February Biogas as a grid stabilising power source

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1 Biogas as a grid stabilising power source By Bruno Sander Nielsen

2 Joint biogas plants Farm scale biogas plants Consultants Energy sector Sub-suppliers Secretariat: Chairman: N.J. Pedersen Secr.: Bruno Sander Nielsen Constructors Research Agriculture Waste handling

3 Biogas plants February Not only for production of renewable energy But a multifunctional tecnology for Renewable energy and energy supply security Sustainable agricultural development Environmental protection Rural development

4 25 years of Danish biogas experience Manure - from a farmers problems to an opportunity for the whole society

5 Number of plants Danish biogas plants February centralised biogas plants 60 farm scale biogas plants Joint and farmscale biogas plants 2003 Manure Organic residues Total t t t

6 Biogas - in principle February Manure Organic waste Biogas Plant Digested biomass Renewable energy

7 Advantages of biogas plants Greenhouse gas reduction Efficient heat and power: 220 % transportation: 167 % Cheap 0 to 6 $ kg CO2eq per ton biomass Fossil fuel substitution CO2 eq Methane N2O

8 Advantages of biogas plants Greenhouse gas reduction Utilisation of organic waste Win-win situation increased gas production tipping fee reduced costs for industry other types of biomass: energy crops animal by-products glycerine from biodiesel Type of waste Tonnes Gut and stomach content Fat / flotation sludge Feeding factories Fish industry Fruit and vegetables 3600 Breweries 800 Bakeries 1900 Dairies Pectin industry 7000 Bleech earth Tanneries 2300 Pharmaceutical industry Concentrated fat waste 2600 Waste from water supply 1600 Other industrial waste Sewage sludge Household and catering waste Total Joint biogas plants 2002

9 Advantages of biogas plants Greenhouse gas reduction Utilisation of organic waste Redistribution of manure 10 km from livestock farmers to plant producers farm to field tractors to lorries km distance

10 Advantages of biogas plants Greenhouse gas reduction Kg/ton Utilisation of organic waste Redistribution of manure Organic fertiliser declarated nutrient content Total N: 5,0 NH4-N: 4,0 P: 0,9 K: 2,8 free of pathogens and weed seeds

11 Advantages of biogas plants Greenhouse gas reduction Utilisation of organic waste Redistribution of manure Wind direction Raw manure Digested manure Organic fertiliser Smell from slurry reduced 5 minutes thinner liquid disperses quicker into soil 12 hours

12 Advantages of biogas plants Greenhouse gas reduction Utilisation of organic waste Utilisation of Nitrogen in winter wheat Redistribution of manure Organic fertiliser Smell from slurry reduced Improved nitrogen utilisation Reduced risk of leaching Cattle slurry Pig slurry Digested slurry Liquid fraction

13 Biogas - in principle February Sustainable agricultural production, food supply and export Manure Recovery of nutrients and energy content Organic Biogas Plant waste Digested biomass Redistribution and improved utilisation of nutrients Protection of aquatic environment, less smell Renewable energy Energy supply security Power, heat, transportation Global warming

14 Biogas production and potential PJ Potential 5 pct. of total energy cons % of natural gas % of transportation Landfill gas Garden waste Household/food waste Meat and bone meal Industrial waste import Industrial waste Danish Sewage sludge Manure Kilde: Energistyrelsen

15 Government Green Growth Plan 2009 Promotion in biogas through From currently 5 % to 50 % of manure into biogas in 2020 Co-ordination plan for construction of biogas plants Plan for integration of biogas into the energy sector Obligation for municipalities to point out where to build plants Distribution in natural gas grid on equal terms as direct co-generation Equal opportunities for biogas to earn money as natural gas suppliers Financing 20 % construction subsidy (in total 300 mill. DKK from 2010 to 2012) 60 % loans guaranteed by municipalities 20 % from investors

16 Perspectives Biogas perspectives and challenges Huge potential (manure, organics) Climate protection, energy supply Decentralised infrastructure Export of know-how and technology February Existing centralised plants Required new plants (ex) Challenges Huge increase in production Development based on experience Less waste dependent plants Integration in energy sector Ressource primarily in Jutland Map: Con Terra

17 Stable and flexible power Biogas plant Gas production Continous, stable and predictable Up/down regulation through seasons Gas utilisation Adaptation to demand Storage on biogas plant Injection into gas grid

18 Summary February Biogas plants gives advantages For humans and environment For industry and employment A co-ordinated solution for multifunctional challenges for society: global, regional, local and individual

19 30 years of incentives in Denmark Society Decrease dependency on imported fossil fuel Protection of drinking and surface waters Decrease emission of greenhouse gases Agriculture Improved utilisation and storage capacity Relations to neighbours Redistribution of manure Extraction of surplus of nutrients Development promoted by Legislation regarding handling of manure and energy Subsidies for research, demonstration, documentation, etc. Framework conditions: construction subsidy and premium price for electricity

20 Farmers advantages February Better relations to neighbours Improved nutrient value Redistribution of nutrients Removal of excess of nutrients Handles all manure from small and large farmers Delivers more goods to society than just food

21 Societal advantages February Energy security (supply and predictability) Greenhouse gas reduction Protection of aquatic environment Rural life quality (smell) Pathogen reduction Optimal biomass utilisation Recovery of scarce nutrients

22 Utilisation of biogas February Substitute of natural gas co-gen. Fits into decentralised structure Direct in local co-generation CHP Cheap and simple - if the heat can be utilised Distribution through natural gas grid Upgrading necessary - expensive Improved utilisation of heat Transportation Most efficient biofuel Gas infrastructure needed

23 Conclusion February Biogas is an opportunity for agriculture to meet their own challenges (environment, climate, acceptance) while contributing to solve societal challenges (climate, less fossil dependent energy supply, security of energy supply etc.) Biogas plants converts efficiently biomass into quality energy manure, waste from industry, households, natural habitats to be used for power, heat and transportation Biogas fits into both decentralised structure and whole grids conversion in small scale plants utilisation in local communities or national grids (power, gas) Development is dependent on long term steady framework conditions co-operation between many stake holders

24 Thank you for your attention

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