Diffraction from a Ruler

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Diffraction from a Ruler"

Transcription

1 Lab #27 Diffraction page 1 Diffraction from a Ruler Reading: Giambatista, Richardson, and Richardson Chapter 25 (25.1, 25.6, 25.7, 25.9). Summary: In this lab you will learn the diffraction analysis scientists use to determine the crystal and molecular structure of proteins, minerals, semiconductors, polymers, and metals. However, these materials are very complicated so, as an introduction, we will simulate a single line of atoms or molecules using the engravings on a metal ruler. Then you will shine visible-light photons (from a helium-neon laser) on this single atomic/molecular line, the laser light will bounce off the atoms/molecules, and the interfering light beams will produce a pattern of diffracted spots. From the distance between these diffracted spots, you will deduce the atomic/molecular spacing. Note: Answers to all questions are to be given in full sentences, such that by looking at the answer, the reader knows what question is being answered without having to read the question. Any answers not written this way, even if they are correct, will receive 0 credit. Pre-Lab Analysis Three-dimensional crystal or molecular structures are of utmost importance in determining (1) a material s properties and (2) how the atoms and molecules behave within in a material. The technique most frequently employed in scientific disciplines to analyze the three-dimensional structures is x-ray diffraction. In biology and chemistry, NMR is also used for structure determinations, but NMR only provides information about which atoms are connected to which and it is frequently difficult to determine the three-dimensional arrangement of these atoms. For those of you who have taken organic chemistry, you have learned about stereo-chemistry where the three-dimensional nature of the molecule is important. To determine this three-dimensional structure, about the only definitive technique is x-ray diffraction. Hence the study of this technique here. For diffraction to occur, the wavelength of the incident photons must be smaller and within three to four orders of magnitude of the distance between the things (slits as in your textbook, or atoms/molecules in real materials) off which the photons diffract. If the photon wavelength is too large, no photons will pass through the slits and if the wavelength is too small, the photons will pass through undisturbed by diffraction. For example in your textbook, multiple slit diffraction (e.g. from a diffraction grating) is described where the slits are about 1 µm apart. Your textbook says visible light will diffract from these slits. According to the rule above, the photon wavelengths need to be on the order of µm (1 nm) to 1 µm (1000 nm) to cause diffraction. Since visible light consists of wavelengths from ~400 nm to ~800 nm, visible light will diffract from these diffraction gratings. For crystalline materials, in order for diffraction to occur the photon wavelength therefore must be within the range from roughly the same size and within three to four orders of magnitude smaller than the spacing between the atoms or molecules inside the crystal. Only electron and x-ray wavelengths are small enough and hence electrons and x- rays are used to probe the crystal structure of materials. Once the atoms or molecules diffract the electrons or x-rays, beautiful and intricate spot patterns form and are captured on film. These patterns are unique to each different crystal structure (of which there are only 14 basic ones in all of nature). From these diffraction patterns, x-ray crystallographers work

2 Lab #27 Diffraction page 2 backward to determine the crystal structure that caused the pattern and with that information they find the exact position of atoms and molecules within the crystal. However, such analysis is very complex, especially for three-dimensional crystals. For your introduction to diffraction in this lab, we will tackle a slightly less complicated problem than the three-dimensional structure of biological materials. In superconducting materials and some semiconductors, 1-dimensional structures (like an ultrathin line) offer unique properties that can only be explained by quantum mechanics. To understand this quantum mechanics and to use it to predict the electrical and optical properties of these materials, the inter-atomic distance must be known. Conveniently, the distance between the atoms in the line is relatively easy to determine using x-ray diffraction. In this lab you will use the engraving on a piece of metal to simulate the atoms in a one-dimensional structure, but the engravings will be spaced much farther apart than the atoms in the semiconductors or superconductors. Thus you will need to use photons of longer wavelengths than electrons or x rays. In fact since the engravings will be on the order of 1mm, three to four orders of magnitude smaller than this is between 0.1µm and 1µm. the wavelength of red light is within in the range and in this lab you will diffract red photons (from a helium-neon laser) from the simulated atoms (ruler engravings). Once the atoms diffract the photons, a spot diffraction pattern will form on a screen about 1 m to 2 m away. From the distance between the diffracted spots and the diffraction formula, you will calculate very precisely (as real crystallographers do) how far apart the atoms must have been in order to cause the observed diffraction pattern. You will then check this inter-atomic spacing against the markings on the ruler. The equation that relates the inter-atomic spacing d between the ridges (engravings) on the ruler, to the angle q at which the diffracted spot is observed and the wavelength l of the photons being diffracted (from your textbook) is: sinj = m l, m = 0, ± 1, ± 2,... d where m represents the order of the diffracted spot. Figure 1 illustrates the experimental setup. The beam from a He-Ne laser strikes a horizontal steel ruler at a grazing incident angle Ji. Diffraction spots are observed at heights y n (n =..., -2, -1, 0, 1, 2,...) on a vertical screen or wall. Each maximum corresponds to a diffracted angle Jd,n, which will vary depending on the value of n. According to the geometry shown in the figure tan (Jd,n) = y n /L. To observe diffracted spots at y n the difference in the path lengths between Ray 1 and Ray 2 must be an integral number of wavelengths nl. Writing DSR for the distance from the photon source (laser) to the ruler at point 1 and DSR for the distance to point 2, and similarly DRD for the distance from the ruler to the photon detector (screen) for Ray 1 while DRD is for Ray 2, we find:

