNIQUE FOR DAMAGE

POST-EVENT DATA COLLECTION USING MOBILE GIS/GPS AND DEVELOPMENT OF SEISMIC EVALUATION TECHNIQUE FOR DAMAGE POST-EVENT DATA COLLECTION USING MOBILE GIS/GPS AND DEVELOPMENT OF SEISMIC EVALUATION TECHNIQUE FOR DAMAGE Satoshi IWAI 1 And Hiroyuki KAMEDA 2 SUMMARY This paper presents mobile system for post-event

More information

3. Observed Damage in Railway Viaducts

3. Observed Damage in Railway Viaducts Structural Damage of Tohoku Shinkansen Viaducts by the Off the Pacific Tohoku Earthquake First Report on March 16, 2011 Dr. Yoshikazu Takahashi, Associate Professor Disaster Prevention Research Institute,

More information

Chincha and Cañete, Peru, Based

Chincha and Cañete, Peru, Based Reconstruction of Ica, Pisco, Chincha and Cañete, Peru, Based on Updated Hazard Maps Julio Kuroiwa Professor emeritus National University of Engineering and UNDP Reconstruction Program/Sustainable Cities.

More information

Engaging Students Through Interactive Activities In General Education Classes

Engaging Students Through Interactive Activities In General Education Classes Engaging Students Through Interactive Activities In General Education Classes On the Cutting Edge: Early Career Geoscience Faculty Workshop 14-18 June 2009 Presented by Randy Richardson Department of Geosciences,

More information

Client: Nederlandse Aardolie Maatschappij Arup Project Title: Groningen 2013 Seismic Risk Study - Earthquake Scenario-Based Risk Assessment

Client: Nederlandse Aardolie Maatschappij Arup Project Title: Groningen 2013 Seismic Risk Study - Earthquake Scenario-Based Risk Assessment Client: Nederlandse Aardolie Maatschappij Arup Project Title: Groningen 2013 Seismic Risk Study - Earthquake Scenario-Based Risk Assessment REP/229746/SR001 Issue 29 November 2013 This report was prepared

More information

Reading GPS Time Series Plots Worksheet

Reading GPS Time Series Plots Worksheet Reading GPS Time Series Plots Worksheet By: Roger Groom and Cate Fox-Lent, UNAVCO Master Teachers in-residence, Shelley Olds, UNAVCO The Global Positioning System, GPS, is used to study the Earth, how

More information

Exploring plate motion and deformation in California with GPS

Exploring plate motion and deformation in California with GPS Exploring plate motion and deformation in California with GPS Student worksheet Cate Fox-Lent, UNAVCO master teacher; Andy Newman, Georgia Institute of Technology; Shelley Olds, UNAVCO; and revised by

More information

Page & Turnbull imagining change in historic environments through design, research, and technology

Page & Turnbull imagining change in historic environments through design, research, and technology DCI+SDE STRUCTURAL EVALUATIONS OFFICE BUILDING, TOOL SHED & WATER TANK, AND BLACKSMITH & MACHINE SHOP BUILDINGS SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA [14290] PRIMARY PROJECT CONTACT: H. Ruth Todd, FAIA, AICP, LEED

More information

T H E G R EA T C A L IF O R N IA S H A K E O U T O C TO B E R 21, 201 0

T H E G R EA T C A L IF O R N IA S H A K E O U T O C TO B E R 21, 201 0 T H E G R EA T C A L IF O R N IA S H A K E O U T O C TO B E R 21, 201 0 S H A K E O U T. O R G 7 S T E P S T O E A R T H Q U A K E S A F E T Y S T E P 4. I D E N T I F Y Y O U R B U I L D I N G ' S P O

More information

PACIFIC TSUNAMI: CONTINUING RESEARCH AND FORMATION OF A MUSEUM EXHIBIT

PACIFIC TSUNAMI: CONTINUING RESEARCH AND FORMATION OF A MUSEUM EXHIBIT PACIFIC TSUNAMI: CONTINUING RESEARCH AND FORMATION OF A MUSEUM EXHIBIT Melissa Ann Meiner Geology/Marine Science Department University of Hawai i at Hilo Hilo, HI 96720 ABSTRACT The Sumatran tsunami was

More information

Structural Failures Cost Lives and Time

Structural Failures Cost Lives and Time Structural Failures Cost Lives and Time Recent failures of storage bins, silos and other structures highlight the need to increase awareness of hazards associated with these structures. Since 2010, one

More information

Understanding the Seismic Vulnerability of Water Systems

Understanding the Seismic Vulnerability of Water Systems Understanding the Seismic Vulnerability of Water Systems Lessons Learned and What You Can Do Donald Ballantyne October 2, 2013 Regional Water Providers Consortium Board Overview Oregon Resilience Plan

More information

Part 1 - How Much Danger is Your Home or Business In? Where do you live?

