1-Some related indicators: Total land area is 1 million Km 2. Only 3% of the land area is arable. The rest 97% is hyper arid desert. The whole lands a

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1 BIO FUEL PRODUCTION IN EGYPT FROM PROMISES TO PRACTICES November 17, 2011 Dr. Ahmed Abd El-Ati Ahmed GBEP Egypt Focal Point

2 1-Some related indicators: Total land area is 1 million Km 2. Only 3% of the land area is arable. The rest 97% is hyper arid desert. The whole lands are exposed to Drought & desertification disasters. Population : Most of the population live in 4% of the land area. 85 million people in 2011 compared to 28 million in 1960, changing 188% during the last 50 years. Egypt has % of the world total population, that means one person of every 86 people of the plant is a resident of Egypt.

3 Cont. Egypt Some related indicators: Water Scarcity : Egypt has a very limited fresh water. Surface Ground water Water consumption structure in Egypt : Total 58.3 Agriculture 78 % Domestic 8 % Industrial 14 % By the Year 2025: 60% of farmers would not be receiving any water due to the limiting of water supplements. Increasing pollution will be one of the main reasons of the shortage of water facing Egypt. The rapid increase in population of Egypt will magnify the problem.

4 Cont. Egypt Some related indicators: Agriculture: Production is very intensive and 100% depending on irrigation water from Nile. Wheat imports: reaches 60% of the needs ( M.M.T) Corn imports : ranks Egypt as the 5 th largest importer (3.477 T.M.T/year), Despite of Egypt is ranked the 14 th among the greater corn producers (5.682 T.M.T/year), she is the 8 th between the largest consumers (9.190 T.M.T/ year) Sugar cane : Egypt imports tons sugar annually. For all the abovementioned features, We can not support any actions that negatively affect our food security, However, we support and participate GBEP for many reasons;

5 The reasons why Egypt has actively participating in GBEP activities We understand & appreciate the needs of the first world for clean, sustainable and secure new energy sources, with focus on our national priorities of food security. We want to participate effectively & with open mind in the discussion of topics related to global food security. We already have many of successful stories of bio-fuel production in Egypt that can be a significant start for this business in Egypt away from our food basket. We already have many new elements that can play a key role in such successful business as : Low cost labor. Desert lands with high ability of reclamation by treated sewage water. Appropriate climate. Distinct geographic location.

6 2- The existing projects

7 Waste fuel types non-hazardous waste Fuel CV (MJ/kg) % biomass Preparation Availability in Egypt Paper and plastic waste mixtures % Removal of metal and shredding Already recycled in the informal economy Selected and processed Removal of metal streams from municipal waste % and inerts, shredding (RDF) and drying A prospective fuel for Egyptian cement companies Animal meal from a rendering process % Residues from a rendering process Already recycled in the informal economy Sewage sludge % Drying and fragmentation Small quantities Car tyres % Shredding Small quantities Wood waste % Size reduction Small quantities Agricultural wastes (rice straw, cotton stalks, maize cobs) % Shredding Available in large quantities but dispersed over large area

8 Agricultural waste that could be collected

9 2-1 Thermal Gas Plants November 17, 2011

10 About the existing thermal gas plants : At present there are two thermal gas plants are existing in two of the delta governorates. Each plant has capacity reaches 350 m 3 per working shift to face the consumption of 300 household units through the following routine work. The working routine in the plant: 1. Collection and Filter of post-combustion gases. 2. Testing of gas by the color of flame 3. Allow the passage of gas into the reservoir 4. Reservoir works as a gas storage above the water - the cover of the reservoir rises as the volume of gas - set the benchmark full tank (350 m 3 gas) 5. While the gas is consuming, the system is re-operated to pump new gas. 6. The Natural Gas Company establish the gas network to feed the 300 houses of the produced thermal gas for free of charge to subsidies the local community.

11 Stages of gas production : And include the conversion unit gas the following stages: 1 - Compressed Rice Straw storage (15000 tons) 2 Straw chop unit 3 - Burning straw unit up to 1200 C 4 - Console control unit of the resulting gases. 5 - Wet filter Scrubber 6 Gas storage tank.

12 Thermal Gas Generation in Dakahlia Plant November 17, 2011

13 Thermal Gas Generation in Dakahlia Plant The chemical properties' of the produced gas: Nitrogen 41 Carbon monoxide 27 Methane 13 Hydro carbonate 4 Other gases 15 November 17, 2011

14 2-2 Solid Bio-fuel producing from rice straw With capacity reaches 50 Thousands ton/year

15 2-3 The Bio Gas Digesters November 17, 2011

16 About the existing biogas systems : At present there are 800 small biogas fomenters existing in the size 8-15 m 3. The Indian type is the common one, yet some Chinese type are also present. The used feeding materials are mainly the animal manure from 4-10 large animals such as cows or buffaloes, yet other animals are also existing in some cases. Studies are indicating that those models can be increased in the near future to be one million units with some efforts through subsidizing and rising public awareness programs.

17 Biogas Conclusions : The energy produced by Biogas is sustainable: It improves the living conditions of the poor farmers. It improves the unpolluted organic waste handling clean agriculture and combating land degradation. towards Biogas is CO2-neutral and reduce the greenhouse effect which improve the global environment. The local environment is improved: Parasites are sterilized during the biomass fermentation process, so health conditions are improved particularly for poor farmers and their families.