3 Lab #27 Diffraction page 3 path difference between Ray 1 and Ray 2 = D 1 SR 42 + D 4 RD 3 - D SR' +D RD 43 ' Ray 1 ( ) Ray 2 Ray 2 laser Ray Ray 1 Ray 2 J d,n J i 2 1 d yn L Figure 1: Experimental arrangement. = ( D SR - D SR' )+ ( D RD - D RD' ) =(distance between Point 1 and Point 2) + (distance between Point 1 and Point 2 ) = d cosjd,n d cosji The last expression above was obtained using trigonometry of the two right triangles 1 12 and Hence, the criterion for a diffraction maximum of order n is nl = d cosjd,n d cosji (1)

4 Lab #27 Diffraction page 4 This equation can be rewritten in terms of the measurable distances yn, y0 (the height of the zero th order spot, which is when Jd,0 = Ji), and the distance d (that you are trying to find): where z = n ( y 2 n - y 2 ) 0 L 2. nl = d y n - y 0 L 2 = d z 2 n fi z n = 2 l d n (2) Equation (2) is the working equation for this experiment. Thus, if you measure y n for several n, calculate the corresponding z n, and fit a line to the equation involving z n and n, you will able to experimentally determine d (if you know l), the distance between the markings on the ruler! yn (cm) n 1.) Photons of wavelength 682 nm are incident on a single line of engravings and the photons produce a diffraction pattern on a screen 1.3 m away with the diffracted spots at the distances given in Table a.) Calculate each zn. [10 pts] b.) Make a plot in Excel and fit a Trendline to it so that from the Table 1: Diffraction data. slope of the Trendline you can find the engraving spacing that produced the observed diffraction pattern. Print your plot with the fit and equation of the fit showing. [7 pts] 2 c.) Calculate the engraving spacing. Don t forget to label your answer, include units, and use the correct number of significant figures. [6 pts] 3 d.) What is the engraving spacing in inches? To what fraction does this decimal correspond? [7 pts] 4 2.) Outline the lab following the format of Outline Format posted on the Electronic Reserves web page. [20 pts] 5 Equipment to be used in this lab: He-Ne gas laser 1 engraved steel ruler (with 1 /64 or 1 /32 marked on it) 1 meter stick 1.) Equipment Set-up: Laser, ruler, and white board r Turn on the laser and make sure it illuminates about an inch of the metal ruler. r In your notebook record which engravings on the metal ruler are illuminated by the laser (i.e., note the value of d). [3 pts] 6

5 Lab #27 Diffraction page 5 r The diffraction pattern produced by the laser light diffracting from the metal ruler should be projected onto the white board on the wall. Take a few minutes to familiarize yourself with the apparatus and the pattern on the wall. Adjust the laser beam and ruler to optimize the sharpness and intensity of the diffraction pattern. 2.) Measuring the diffraction pattern A. Finding the position of the zero th order spot r There will be many spots up to perhaps 20 on the wall. Most of them will correspond to positive values of n but a few may correspond to negative values of n. To analyze your data correctly, you must know which spot corresponds to n = 0. r The zero th -order spot appears when the path difference is zero, i.e., when Jd,0 = Ji, or when the angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection. How will you determine which spot is the zero th -order spot? [3 pts] 7 r Once you have identified a procedure, check with your the instructor to make sure it will work. B. Determining origin from which all yn will be measured r The way angles were introduced in the Pre-lab, the yn s are measured from a specific origin. This origin is the extrapolation of the ruler to the white board. You must figure out a way to extrapolate the ruler to the wall. Describe your method in your notebook with a sketch. [3 pts] 8 To get you started: note where the laser beam strikes the wall when the ruler is moved completely out of its path. Then compare this position with the position of the zero th order spot. Where is the origin relative to these two points? Why? [5 pts] 9 r Mark your origin on the white board. C. Identifying the point within the diffraction spot to which to measure for yn r Each bright spot will have a width (in other words the diffraction spots will not be tiny pin dots of light). This complicates the yn measurements. r There are two methods you can choose for determining the point to which you will measure yn and you will need to think carefully about which one will produce a more accurate determination for d. Choose one method, describe it in your notebook, and explain why you think it is the better method. [5 pts] 10 One method is to choose the absolute brightest part of each diffraction spot. The second method is to measure the width of each diffracted spot and locate its true center. D. Measuring yn r Mark the location of each diffraction maximum on the white board. [3 pts] 11 r Carefully measure y n for as many diffracted spots as you can. r Record the value of n you have determined for each spot. (A table may be the easiest way of organizing your data.) [5 pts] 12

6 Lab #27 Diffraction page 6 r Do not erase your data from the white board and do not bump or move your experimental setup, until you have found d (Part 3 below) and it is within 5% of the numbers marked on the metal ruler. E. Measuring L r There is some ambiguity about the distance between the ruler and the wall (L), since a large portion of the metal ruler is illuminated. From where on the ruler should L be measured? Why? [4 pts] 13 r Measure L and record it in your notebook. [4 pts] 14 3.) Determining d r Choose 8 yn, find the corresponding zn, and record them in your notebook. [9 pts] 15 r Plot your data in Excel and fit a line to it (see Prelab Question 1). Print your results with the equation of the fitted line showing. [5 pts] 16 r Calculate d (don t forget units) and label/circle your answer. [10 pts] 17 r Compare your calculated d to the value given on the ruler. [4 pts] 18 r List any possible sources of error. [4 pts] 19 4.) Cleaning Up r When you are finished with your experiments and calculations, make sure the laser illuminates a section of the ruler and that the diffraction pattern is easily readable on the wall, as in Part 1. r Call your TA over and show him or her that everything is lined up correctly. r Once your TA has checked everything, shut off the laser. [5 pts] 20 Note: the laser wavelength will be given in lab.