Part 1 - How Much Danger is Your Home or Business In? Where do you live? Earthquake Insurance and San Diego County Residents Part 1 - How much danger is your home in? Where do you live? Part 2 - What do San Diego County residents have to know about Earthquake Insurance Policies,

More information

RAILROAD LIFELINE DAMAGE IN EARTHQUAKES

RAILROAD LIFELINE DAMAGE IN EARTHQUAKES 13 th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering Vancouver, B.C., Canada August 1-6, 2004 Paper No. 324 RAILROAD LIFELINE DAMAGE IN EARTHQUAKES William G. Byers, P.E. 1 SUMMARY A number of earthquakes

More information

Mapping landslides for the insurance industry lessons from earthquakes

Mapping landslides for the insurance industry lessons from earthquakes Mapping landslides for the insurance industry lessons from earthquakes J.R. Keaton MACTEC Engineering and Consulting, Inc., Los Angeles, CA, USA R.J. Roth, Jr. Consulting Insurance Actuary, Huntington

More information

Seismic Isolated Hospital Design Practice in Turkey: Erzurum Medical Campus

Seismic Isolated Hospital Design Practice in Turkey: Erzurum Medical Campus Seismic Isolated Hospital Design Practice in Turkey: Erzurum Medical Campus J. Kubin, D. Kubin, A. Özmen, O.B. Şadan, E. Eroğlu Prota Engineering Design and Consultancy Services Inc. H. Sucuoğlu, S. Akkar

More information

A Report on Post-Earthquake Rapid Visual Damage Assessment of Buildings Of Tribhuvan International Airport

A Report on Post-Earthquake Rapid Visual Damage Assessment of Buildings Of Tribhuvan International Airport A Report on Post-Earthquake Rapid Visual Damage Assessment of Buildings Of Tribhuvan International Airport Prepared By: Civil Engineering Division Tribhuvan International Airport Civil Aviation Office

More information

Manufactured Home Inspection Checklist

Manufactured Home Inspection Checklist Where building safety research leads to real-world solutions. Manufactured Home Inspection Checklist Nearly eight percent of the U.S. population lives in a manufactured home, according to the U.S. Census

More information

CONTRASTING DISPLACEMENT DEMANDS OF DUCTILE STRUCTURES FROM TOHOKU SUBDUCTION TO CRUSTAL EARTHQUAKE RECORDS. Peter Dusicka 1 and Sarah Knoles 2

CONTRASTING DISPLACEMENT DEMANDS OF DUCTILE STRUCTURES FROM TOHOKU SUBDUCTION TO CRUSTAL EARTHQUAKE RECORDS. Peter Dusicka 1 and Sarah Knoles 2 CONTRASTING DISPLACEMENT DEMANDS OF DUCTILE STRUCTURES FROM TOHOKU SUBDUCTION TO CRUSTAL EARTHQUAKE RECORDS Abstract Peter Dusicka 1 and Sarah Knoles 2 With the impending Cascadia subduction zone event

More information

Keynote 2: What is Landslide Hazard? Inventory Maps, Uncertainty, and an Approach to Meeting Insurance Industry Needs

Keynote 2: What is Landslide Hazard? Inventory Maps, Uncertainty, and an Approach to Meeting Insurance Industry Needs Keynote 2: What is Landslide Hazard? Inventory Maps, Uncertainty, and an Approach to Meeting Insurance Industry Needs Jeffrey R Keaton Richard J Roth, Jr Amec Foster Wheeler Los Angeles, USA Consulting

More information

Using Remotely Sensed Data From ASTER to Look Impact of Recent Earth Quakes in Gujarat, India.

