# Greenhouse gas emissions from direct combustion of various fuels (e.g. grain dryer)

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1 Greenhouse gas emissions from direct combustion of various fuels (e.g. grain dryer) The most significant greenhouse gas from direct combustion is carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) Large number of other compounds are also formed Their effect on global warming is described with the carbon dioxide equivalent (CO 2 eq, CO 2 e, CDE) CO 2 eq describes the amount of CO 2 units that has similar global warming potential (GWP) than one unit of the substance concerned Methane (CH 4 ) 24,5 CO 2 eq Nitrous oxide (N 2 O) 320 CO 2 eq

2 Direct CO 2 emissions CO 2 is formed always when burning fuel that contains carbon The carbon in the fuel combines with the oxygen from the air: C + O 2 => CO 2 The amount of CO 2 can be calculated by the atomic masses of carbon and oxygen and the carbon content of the fuel

3 Direct CO 2 emissions Atomic mass of carbon is 12u and oxygen 16u CO 2 = 12u + 2 x 16u = 44u Burning 1 kg of carbon produces 44/12 3,67 kg of CO 2 in complete combustion The CO 2 emission of combustion is 3,67 x c C x m fuel c C = fuel carbon content (mass basis)

4 Direct CO 2 emissions Example: carbon content of diesel fuel is 85,7 %. CO 2 emission from burning 1 kg of diesel fuel is: m CO2 = 3,67 x c C x m fuel m CO2 = 3,67 x 0,857 x 1 kg = 3,15 kg / 1 kg fuel Density of diesel fuel is 0,84 kg/l m CO2 = 3,15 kg x 0,84 = 2,64 kg / 1 l fuel

5 Direct CO 2 emissions CO 2 emission is usually expressed in g/mj or t/tj CO 2 emission g/mj of fuel = 3,67 x c C / H a c C = fuel carbon content (mass basis) H a = lower heating value of the fuel Example: carbon content of diesel fuel is 85,7 % and lower heating value H a = 42,7 MJ/kg. CO 2 emission is: 3,67 x c C / H a 3,67 x 0,857 / 42,7 MJ/kg = 0,0736 kg/mj = 73,6 g/mj

6 Calculated CO 2 emissions from different fuels Fuel Carbon content [%] H a [MJ/kg] Diesel fuel 85,7 42,7 73,6 Natural gas* ,0 Rapeseed oil 78,2 37,3 76,9 Wood (chips) 50 (48-52) 19 (dry matter) 96,5 CO 2 emission [g/mj] * Natural gas imported to Finland is 98% methane. It has carbon content of 75% (C=12u, H=4x1u, CH 4 =16u, 12/16=75%)

7 Official Finnish figures Fuel H a [MJ/kg] CO 2 emission [g/mj] Diesel fuel 42,8 73,0 Light fuel oil 42,4 74,1 Natural gas 36,0 [MJ/m 3 ] 56,1 Liquid biofuels 40 77,4 Wood (chips)* 10,4 109,6 * Heating value of wood is expressed in wet basis, moisture ~ 40%

8 CO 2 emission per litre of liquid fuel Liquid fuels are sold in litres Example: diesel fuel Density = 0,84 kg/l Ha = 42,7 MJ/kg = 0,84 kg/l x 42,7 MJ/kg = 35,868 MJ/l Volume of 1 MJ = 1 / 35,868 MJ/l = 0,02788 l/mj CO 2 emission = 73 g/mj / 0,02788 l/mj = 2640 g/l = 2,64 kg/l

9 CO 2 emission per m 3 (of wood chips) Wood chips are sold in cubic meters Example: wood chips Density = 300 kg/m 3 ( kg/m 3) Ha = 10,4 MJ/kg = 300 kg/m 3 x 10,4 MJ/kg = 3120 MJ/m 3 Volume of 1 MJ = 1 / 3120 MJ/l = 0, m 3 /MJ CO 2 emission = 109,6 g/mj / 0, m 3 /MJ = 324 kg/m 3

10 Other GHG from combustion In internal combustion engines also methane and nitrous oxide are formed Figures of 0,004 g NH 4 /MJ fuel and 0,031 g N 2 O /MJ fuel are suggested (Mäkinen et al 2006) Concentrations in exhaust gases for NH 4 ~ 5 15 ppm and N 2 O ~ 1 3 ppm Other GHG from combustion in furnaces? Controlling the combustion is much easier than in engines Continuous combustion Steady conditions

11 This material has been produced in ENPOS project. ENPOS is acronym for Energy Positive Farm. The project partners are University of Helsinki, department of Agricultural Sciences Agrotechnology MTT Agrifood Research Finland - Agricultural Engineering Estonian University of Life Sciences Project home page is at The project is financed by the EU Central Baltic IV A Programme This publication reflects the authors views and the Managing Authority cannot be held liable for the information published by the project partners.

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