Interference. Physics 102 Workshop #3. General Instructions

Interference. Physics 102 Workshop #3. General Instructions Interference Physics 102 Workshop #3 Name: Lab Partner(s): Instructor: Time of Workshop: General Instructions Workshop exercises are to be carried out in groups of three. One report per group is due by

More information

Measure the Distance Between Tracks of CD and DVD

Measure the Distance Between Tracks of CD and DVD University of Technology Laser & Optoelectronics Engineering Department Laser Eng Branch Laser application Lab. The aim of work: Experiment (9) Measure the Distance Between Tracks of CD and DVD 1-measure

More information

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. Exam Name MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) A single slit forms a diffraction pattern, with the first minimum at an angle of 40 from

More information

Answer: b. Answer: a. Answer: d

Answer: b. Answer: a. Answer: d Practice Test IV Name 1) In a single slit diffraction experiment, the width of the slit is 3.1 10-5 m and the distance from the slit to the screen is 2.2 m. If the beam of light of wavelength 600 nm passes

More information

ELECTRIC FIELD LINES AND EQUIPOTENTIAL SURFACES

ELECTRIC FIELD LINES AND EQUIPOTENTIAL SURFACES ELECTRIC FIELD LINES AND EQUIPOTENTIAL SURFACES The purpose of this lab session is to experimentally investigate the relation between electric field lines of force and equipotential surfaces in two dimensions.

More information

Using light scattering method to find The surface tension of water

Using light scattering method to find The surface tension of water Experiment (8) Using light scattering method to find The surface tension of water The aim of work: The goals of this experiment are to confirm the relationship between angular frequency and wave vector

More information

DIFFRACTION AND INTERFERENCE

DIFFRACTION AND INTERFERENCE DIFFRACTION AND INTERFERENCE In this experiment you will emonstrate the wave nature of light by investigating how it bens aroun eges an how it interferes constructively an estructively. You will observe

More information

Diffraction of Laser Light

Diffraction of Laser Light Diffraction of Laser Light No Prelab Introduction The laser is a unique light source because its light is coherent and monochromatic. Coherent light is made up of waves, which are all in phase. Monochromatic

More information

THE BOHR QUANTUM MODEL

THE BOHR QUANTUM MODEL THE BOHR QUANTUM MODEL INTRODUCTION When light from a low-pressure gas is subject to an electric discharge, a discrete line spectrum is emitted. When light from such a low-pressure gas is examined with

More information

Fraunhofer Diffraction

Fraunhofer Diffraction Physics 334 Spring 1 Purpose Fraunhofer Diffraction The experiment will test the theory of Fraunhofer diffraction at a single slit by comparing a careful measurement of the angular dependence of intensity

More information

6) How wide must a narrow slit be if the first diffraction minimum occurs at ±12 with laser light of 633 nm?

6) How wide must a narrow slit be if the first diffraction minimum occurs at ±12 with laser light of 633 nm? Test IV Name 1) In a single slit diffraction experiment, the width of the slit is 3.1 10-5 m and the distance from the slit to the screen is 2.2 m. If the beam of light of wavelength 600 nm passes through

More information

Lab 9. Optics. 9.1 Introduction

Lab 9. Optics. 9.1 Introduction Lab 9 Name: Optics 9.1 Introduction Unlike other scientists, astronomers are far away from the objects they want to examine. Therefore astronomers learn everything about an object by studying the light

More information

Physics 1020 Laboratory #6 Equilibrium of a Rigid Body. Equilibrium of a Rigid Body

Physics 1020 Laboratory #6 Equilibrium of a Rigid Body. Equilibrium of a Rigid Body Equilibrium of a Rigid Body Contents I. Introduction II. III. IV. Finding the center of gravity of the meter stick Calibrating the force probe Investigation of the angled meter stick V. Investigation of

More information

LAUE DIFFRACTION INTRODUCTION CHARACTERISTICS X RAYS BREMSSTRAHLUNG

LAUE DIFFRACTION INTRODUCTION CHARACTERISTICS X RAYS BREMSSTRAHLUNG LAUE DIFFRACTION INTRODUCTION X-rays are electromagnetic radiations that originate outside the nucleus. There are two major processes for X-ray production which are quite different and which lead to different

More information

Physics 41, Winter 1998 Lab 1 - The Current Balance. Theory

Physics 41, Winter 1998 Lab 1 - The Current Balance. Theory Physics 41, Winter 1998 Lab 1 - The Current Balance Theory Consider a point at a perpendicular distance d from a long straight wire carrying a current I as shown in figure 1. If the wire is very long compared

More information

Spectrophotometry and the Beer-Lambert Law: An Important Analytical Technique in Chemistry

Spectrophotometry and the Beer-Lambert Law: An Important Analytical Technique in Chemistry Spectrophotometry and the Beer-Lambert Law: An Important Analytical Technique in Chemistry Jon H. Hardesty, PhD and Bassam Attili, PhD Collin College Department of Chemistry Introduction: In the last lab