Using Remotely Sensed Data From ASTER to Look Impact of Recent Earth Quakes in Gujarat, India. Using Remotely Sensed Data From ASTER to Look Impact of Recent Earth Quakes in Gujarat, India. A major earth quake occurred in Gujarat, India on January 26,2000. (Origin time 03:16 GMT, Location 23.399N

More information

Worked Example 2 (Version 1) Design of concrete cantilever retaining walls to resist earthquake loading for residential sites

Worked Example 2 (Version 1) Design of concrete cantilever retaining walls to resist earthquake loading for residential sites Worked Example 2 (Version 1) Design of concrete cantilever retaining walls to resist earthquake loading for residential sites Worked example to accompany MBIE Guidance on the seismic design of retaining

More information

Earthquake Disaster Recovery Plan in TMG

Earthquake Disaster Recovery Plan in TMG Earthquake Disaster Recovery Plan in TMG Pre-disaster Management Measures by District and Recovery from Expected Earthquake Directly Underneath Tokyo Planning Section Urban Development Projects Division

More information

A RACE WITH TIME IN THE EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN REGION

A RACE WITH TIME IN THE EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN REGION A RACE WITH TIME IN THE EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN REGION Walter W HAYS 1 SUMMARY The August 17, 1999 Izmit, Turkey earthquake disaster demonstrated the need for accelerating regional programs such as, Reduction

More information

Flooding Fast Facts. flooding), seismic events (tsunami) or large landslides (sometime also called tsunami).

Flooding Fast Facts. flooding), seismic events (tsunami) or large landslides (sometime also called tsunami). Flooding Fast Facts What is a flood? Flooding is the unusual presence of water on land to a depth which affects normal activities. Flooding can arise from: Overflowing rivers (river flooding), Heavy rainfall

More information

Elevating Your House. Introduction CHAPTER 5

Elevating Your House. Introduction CHAPTER 5 CHAPTER 5 Elevating Your House Introduction One of the most common retrofitting methods is elevating a house to a required or desired Flood Protection Elevation (FPE). When a house is properly elevated,

More information

New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering. Saturday 11 April 2015 Rotorua

New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering. Saturday 11 April 2015 Rotorua New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering Saturday 11 April 2015 Rotorua Annual Likelihood National Severe weather Hazard Risks 10 % Once a decade 1 % Once a century Large rural flood Major transport

More information

ARCHITECTURE. Asst. Prof. Meltem VATAN KAPTAN meltemvatan@aydin.edu.tr

ARCHITECTURE. Asst. Prof. Meltem VATAN KAPTAN meltemvatan@aydin.edu.tr STRUCTURES IN ARCHITECTURE Asst. Prof. Meltem VATAN KAPTAN meltemvatan@aydin.edu.tr Istanbul Aydin University, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture ISTANBUL, TURKEY December 15, 2011 - GAZIANTEP If

More information

Foundation Experts, LLC Specializes in Foundation Repair and Waterproofing

Foundation Experts, LLC Specializes in Foundation Repair and Waterproofing 1 Most basements show some signs of leaking and cracking. Through the years, problems with water, poor soils, grading, drainage and possible settling affect the integrity of a basement. Being able to recognize

More information

Activities Earthquake Hazard Maps & Liquefaction

Activities Earthquake Hazard Maps & Liquefaction Activities Earthquake Hazard Maps & Liquefaction Geology and Earth Resources Division geologists actively identify, assess, and map geologic hazards for land-use and emergency-management planning, disaster

More information

Critical Facility Round Table

Critical Facility Round Table Critical Facility Round Table October 16, 2003 San Francisco Seismic Risk for Data Centers David Bonneville Senior Principal Degenkolb Engineers San Francisco, California Presentation Outline Seismic Risk

More information

EARTHQUAKE PROBLEM: Do's and Don'ts for Protection

EARTHQUAKE PROBLEM: Do's and Don'ts for Protection EARTHQUAKE PROBLEM: Do's and Don'ts for Protection Sponsored by Rajiv Gandhi Foundation, New Delhi and Prepared by Department of Earthquake Engineering, University of Roorkee, Roorkee PREFACE A large number

More information

SECTION 8 Industrial Facilities Field Investigation

SECTION 8 Industrial Facilities Field Investigation SECTION 8 Industrial Facilities Field Investigation Types of Data to Be Collected and Recorded Warehouses, manufacturing facilities, energy-producing facilities, and factories should be inspected for performance

More information

SAP REPORT. Safety Assessment Program VOLUNTEER REPORT FROM THE FIELD. April 9-12, 2010 Calexico, California

SAP REPORT. Safety Assessment Program VOLUNTEER REPORT FROM THE FIELD. April 9-12, 2010 Calexico, California SAP REPORT Safety Assessment Program VOLUNTEER REPORT FROM THE FIELD April 9-12, 2010 Calexico, California by Robert Thiele, Architect, A.I.A. SAP Volunteer 63577 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY AIA San Diego Members

More information

FOUNDATION TECHNICAL CATEGORY 3 (TC3) AUGUST 2012

FOUNDATION TECHNICAL CATEGORY 3 (TC3) AUGUST 2012 FOUNDATION TECHNICAL CATEGORY 3 (TC3) AUGUST 2012 Building and Housing has published technical guidance for foundation repairs and reconstruction for residential properties in green zone Foundation Technical

More information

Geology 112 Earthquakes. Activity 1 Worksheet Introduction to the Course. What is a Fault? What is an Earthquake?

