BIOMASS TO BIOGAS IN RURAL AREAS

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2 BIOMASS TO BIOGAS IN RURAL AREAS PhD Carmen MATEESCU National Research and Development Institute for Electrical Engineering ICPE-CA, Splaiul Unirii no. 313, Bucharest-3, Postal Code , Romania

3 Biogas As a Renewable Energy Source Biogas is a form of energy produced when organic materials from biomass are bio-chemically broken down under anaerobic conditions. Composition: Methane: vol. %; Carbon dioxide: vol. %; Other gases (H 2,H 2 S): 1-5 vol. %.

4 Environmental Benefits Methane is the second most important greenhouse gas; It has a 24 times higher global warming potential compared with CO 2 ; Biogas plants reduces the amount of methane directly released into the atmosphere if use it as a green fuel; The reduction of 1 kg methane is equivalent to the reduction of 24 kg CO 2

5 Economical Benefits Biogas can replace other energy sources (charcoal, firewood, liquid petroleum gas, oil). 1m 3 biogas (up to 65%CH 4 ) = 0,5 l fuel oil; 1m 3 biogas = 2 kg charcoal; 1m 3 biogas = 5,5 kg fire wood

6 Global Benefits Production of biogas, electrical and thermal energy Production of stable liquid fertilizer and solids for soil conditioning Waste stabilization and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions Reduces waste mass and volume Offensive odor reduction or removal Eliminates of pathogenic bacteria. Reduction of illness risks

7 Valuable Products BIOGAS a combustible gas having a calorific value of ca. 6 kwh/m 3. DIGESTATE a liquid slurry to be used directly on the soil as organic fertilizer or dried to be sold as merchandise

8 Feedstock Requirements The quantity and quality of biogas vary significantly function of the feedstock organics content; Only homogenous and liquid substrates can be considered for simple biogas units. Biomass should be diluted with water; Woody wastes should not be used as feedstock since most anaerobes are unable to degrade lignin; The volume, nature and composition of the available feedstock, should be considered when planning a biogas plant.

9 Main Available Feedstock The types of organic materials which can be used for biogas generation in rural areas consist mainly in the followings: Dairy farm and piggery waste slurries Crop waste, silage, forestry green residuals Household food waste, kitchen waste etc.

10 Biogas Potential

11 Factors Affecting Biogas Production Feedstock quality Temperature ph balance Loading rate Retention time Mixing Chemicals (antibiotics)

12 Criteria To Be Considered Biomass availability; Distance to enclosure; Distance to usage place; Access to water sources; Interest of the farmer in using biogas, fertilizers; Care about the environment pollution; Required budget, materials and labor.

13 Biogas Unit Concept Floating-drum biogas unit, 4 mc digester capacity

14 Biogas Unit Concept An underground spherical masonry fermenter (1) having a typical inner configuration; A floating gas-holder (2) which floats in a water jacket; Two storage tanks for waste biomass (3) and respectively digested slurry (4), located at the same side of the digester; Two pipelines (5) for inlet, respectively outlet of the row or fermented slurry.

15 Frontal View - Size Details (4 m 3 digester)

16 Novelty Elements The anaerobic chamber has an inovative shape which ensures a proper flowing and homogenization of the organic mass. The specific route followed by the biomass provides a slight hydrodynamics within the digester. The biogas unit is the subject of a RO Patent No. A/00616/2010

17 Internal Configuration

18 Main Advantages Simplicity in building and operation; Better yields in degradation of the organic compounds due to the longer mass flow; Profitable materials consumption and easy availability; Economical location on the site; Possibility to build the unit for larger size up to 16 m 3,function of the substrate availability and the family energy demand; Ensuring the sustainable fuel for domestic usage; Providing of a clean and healthy environment for the families living in rural areas

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23 Daily Biogas Unit Performances Treating of ca. 50 kg organic slurry (25 kg organic waste + 25 kg dilution water); Producing ca. 1-2 m 3 biogas and ca. 20 kg fertilizer

24 Domestic Applications: Gas cookers/stoves Biogas lamps Engines Gas Demand: Biogas consumption per burner: 200 l/hr Biogas production per day: liters Daily production can fit the needs of a 3-4 members family for cooking and/or other living needs If use for fueling engines, about 1 m 3 biogas is required to generate 1 kwh electricity with a generator

25 Contact: NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ICPE-CA (INCDIE ICPE-CA) Splaiul Unirii 313, Bucharest, Romania Phone: , Fax: Project Manager: PhD Carmen MATEESCU Phone: ,

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