More information

Experiment 3 Lenses and Images

Experiment 3 Lenses and Images Experiment 3 Lenses and Images Who shall teach thee, unless it be thine own eyes? Euripides (480?-406? BC) OBJECTIVES To examine the nature and location of images formed by es. THEORY Lenses are frequently

More information

GEOMETRICAL OPTICS. Lens Prism Mirror

GEOMETRICAL OPTICS. Lens Prism Mirror GEOMETRICAL OPTICS Geometrical optics is the treatment of the passage of light through lenses, prisms, etc. by representing the light as rays. A light ray from a source goes in a straight line through

More information

Interferometers. OBJECTIVES To examine the operation of several kinds of interferometers. d sin = n (1)

Interferometers. OBJECTIVES To examine the operation of several kinds of interferometers. d sin = n (1) Interferometers The true worth of an experimenter consists in his pursuing not only what he seeks in his experiment, but also what he did not seek. Claude Bernard (1813-1878) OBJECTIVES To examine the

More information

ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE: Given: A = 3 and B = 4 if we now want the value of C=? C = 3 + 4 = 9 + 16 = 25 or 2

ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE: Given: A = 3 and B = 4 if we now want the value of C=? C = 3 + 4 = 9 + 16 = 25 or 2 Forensic Spectral Anaylysis: Warm up! The study of triangles has been done since ancient times. Many of the early discoveries about triangles are still used today. We will only be concerned with the "right

More information

Thin Lenses. Physics 102 Workshop #7. General Instructions

Thin Lenses. Physics 102 Workshop #7. General Instructions Thin Lenses Physics 102 Workshop #7 Name: Lab Partner(s): Instructor: Time of Workshop: General Instructions Workshop exercises are to be carried out in groups of three. One report per group is due by

More information

GRID AND PRISM SPECTROMETERS

GRID AND PRISM SPECTROMETERS FYSA230/2 GRID AND PRISM SPECTROMETERS 1. Introduction Electromagnetic radiation (e.g. visible light) experiences reflection, refraction, interference and diffraction phenomena when entering and passing

More information

Light and Spectra. COLOR λ, nm COLOR λ, nm violet 405 yellow 579 blue 436 orange 623 green 492 red 689

Light and Spectra. COLOR λ, nm COLOR λ, nm violet 405 yellow 579 blue 436 orange 623 green 492 red 689 Light and Spectra INTRODUCTION Light and color have intrigued humans since antiquity. In this experiment, you will consider several aspects of light including: a. The visible spectrum of colors (red to

More information

PRACTICE EXAM IV P202 SPRING 2004

PRACTICE EXAM IV P202 SPRING 2004 PRACTICE EXAM IV P202 SPRING 2004 1. In two separate double slit experiments, an interference pattern is observed on a screen. In the first experiment, violet light (λ = 754 nm) is used and a second-order

More information

Using the Spectrophotometer

Using the Spectrophotometer Using the Spectrophotometer Introduction In this exercise, you will learn the basic principals of spectrophotometry and and serial dilution and their practical application. You will need these skills to

More information

Lab 9: The Acousto-Optic Effect

Lab 9: The Acousto-Optic Effect Lab 9: The Acousto-Optic Effect Incoming Laser Beam Travelling Acoustic Wave (longitudinal wave) O A 1st order diffracted laser beam A 1 Introduction qb d O 2qb rarefractions compressions Refer to Appendix

More information

Lesson 26: Reflection & Mirror Diagrams

Lesson 26: Reflection & Mirror Diagrams Lesson 26: Reflection & Mirror Diagrams The Law of Reflection There is nothing really mysterious about reflection, but some people try to make it more difficult than it really is. All EMR will reflect

More information

Guide to Understanding X-ray Crystallography

Guide to Understanding X-ray Crystallography Guide to Understanding X-ray Crystallography What is X-ray Crystallography and why do I need to learn it? X-ray Crystallography is a scientific method of determining the precise positions/arrangements

More information

AP Physics B Ch. 23 and Ch. 24 Geometric Optics and Wave Nature of Light

AP Physics B Ch. 23 and Ch. 24 Geometric Optics and Wave Nature of Light AP Physics B Ch. 23 and Ch. 24 Geometric Optics and Wave Nature of Light Name: Period: Date: MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Reflection,

More information

Magnetic Fields and Their Effects

Magnetic Fields and Their Effects Name Date Time to Complete h m Partner Course/ Section / Grade Magnetic Fields and Their Effects This experiment is intended to give you some hands-on experience with the effects of, and in some cases

More information

Chemistry 111 Lab: Intro to Spectrophotometry Page E-1

Chemistry 111 Lab: Intro to Spectrophotometry Page E-1 Chemistry 111 Lab: Intro to Spectrophotometry Page E-1 SPECTROPHOTOMETRY Absorption Measurements & their Application to Quantitative Analysis study of the interaction of light (or other electromagnetic

More information

Teaching Time: Two 50-minute periods

Teaching Time: Two 50-minute periods Lesson Summary In this lesson, students will build an open spectrograph to calculate the angle the light is transmitted through a holographic diffraction grating. After finding the desired angles, the

More information

How is LASER light different from white light? Teacher Notes

How is LASER light different from white light? Teacher Notes How is LASER light different from white light? Teacher Notes Concepts: (1) Light is a type of energy that travels as waves. [6.2.3.1.1] (2) Laser light is different from traditional light sources and must