Geology 112 Earthquakes. Activity 1 Worksheet Introduction to the Course. What is a Fault? What is an Earthquake? Geology 112 Earthquakes Name Activity 1 Worksheet Introduction to the Course. What is a Fault? What is an Earthquake? Activity 1 Objectives: Introduce student to the topics, requirements and format of

More information

NATHAN world map of natural hazards. 2011 version

NATHAN world map of natural hazards. 2011 version world map of natural hazards 2011 version World Map of Natural Hazards Geointelligence for your business A new name but the recipe for success is the same: In the 2011 version, we are offering both proven

More information

OLD BUILDINGS RESTORATION TECHNIQUE. Dr-Ing JK Makunza University of Dar es Salaam 18 th May 2011

OLD BUILDINGS RESTORATION TECHNIQUE. Dr-Ing JK Makunza University of Dar es Salaam 18 th May 2011 OLD BUILDINGS RESTORATION TECHNIQUE Dr-Ing JK Makunza University of Dar es Salaam 18 th May 2011 Introduction Zanzibar is an archipelago made up of Zanzibar and Pemba Islands. It is located in the Indian

More information

Seismic Risk Study: Earthquake Scenario-Based Risk Assessment

Seismic Risk Study: Earthquake Scenario-Based Risk Assessment Review of Arup Report Seismic Risk Study: Earthquake Scenario-Based Risk Assessment Julian Bommer, Helen Crowley & Rui Pinho Scope This document presents a brief review of the report by Arup (REP/229746/SR001,

More information

REPAIR AND RETROFIT OF BRIDGES DAMAGED BY THE 2010 CHILE MAULE EARTHQUAKE

REPAIR AND RETROFIT OF BRIDGES DAMAGED BY THE 2010 CHILE MAULE EARTHQUAKE Proceedings of the International Symposium on Engineering Lessons Learned from the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake, March 1-4, 2012, Tokyo, Japan REPAIR AND RETROFIT OF BRIDGES DAMAGED BY THE 2010 CHILE

More information

Assessment of Impact of the December 26, 2004 Tsunami In Aceh Province Indonesia

Assessment of Impact of the December 26, 2004 Tsunami In Aceh Province Indonesia Assessment of Impact of the December 26, 2004 Tsunami In Aceh Province Indonesia Jay H. Samek, David L. Skole, and Walter Chomentowski December 30, 2004 Center for Global Change and Earth Observations

More information

symptoms of a faulty foundation

symptoms of a faulty foundation symptoms of a faulty foundation How does drought impact your home's foundation? For many Texas families, their home becomes the single largest investment and also the family fortune. The home's foundation

More information

2006 Kiholo Bay, Hawaii Earthquake

2006 Kiholo Bay, Hawaii Earthquake 2006 Kiholo Bay, Hawaii Earthquake TM Risk Management Solutions I NTRODUCTION On Sunday, October 15, 2006 at 7:07:48 a.m. local time, a Mw 6.7 (moment magnitude) earthquake struck off the Kohala coast

More information

SIESMIC SLOSHING IN CYLINDRICAL TANKS WITH FLEXIBLE BAFFLES

SIESMIC SLOSHING IN CYLINDRICAL TANKS WITH FLEXIBLE BAFFLES SIESMIC SLOSHING IN CYLINDRICAL TANKS WITH FLEXIBLE BAFFLES Kayahan AKGUL 1, Yasin M. FAHJAN 2, Zuhal OZDEMIR 3 and Mhamed SOULI 4 ABSTRACT Sloshing has been one of the major concerns for engineers in

More information

The Current Situation and Circumstances Regarding the Great Earthquake Damage

The Current Situation and Circumstances Regarding the Great Earthquake Damage The Current Situation and Circumstances Regarding the Great Earthquake Damage Ishinomaki District Water Supply Authority Junichi Takaki, Deputy Technology Director 116 Shinkaminuma Hebita Ishinomaki-city