18 2-4 The alternative Fuel November 17, 2011

19 Agriculture residues of preferred crops Crop Area / Waste Res. Upper Egypt Middle Egypt Delta Total Rice straw Area (1000 acres) Waste (1000 tons) Maize stalks Area (1000 acres) Waste (1000 tons) Sugarcane husks Area (1000 acres) Waste (1000 tons) Cotton stalks Area (1000 acres) Waste (1000 tons) TOTAL Area (1000 acres) Waste (1000 tons)

20 Options for collection systems Collection in bulk Rapid clearing of land Requires nearby storage Collection in bales Balers designed for large open spaces Three types of bales 1. Round bales costly in transport 2.Light square bales density too light for transport 3.Heavy square bales limited by the weight of equipment farmers will allow on their land

21 Collection systems conclusion Collection in bulk to decentralised collection and storage centres from where it is baled and transported to the cement works will be the most effective choice

22 Map showing agricultural waste locations relative to cement plants The distances range from 30 to 200km The average distance is estimated to be about 100km

23 Environmental impact of using alternative fuels at the cement works Particulates HCl SO 2 NOx CO increase Metal emissions Dioxin and furan emission CO 2 emissions No change No change No change Reduction Small but controllable No change No change Large decrease in reportable emissions

24 Comparing estimates of emissions from burning rice straw in the field & as cement kiln fuel Source of emission Burning of one tonne of rice straw in the fields Using one tonne of rice straw as a fuel in a cement plant Unburnt carbon to atmosphere Ash residues emitted to the atmosphere Total particulates emitted from 1 tonne of rice straw 15 kg 0 kg 16 kg 0 kg 31 kg 0 kg CO 2 emitted to the atmosphere 900 kg 0 kg; the CO 2 emitted is biomass and is not counted If 2 million tonnes of rice straw are burnt in the fields some 60,000 tonne of particulates and 1.8 million tonne of CO 2 are emitted. Use in a cement kiln as fuel completely mitigates these emissions

25 Current activities using alternate fuels Cemex Company Activity Kilns 1 & 3 locally made system; Kiln 2 installing Vidmar Mix of rice straw, corn cobs, olive waste, shredded tires. Commenced 2008 with rice husks at LE120 / ton % substitution; 2010 reached 15% substitution Undergoing CDM validation Katameya Cement Installing Schenck system to pilot test AF in Feb 2011 Approved for agricultural waste and RDF; 10-30% substitution Helwan Cement Will install Schenck system to pilot test AF in Oct 2011 Approved for agricultural waste, RDF & sewage sludge; 10-30% substitution Lafarge Amreya Cement Incinerate pharmaceutical waste 23,000 tpa Kiln 4 shredded solid waste; start Jan ,000 tpa Kiln 1 plan to use rice straw Use petroleum drill cuttings as RMS Small scale tests on agricultural waste

26 Schenck system

27 Schenck system November 17, 2011

28 Testing shredded cotton stalks

29 Control room

30 Fuel Prices Cement Industry Egypt Natural Gas Mazout Rice Straw Calorific value 11,900 9,800 3,100 (kcal/kg) Cost US$3 / MBTU LE1,000 / ton LE240 / ton US$ per MBTU $3 $4.67 $3.54 US$ per GJ $2.84 $4.43 $3.36

31 Conclusion When spreading at the national level : 1,000,000 tonne of rice straw which will not be burnt in the fields. 1,000,000 tonne of municipal waste that will be beneficially diverted from landfill. Saving approximately 1,000,000 tonne of natural gas Reducing Egypt s CO2 emissions by approximately 1,600,000 tonne

32 Future Bio-energy Projects

33 3-1- Electricity Production from Solid Wastes November 17, 2011

34 Cont... Energy Production from Solid Wastes Solid wastes reaches 20 million ton annually as 35% of it is in Cairo. By the year 2025 Solid wastes will reach 33 million ton annually. Around 70% of the total quantity is currently exposed to safe collection and recycling system. There is a growing demand for energy steadily up to 7% in recent years. Thus, The Egyptian Supreme Council of the energy legislation to produce 20% of the energy generated from new and renewable sources by November 17, 2011

35 Cont... Energy Production from Solid Wastes The Proposed technologies Anaerobic Digestion : Incineration : Produces 400 kilowatt hours \ ton. Produces 500 kilowatt hours \ ton. Thermal cracking : Produces 120 megawatt \2000 ton\ day. November 17, 2011

36 Cont... Energy Production from Solid Wastes The Proposed technologies Anaerobic Digestion : Incineration : Produces 400 kilowatt hours \ ton. Produces 500 kilowatt hours \ ton. Thermal cracking : Produces 120 megawatt \2000 ton\ day. November 17, 2011

37 3-2 Available investment Opportunities in the field of bio-fuel business in Egypt November 17, 2011

38 3-2 Available investment Opportunities in the field of bio-fuel business in Egypt Production of biodiesel from thousands acres already planted with Jatropha trees, (Whether in the green belts or separate fields) of Exploitation of water and sewage treated sludge in reclaiming thousands of desert acres in Upper Egypt mainly for sugar cane planting to produce ethanol, (Where amounts of sewage water up to 10 million cubic meters per day)

39 November 17, 2011

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