More information

Diffraction and Young s Single Slit Experiment

Diffraction and Young s Single Slit Experiment Diffraction and Young s Single Slit Experiment Developers AB Overby Objectives Preparation Background The objectives of this experiment are to observe Fraunhofer, or far-field, diffraction through a single

More information

Building your own Spectroscope

Building your own Spectroscope Building your own Spectroscope 0-0.341-0.445-0.606-0.872-1.36 Lyman Balmer Paschen n=4 n=8 n=7 n=6 n=5 n=4 ENERGY/10-19 J -2.42-5.45 E 5 2 E 4 2 E 3 2 E E 5 3 4 3 n=3 n=2 (Many other transitions beyond

More information

P R E A M B L E. Facilitated workshop problems for class discussion (1.5 hours)

P R E A M B L E. Facilitated workshop problems for class discussion (1.5 hours) INSURANCE SCAM OPTICS - LABORATORY INVESTIGATION P R E A M B L E The original form of the problem is an Experimental Group Research Project, undertaken by students organised into small groups working as

More information

Photosynthesis. photosynthesis. respiration

Photosynthesis. photosynthesis. respiration Photosynthesis Learning Goals After completing this laboratory exercise you will be able to: 1. Observe the absorption spectrum of the pigment Chlorophyll using a spectroscope. 2. Describe the relationship

More information

Date: Deflection of an Electron in a Magnetic Field

Date: Deflection of an Electron in a Magnetic Field Name: Partners: Date: Deflection of an Electron in a Magnetic Field Purpose In this lab, we use a Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) to measure the effects of an electric and magnetic field on the motion of a charged

More information

Pre-Lab 7 Assignment: Capacitors and RC Circuits

Pre-Lab 7 Assignment: Capacitors and RC Circuits Name: Lab Partners: Date: Pre-Lab 7 Assignment: Capacitors and RC Circuits (Due at the beginning of lab) Directions: Read over the Lab Handout and then answer the following questions about the procedures.

More information

Experiment 3: Magnetic Fields of a Bar Magnet and Helmholtz Coil

Experiment 3: Magnetic Fields of a Bar Magnet and Helmholtz Coil MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Department of Physics 8.02 Spring 2006 Experiment 3: Magnetic Fields of a Bar Magnet and Helmholtz Coil OBJECTIVES 1. To learn how to visualize magnetic field lines

More information

Solution Derivations for Capa #14

Solution Derivations for Capa #14 Solution Derivations for Capa #4 ) An image of the moon is focused onto a screen using a converging lens of focal length (f = 34.8 cm). The diameter of the moon is 3.48 0 6 m, and its mean distance from

More information

Measuring the Diameter of the Sun

Measuring the Diameter of the Sun Chapter 24 Studying the Sun Investigation 24 Measuring the Diameter of the Sun Introduction The sun is approximately 150,000,000 km from Earth. To understand how far away this is, consider the fact that

More information

Lab 4 - Capacitors & RC Circuits

Lab 4 - Capacitors & RC Circuits Lab 4 Capacitors & RC Circuits L41 Name Date Partners Lab 4 Capacitors & RC Circuits OBJECTIVES To define capacitance and to learn to measure it with a digital multimeter. To explore how the capacitance

More information

PHYS-2212 LAB Coulomb s Law and the Force between Charged Plates

PHYS-2212 LAB Coulomb s Law and the Force between Charged Plates PHYS-2212 LAB Coulomb s Law and the Force between Charged Plates Objectives To investigate the electrostatic force between charged metal plates and determine the electric permittivity of free space, ε

More information

O6: The Diffraction Grating Spectrometer

O6: The Diffraction Grating Spectrometer 2B30: PRACTICAL ASTROPHYSICS FORMAL REPORT: O6: The Diffraction Grating Spectrometer Adam Hill Lab partner: G. Evans Tutor: Dr. Peter Storey 1 Abstract The calibration of a diffraction grating spectrometer

More information

Units, Physical Quantities and Vectors

Units, Physical Quantities and Vectors Chapter 1 Units, Physical Quantities and Vectors 1.1 Nature of physics Mathematics. Math is the language we use to discuss science (physics, chemistry, biology, geology, engineering, etc.) Not all of the

More information

WAVELENGTH OF LIGHT - DIFFRACTION GRATING

WAVELENGTH OF LIGHT - DIFFRACTION GRATING PURPOSE In this experiment we will use the diffraction grating and the spectrometer to measure wavelengths in the mercury spectrum. THEORY A diffraction grating is essentially a series of parallel equidistant

More information

6. Vectors. 1 2009-2016 Scott Surgent (surgent@asu.edu)

6. Vectors. 1 2009-2016 Scott Surgent (surgent@asu.edu) 6. Vectors For purposes of applications in calculus and physics, a vector has both a direction and a magnitude (length), and is usually represented as an arrow. The start of the arrow is the vector s foot,

More information

Measurement and Measurement Error

Measurement and Measurement Error 1 Measurement and Measurement Error PHYS 1301 F99 Prof. T.E. Coan Version: 8 Sep 99 Introduction Physics makes both general and detailed statements about the physical universe. These statements are organized

More information

Introduction to microstructure

Introduction to microstructure Introduction to microstructure 1.1 What is microstructure? When describing the structure of a material, we make a clear distinction between its crystal structure and its microstructure. The term crystal

More information

The He-Ne Laser * He-Ne Laser System. Power supply and ballast. interatomic collision. 1E-7 sec