More information

THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TRIGGERED 2011 VAN-EDREMİT EARTHQUAKE AND INDUCED DAMAGE

THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TRIGGERED 2011 VAN-EDREMİT EARTHQUAKE AND INDUCED DAMAGE Proceedings of the International Symposium on Engineering Lessons Learned from the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake, March 1-4, 2012, Tokyo, Japan Dedicated to Dr. Atsushi Miyazaki and the people lost

More information

Using GIS for Assessing Earthquake Hazards of San Francisco Bay, California, USA

Using GIS for Assessing Earthquake Hazards of San Francisco Bay, California, USA Using GIS for Assessing Earthquake Hazards of San Francisco Bay, California, USA Marzieh Zeinali Department of Resource Analysis, Saint Mary s University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55404 Keywords: San

More information

Structural Damage Due to Floods

Structural Damage Due to Floods Structural Damage Due to Floods By Craig D. Rogers, P.E. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) reports that each year approximately 90 percent of all disaster-related property damage results from

More information

Chapter 3 Pre-Installation, Foundations and Piers

Chapter 3 Pre-Installation, Foundations and Piers Chapter 3 Pre-Installation, Foundations and Piers 3-1 Pre-Installation Establishes the minimum requirements for the siting, design, materials, access, and installation of manufactured dwellings, accessory

More information

Numerical Modeling Earthquake Effects On Sea Outfall Systems : Kadýköy Sea Outfall Case

Numerical Modeling Earthquake Effects On Sea Outfall Systems : Kadýköy Sea Outfall Case 2 ND INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MARINE WASTE WATER DISCHARGES MWWD 2002 - I STANBUL SEPT. 16 20 Numerical Modeling Earthquake Effects On Sea Outfall Systems : Kadýköy Sea Outfall Case Prof.Dr. Sedat Kabdaþlý

More information

MINISTRY OF EDUCATION SCHOOL STANDARDS

MINISTRY OF EDUCATION SCHOOL STANDARDS Islamic Republic of Afghanistan MINISTRY OF EDUCATION SCHOOL STANDARDS Policies, Codes and Designs 1 Subjects in Presentation Standards and Designs Policy guidelines: July 2006, Cost-effective Schools

More information

Welcome to Vibrationdata

Welcome to Vibrationdata Welcome to Vibrationdata Acoustics Shock Vibration Signal Processing December 2004 Newsletter Ni hao Feature Articles One of my goals is to measure a wide variety of oscillating signals. In some sense,

More information

Geology 1110:Geology and Earth Systems. (CE 2425: Geologic Principles for Civil Engineers) Roadmap for today: Review syllabus & course expectations

Geology 1110:Geology and Earth Systems. (CE 2425: Geologic Principles for Civil Engineers) Roadmap for today: Review syllabus & course expectations Geology 1110:Geology and Earth Systems (CE 2425: Geologic Principles for Civil Engineers) Roadmap for today: Review syllabus & course expectations Discuss course goals Note: I will end class a bit early

More information

Geological Disasters. Earthquake 1

Geological Disasters. Earthquake 1 Geological Disasters Earthquake 1 Earthquakes are one of the most destructive of natural hazards. An earthquake occurs due to sudden transient motion of the ground as a result of release of elastic energy

More information

UNCORRECTED PAGE PROOFS

UNCORRECTED PAGE PROOFS 5Plate tectonics Earthquakes in Christchurch and northern Japan in 2011 and the Haiti earthquake in 2010 caused massive destruction and loss of life. What caused these and other earthquakes and volcanic

More information

CONTRIBUTION TO THE IAEA SOIL-STRUCTURE INTERACTION KARISMA BENCHMARK

CONTRIBUTION TO THE IAEA SOIL-STRUCTURE INTERACTION KARISMA BENCHMARK CONTRIBUTION TO THE IAEA SOIL-STRUCTURE INTERACTION KARISMA BENCHMARK Presented by F. Wang (CEA, France), CLUB CAST3M 2013 28/11/2013 5 DÉCEMBRE 2013 CEA 10 AVRIL 2012 PAGE 1 CONTRIBUTION TO THE IAEA SSI

More information

SEISMIC RETROFIT DESIGN CRITERIA

SEISMIC RETROFIT DESIGN CRITERIA SEISMIC RETROFIT DESIGN CRITERIA British Columbia Ministry of Transportation June 30, 2005 Prepared by: Recommended by: Approved by: Don Kennedy, P.Eng., Associated Engineering (BC) Sharlie Huffman, P.