The He-Ne Laser * He-Ne Laser System. Power supply and ballast. interatomic collision. 1E-7 sec The He-Ne Laser * I. Introduction The He-Ne laser (Figure 1) uses a low pressure (ca. 1 Torr He, 0.1 Torr Ne) mixture excited by a dc electric discharge. A ballast resistor is placed in series with the

More information

1051-232 Imaging Systems Laboratory II. Laboratory 4: Basic Lens Design in OSLO April 2 & 4, 2002

1051-232 Imaging Systems Laboratory II. Laboratory 4: Basic Lens Design in OSLO April 2 & 4, 2002 05-232 Imaging Systems Laboratory II Laboratory 4: Basic Lens Design in OSLO April 2 & 4, 2002 Abstract: For designing the optics of an imaging system, one of the main types of tools used today is optical

More information

Lab 11: Magnetic Fields Name:

Lab 11: Magnetic Fields Name: Lab 11: Magnetic Fields Name: Group Members: Date: TA s Name: Objectives: To measure and understand the magnetic field of a bar magnet. To measure and understand the magnetic field of an electromagnet,

More information

USING CDs AND DVDs AS DIFFRACTION GRATINGS

USING CDs AND DVDs AS DIFFRACTION GRATINGS USING CDs AND DVDs AS DIFFRACTION GRATINGS Rama Balachandran Riverwood High School Atlanta, GA Karen Porter-Davis Chamblee Charter High School Chamblee, GA Copyright Georgia Institute of Technology 2009

More information

Project 2B Building a Solar Cell (2): Solar Cell Performance

Project 2B Building a Solar Cell (2): Solar Cell Performance April. 15, 2010 Due April. 29, 2010 Project 2B Building a Solar Cell (2): Solar Cell Performance Objective: In this project we are going to experimentally measure the I-V characteristics, energy conversion

More information

Light, Light Bulbs and the Electromagnetic Spectrum

Light, Light Bulbs and the Electromagnetic Spectrum Light, Light Bulbs and the Electromagnetic Spectrum Spectrum The different wavelengths of electromagnetic waves present in visible light correspond to what we see as different colours. Electromagnetic

More information

The Shoebox spectrograph construction and lab investigations. By Timothy Grove

The Shoebox spectrograph construction and lab investigations. By Timothy Grove The Shoebox spectrograph construction and lab investigations By Timothy Grove 1 Part 1. Build your own spectrograph from flat cardboard Tools and materials: Necessary items Scrap cardboard (You will need

More information

Physics 441/2: Transmission Electron Microscope

Physics 441/2: Transmission Electron Microscope Physics 441/2: Transmission Electron Microscope Introduction In this experiment we will explore the use of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to take us into the world of ultrasmall structures. This

More information

Reflection and Refraction

Reflection and Refraction Equipment Reflection and Refraction Acrylic block set, plane-concave-convex universal mirror, cork board, cork board stand, pins, flashlight, protractor, ruler, mirror worksheet, rectangular block worksheet,

More information

Experiment 5. Lasers and laser mode structure

Experiment 5. Lasers and laser mode structure Northeastern University, PHYS5318 Spring 2014, 1 1. Introduction Experiment 5. Lasers and laser mode structure The laser is a very important optical tool that has found widespread use in science and industry,

More information

Euclidean Geometry. We start with the idea of an axiomatic system. An axiomatic system has four parts:

Euclidean Geometry. We start with the idea of an axiomatic system. An axiomatic system has four parts: Euclidean Geometry Students are often so challenged by the details of Euclidean geometry that they miss the rich structure of the subject. We give an overview of a piece of this structure below. We start

More information

Atomic Force Microscope and Magnetic Force Microscope Background Information

Atomic Force Microscope and Magnetic Force Microscope Background Information Atomic Force Microscope and Magnetic Force Microscope Background Information Lego Building Instructions There are several places to find the building instructions for building the Lego models of atomic

More information

Experiment 2: Conservation of Momentum

Experiment 2: Conservation of Momentum Experiment 2: Conservation of Momentum Learning Goals After you finish this lab, you will be able to: 1. Use Logger Pro to analyze video and calculate position, velocity, and acceleration. 2. Use the equations

More information

EXPERIMENT O-6. Michelson Interferometer. Abstract. References. Pre-Lab

EXPERIMENT O-6. Michelson Interferometer. Abstract. References. Pre-Lab EXPERIMENT O-6 Michelson Interferometer Abstract A Michelson interferometer, constructed by the student, is used to measure the wavelength of He-Ne laser light and the index of refraction of a flat transparent

More information

Reflectance Measurements of Materials Used in the Solar Industry. Selecting the Appropriate Accessories for UV/Vis/NIR Measurements.

Reflectance Measurements of Materials Used in the Solar Industry. Selecting the Appropriate Accessories for UV/Vis/NIR Measurements. T e c h n i c a l N o t e Reflectance Measurements of Materials Used in the Solar Industry UV/Vis/NIR Author: Dr. Jeffrey L. Taylor PerkinElmer, Inc. 710 Bridgeport Avenue Shelton, CT 06484 USA Selecting

More information

Physics Spring Experiment #8 1 Experiment #8, Magnetic Forces Using the Current Balance

Physics Spring Experiment #8 1 Experiment #8, Magnetic Forces Using the Current Balance Physics 182 - Spring 2012 - Experiment #8 1 Experiment #8, Magnetic Forces Using the Current Balance 1 Purpose 1. To demonstrate and measure the magnetic forces between current carrying wires. 2. To verify

More information

Introduction to X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data Analysis

Introduction to X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data Analysis Introduction to X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data Analysis Center for Materials Science and Engineering at MIT http://prism.mit.edu/xray An X-ray diffraction pattern is a plot of the intensity of X-rays scattered

More information

Prelab Exercises: Hooke's Law and the Behavior of Springs

Prelab Exercises: Hooke's Law and the Behavior of Springs 59 Prelab Exercises: Hooke's Law and the Behavior of Springs Study the description of the experiment that follows and answer the following questions.. (3 marks) Explain why a mass suspended vertically

More information

Measuring Your Latitude from the Angle of the Sun at Noon

Measuring Your Latitude from the Angle of the Sun at Noon Measuring Your Latitude from the Angle of the Sun at Noon Background: You can measure your latitude in earth's northern hemisphere by finding out the altitude of the celestial equator from the southern

More information

Geometry Notes PERIMETER AND AREA

Geometry Notes PERIMETER AND AREA Perimeter and Area Page 1 of 57 PERIMETER AND AREA Objectives: After completing this section, you should be able to do the following: Calculate the area of given geometric figures. Calculate the perimeter

More information

Experiment 3: Magnetic Fields of a Bar Magnet and Helmholtz Coil

Experiment 3: Magnetic Fields of a Bar Magnet and Helmholtz Coil MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Department of Physics 8.02 Spring 2009 Experiment 3: Magnetic Fields of a Bar Magnet and Helmholtz Coil OBJECTIVES 1. To learn how to visualize magnetic field lines

More information

CHARGE TO MASS RATIO OF THE ELECTRON

CHARGE TO MASS RATIO OF THE ELECTRON CHARGE TO MASS RATIO OF THE ELECTRON In solving many physics problems, it is necessary to use the value of one or more physical constants. Examples are the velocity of light, c, and mass of the electron,

More information

Pre-lab Quiz/PHYS 224 Magnetic Force and Current Balance. Your name Lab section

Pre-lab Quiz/PHYS 224 Magnetic Force and Current Balance. Your name Lab section Pre-lab Quiz/PHYS 224 Magnetic Force and Current Balance Your name Lab section 1. What do you investigate in this lab? 2. Two straight wires are in parallel and carry electric currents in opposite directions

More information

v = fλ PROGRESSIVE WAVES 1 Candidates should be able to :

v = fλ PROGRESSIVE WAVES 1 Candidates should be able to : PROGRESSIVE WAVES 1 Candidates should be able to : Describe and distinguish between progressive longitudinal and transverse waves. With the exception of electromagnetic waves, which do not need a material

More information

6. Block and Tackle* Block and tackle

6. Block and Tackle* Block and tackle 6. Block and Tackle* A block and tackle is a combination of pulleys and ropes often used for lifting. Pulleys grouped together in a single frame make up what is called a pulley block. The tackle refers

More information

. Tutorial #3 Building Complex Targets

. Tutorial #3 Building Complex Targets . Tutorial #3 Building Complex Targets. Mixed Gas/Solid Targets Gas Ionization Chamber Previous Tutorials have covered how to setup TRIM, determine which ion and energy to specify for a semiconductor n-well

More information

Physics 41 Chapter 38 HW Key

Physics 41 Chapter 38 HW Key Physics 41 Chapter 38 HW Key 1. Helium neon laser light (63..8 nm) is sent through a 0.300-mm-wide single slit. What is the width of the central imum on a screen 1.00 m from the slit? 7 6.38 10 sin θ.11

More information

Alignement of a ring cavity laser

Alignement of a ring cavity laser Alignement of a ring cavity laser 1 Introduction This manual describes a procedure to align the cavity of our Ti:Sapphire ring laser and its injection with an Argon-Ion pump laser beam. The setup is shown

More information

Determination of g using a spring

Determination of g using a spring INTRODUCTION UNIVERSITY OF SURREY DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS Level 1 Laboratory: Introduction Experiment Determination of g using a spring This experiment is designed to get you confident in using the quantitative

More information

E/M Experiment: Electrons in a Magnetic Field.

E/M Experiment: Electrons in a Magnetic Field. E/M Experiment: Electrons in a Magnetic Field. PRE-LAB You will be doing this experiment before we cover the relevant material in class. But there are only two fundamental concepts that you need to understand.

More information

One- and Two-dimensional Motion

One- and Two-dimensional Motion PHYS-101 LAB-02 One- and Two-dimensional Motion 1. Objective The objectives of this experiment are: to measure the acceleration of gravity using one-dimensional motion to demonstrate the independence of

More information

hypothesis of Louis de Broglie (1924): particles may have wave-like properties

hypothesis of Louis de Broglie (1924): particles may have wave-like properties Wave properties of particles hypothesis of Louis de Broglie (1924): particles may have wave-like properties note: it took almost 20 years after noting that waves have particle like properties that particles

More information

ACCELERATION DUE TO GRAVITY

ACCELERATION DUE TO GRAVITY EXPERIMENT 1 PHYSICS 107 ACCELERATION DUE TO GRAVITY Skills you will learn or practice: Calculate velocity and acceleration from experimental measurements of x vs t (spark positions) Find average velocities

More information

From lowest energy to highest energy, which of the following correctly orders the different categories of electromagnetic radiation?