More information

chapter 9 conduct a climate change

chapter 9 conduct a climate change CONDUCT A CLIMATE RESILIENCY STUDY The following chapters recommend how to reach CRC Milestone Two, Conduct a Climate Resiliency Study. 2 MILESTONE Chapter 8: Conduct a Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment

More information

SEISMIC CAPACITY OF EXISTING RC SCHOOL BUILDINGS IN OTA CITY, TOKYO, JAPAN

SEISMIC CAPACITY OF EXISTING RC SCHOOL BUILDINGS IN OTA CITY, TOKYO, JAPAN SEISMIC CAPACITY OF EXISTING RC SCHOOL BUILDINGS IN OTA CITY, TOKYO, JAPAN Toshio OHBA, Shigeru TAKADA, Yoshiaki NAKANO, Hideo KIMURA 4, Yoshimasa OWADA 5 And Tsuneo OKADA 6 SUMMARY The 995 Hyogoken-nambu

More information

After the Shaking Stops: A Communitywide Approach to Managing Post-Quake Fires

After the Shaking Stops: A Communitywide Approach to Managing Post-Quake Fires After the Shaking Stops: A Communitywide Approach to Managing Post-Quake Fires By Rem Brown, P.E., IBHS Senior Engineering Manager, and Brent Henzi, IBHS Communications Associate Earthquakes are a destructive

More information

BUILDING DESIGN FOR HOMELAND SECURITY. Unit IV Vulnerability Assessment

BUILDING DESIGN FOR HOMELAND SECURITY. Unit IV Vulnerability Assessment Unit IV Vulnerability Assessment Vulnerability Any weakness that can be exploited by an aggressor or, in a non-terrorist threat environment, make an asset susceptible to hazard damage Unit IV-2 Unit Objectives

More information

BUTE Department of Construction Management and Technology

BUTE Department of Construction Management and Technology BUTE Department of Construction Management and Technology 02.10.2012 Definition 1: Foundation: The structure, that transmits the load of the building to the soil Definition 2: Load bearing soil (strata):

More information

Geology 3120 - Structural Geology A capstone course

Geology 3120 - Structural Geology A capstone course Geology 3120 - Structural Geology A capstone course a culminating experience in which students synthesize subject-matter knowledge they have acquired, integrate cross-disciplinary knowledge, and connect

More information

THE REPORT ON THE INVESTIGATION OF THE REACTORS AT FUKUSHIMA DAIICHI NUCLEAR POWER STATION (NO. 1)

THE REPORT ON THE INVESTIGATION OF THE REACTORS AT FUKUSHIMA DAIICHI NUCLEAR POWER STATION (NO. 1) THE REPORT ON THE INVESTIGATION INTO THE CURRENT SEISMIC SAFETY AND REINFORCEMENT OF THE REACTORS AT FUKUSHIMA DAIICHI NUCLEAR POWER STATION (NO. 1) May 2011 The Tokyo Electric Power Company, Inc. Index

More information

California Standards Grades 9 12 Boardworks 2009 Science Contents Standards Mapping

California Standards Grades 9 12 Boardworks 2009 Science Contents Standards Mapping California Standards Grades 912 Boardworks 2009 Science Contents Standards Mapping Earth Sciences Earth s Place in the Universe 1. Astronomy and planetary exploration reveal the solar system s structure,

More information

A blended course for introductory geology at San Diego State University: Choosing and implementing an assessment tool

A blended course for introductory geology at San Diego State University: Choosing and implementing an assessment tool pict Project 2006 Assessing your experiment A blended course for introductory geology at San Diego State University: Choosing and implementing an assessment tool Gary H. Girty Give a very brief background

More information

DEEP AZIMUTHAL SEISMIC ANISOTROPY IN THE WESTERNANATOLIA AND AEGEAN SUBDUCTION ZONE

DEEP AZIMUTHAL SEISMIC ANISOTROPY IN THE WESTERNANATOLIA AND AEGEAN SUBDUCTION ZONE DEEP AZIMUTHAL SEISMIC ANISOTROPY IN THE WESTERNANATOLIA AND AEGEAN SUBDUCTION ZONE G. Polat -1 and M.N. Ozel -1 Adress: 1- Boğaziçi University, Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institution,

More information