From lowest energy to highest energy, which of the following correctly orders the different categories of electromagnetic radiation? From lowest energy to highest energy, which of the following correctly orders the different categories of electromagnetic radiation? From lowest energy to highest energy, which of the following correctly

More information

EXPERIMENT 6 OPTICS: FOCAL LENGTH OF A LENS

EXPERIMENT 6 OPTICS: FOCAL LENGTH OF A LENS EXPERIMENT 6 OPTICS: FOCAL LENGTH OF A LENS The following website should be accessed before coming to class. Text reference: pp189-196 Optics Bench a) For convenience of discussion we assume that the light

More information

It bends away from the normal, like this. So the angle of refraction, r is greater than the angle of incidence, i.

It bends away from the normal, like this. So the angle of refraction, r is greater than the angle of incidence, i. Physics 1403 Lenses It s party time, boys and girls, because today we wrap up our study of physics. We ll get this party started in a bit, but first, you have some more to learn about refracted light.

More information

Lab 4: Magnetic Force on Electrons

Lab 4: Magnetic Force on Electrons Lab 4: Magnetic Force on Electrons Introduction: Forces on particles are not limited to gravity and electricity. Magnetic forces also exist. This magnetic force is known as the Lorentz force and it is

More information

Holography 1 HOLOGRAPHY

Holography 1 HOLOGRAPHY Holography 1 HOLOGRAPHY Introduction and Background The aesthetic appeal and commercial usefulness of holography are both related to the ability of a hologram to store a three-dimensional image. Unlike

More information

Determination of Focal Length of A Converging Lens and Mirror

Determination of Focal Length of A Converging Lens and Mirror Physics 41- Lab 5 Determination of Focal Length of A Converging Lens and Mirror Objective: Apply the thin-lens equation and the mirror equation to determine the focal length of a converging (biconvex)

More information

Helium-Neon Laser. Figure 1: Diagram of optical and electrical components used in the HeNe laser experiment.

Helium-Neon Laser. Figure 1: Diagram of optical and electrical components used in the HeNe laser experiment. Helium-Neon Laser Experiment objectives: assemble and align a 3-mW HeNe laser from readily available optical components, record photographically the transverse mode structure of the laser output beam,

More information

Friday 18 January 2013 Morning

Friday 18 January 2013 Morning Friday 18 January 2013 Morning AS GCE PHYSICS B (ADVANCING PHYSICS) G492/01 Understanding Processes / Experimentation and Data Handling *G411640113* Candidates answer on the Question Paper. OCR supplied

More information

Experiment 5: Magnetic Fields of a Bar Magnet and of the Earth

Experiment 5: Magnetic Fields of a Bar Magnet and of the Earth MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Department of Physics 8.02 Spring 2005 Experiment 5: Magnetic Fields of a Bar Magnet and of the Earth OBJECTIVES 1. To examine the magnetic field associated with a

More information

Infrared Spectroscopy: Theory

Infrared Spectroscopy: Theory u Chapter 15 Infrared Spectroscopy: Theory An important tool of the organic chemist is Infrared Spectroscopy, or IR. IR spectra are acquired on a special instrument, called an IR spectrometer. IR is used

More information

Time out states and transitions

Time out states and transitions Time out states and transitions Spectroscopy transitions between energy states of a molecule excited by absorption or emission of a photon hn = DE = E i - E f Energy levels due to interactions between

More information

1 of 9 2/9/2010 3:38 PM

1 of 9 2/9/2010 3:38 PM 1 of 9 2/9/2010 3:38 PM Chapter 23 Homework Due: 8:00am on Monday, February 8, 2010 Note: To understand how points are awarded, read your instructor's Grading Policy. [Return to Standard Assignment View]

More information

SNC 2D Grade 10 Science, Academic Unit: Light and Geometric Optics

SNC 2D Grade 10 Science, Academic Unit: Light and Geometric Optics Page 1 SNC 2D Grade 10 Science, Academic Unit: Light and Geometric Optics The Big Ideas: Light has characteristics and properties that can be manipulated with mirrors and lenses for a range of uses. Society

More information

3.14 understand that light waves are transverse waves which can be reflected, refracted and diffracted

3.14 understand that light waves are transverse waves which can be reflected, refracted and diffracted Light and Sound 3.14 understand that light waves are transverse waves which can be reflected, refracted and diffracted 3.15 use the law of reflection (the angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection)

More information

Experiment 2 Free Fall and Projectile Motion

Experiment 2 Free Fall and Projectile Motion Name Partner(s): Experiment 2 Free Fall and Projectile Motion Objectives Preparation Pre-Lab Learn how to solve projectile motion problems. Understand that the acceleration due to gravity is constant (9.8

More information

ATOMIC SPECTRA. Apparatus: Optical spectrometer, spectral tubes, power supply, incandescent lamp, bottles of dyed water, elevating jack or block.

ATOMIC SPECTRA. Apparatus: Optical spectrometer, spectral tubes, power supply, incandescent lamp, bottles of dyed water, elevating jack or block. 1 ATOMIC SPECTRA Objective: To measure the wavelengths of visible light emitted by atomic hydrogen and verify the measured wavelengths against those predicted by quantum theory. To identify an unknown

More information

Newton s Third Law, Momentum, Center of Mass

Newton s Third Law, Momentum, Center of Mass Team: Newton s Third Law, Momentum, Center of Mass Newton s Third Law is a deep statement on the symmetry of interaction between any two bodies in the universe. How is the pull of the earth on the moon

More information