Thermal & Biogas Production In Egypt. By Prof. Dr. Ahmed Abd El-Ati Ahmed Egypt - GBEP Focal Point

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1 Thermal & Biogas Production In Egypt By Prof. Dr. Ahmed Abd El-Ati Ahmed Egypt - GBEP Focal Point

2 Some Related Socioeconomic indicators : The total land area is 1 Million Km % of the total area is hyper arid desert, which totally exposed to Drought and desertification disasters. Only 4% of the total area is occupied by 90 million people, representing more than 1.16% of the world total population. In another word one person of every 86 people of the plant is a resident of Egypt.

3 Cont., Some Related Socioeconomic indicators : Water Crisis: Egypt has a very limited water resources never exceed than 58.3 million cubic meter annually. The water crises was magnified by the rapid population growth together with the pollution and it leaves no chance for the use of water as a source for generating electric power by any means possible. The Energy Crisis: At present these factors combined together along with the limited natural resources of the fossil fuels led to the intense pressure on the socio-economic levels.

4 Despite large energy production potential, Egypt has become dependent on hydrocarbon imports due to the structural increase in domestic consumption and the stagnation of investment. The negative consequences are substantial: a deteriorating trade balance, swelling budget deficit and disrupted economic activity. Recent support from the oil producing countries has helped reduce short-term pressures. Thereafter, reforms will be needed to make investment in Egypt s energy sector more attractive. All these factors together made the shift into renewable energy strategy is essential; the overall target was set to reach 20% of the total electricity generated by 2020 including 12% wind, 6% hydro and 2% solar.

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7 SOME EXISTING PROJECTS o The RDF fuel projects. o The Thermal Gas Plants in Sharkia and Dakahlia. o Bioenergy for Sustainable Rural Development. (Biogas) o Wind Farms

8 1- The alternative Fuel May 15, 2014

9 Waste fuel types non-hazardous waste Fuel CV (MJ/kg) % biomass Preparation Availability in Egypt Paper and plastic waste mixtures % Removal of metal and shredding Already recycled in the informal economy Selected and processed streams from municipal waste (RDF) % Removal of metal and inerts, shredding and drying A prospective fuel for Egyptian cement companies Animal meal from a rendering process % Residues from a rendering process Already recycled in the informal economy Sewage sludge % Drying and fragmentation Small quantities Car tyres % Shredding Small quantities Wood waste % Size reduction Small quantities Agricultural wastes (rice straw, cotton stalks, maize cobs) % Shredding Available in large quantities but dispersed over large area

10 Agricultural wastes that could be collected

11 Agriculture residues of preferred crops Crop Area / Waste Res. Upper Egypt Middle Egypt Delta Total Rice straw Area (1000 acres) Waste (1000 tons) Maize stalks Area (1000 acres) Waste (1000 tons) Sugarcane husks Area (1000 acres) Waste (1000 tons) Cotton stalks Area (1000 acres) Waste (1000 tons) TOTAL Area (1000 acres) Waste (1000 tons)

12 Map showing agricultural waste locations relative to cement plants The distances range from 30 to 200km. The average distance is estimated to be about 100km.

13 Environmental impact of using alternative fuels at the cement works Particulates No change HCl No change SO 2 No change Nox Reduction CO Small increase but controllable Metal emissions No change Dioxin and furan No change emission CO 2 emissions Large decrease in reportable emissions

14 Schenck system

15 Current activities using alternate fuels Cemex Company Activity Kilns 1 & 3 locally made system; Kiln 2 installing Vidmar Mix of rice straw, corn cobs, olive waste, shredded tires. Commenced 2008 with rice husks at LE120 / ton % substitution; 2010 reached 15% substitution Undergoing CDM validation Katameya Cement Installing Schenck system to pilot test AF in Feb 2011 Approved for agricultural waste and RDF; 10-30% substitution Helwan Cement Will install Schenck system to pilot test AF in Oct 2011 Approved for agricultural waste, RDF & sewage sludge; 10-30% substitution Lafarge Amreya Cement Incinerate pharmaceutical waste 23,000 tpa Kiln 4 shredded solid waste; start Jan ,000 tpa Kiln 1 plan to use rice straw Use petroleum drill cuttings as RMS Small scale tests on agricultural waste

16 2- Solid fuel produced from rice straw With capacity reaches 50 Thousands ton/year

17 3- Thermal Gas Plants May 15, 2014

18 About the existing thermal gas plants : At present there are two thermal gas plants are existing in two of the delta governorates. Each plant has capacity reaches 350 m 3 per working shift to face the consumption of 300 household units through the following routine work. The working routine in the plant: 1. Collection and Filter of post-combustion gases. 2. Testing of gas by the color of flame 3. Allow the passage of gas into the reservoir 4. Reservoir works as a gas storage above the water - the cover of the reservoir rises as the volume of gas - set the benchmark full tank (350 m 3 gas) 5. While the gas is consuming, the system is re-operated to pump new gas. 6. The Natural Gas Company establish the gas network to feed the 300 houses of the produced thermal gas for free of charge to subsidies the local community.

19 Stages of gas production : And include the conversion unit gas the following stages: 1 - Compressed Rice Straw storage (15000 tons) 2 Straw chop unit 3 - Burning straw unit up to 1200 C 4 - Console control unit of the resulting gases. 5 - Wet filter Scrubber 6 Gas storage tank.

20 Thermal Gas Generation in Dakahlia Plant May 15, 2014

21 Thermal Gas Generation in Dakahlia Plant The chemical properties' of the produced gas: Nitrogen 41 % Carbon monoxide 27 % Methane 13 % Hydro carbonate 4 % Other gases 15 % May 15, 2014

22 4- The Bio Gas Digesters May 15, 2014

23 An example for Biogas Projects in Egypt

24 Another project: ( ) Bioenergy for Sustainable Rural Development Target: To establish 100 Biogas units in ( Al Fayoum & Asiout) Governorates in Egypt

25 Other Renewable Energy Projects

26 5- Wind Farms: A. 5 MW Wind Farm In Hurghada: Hurghada wind farm has been operated since 1993, it includes wind turbines with different technologies from Germany, Denmark and USA. Wind turbines have single, double and triple lands. The capacity of wind turbines ranges between 100 to 300 KW. The total production of this plant in 2011/2012 reached about 7 G Wh, saving about 1.5 thousands Ton of Oil Equivalent and reducing the emission of about 4000 tons of CO2.

27 Cont., Wind Farms: B. Zafarana 545 MW Wind Farm: The total installed capacities in zafarana reached 545 MW in 30/6/2012. The wind farm includes about 700 turbine from different models (600 kw, 660 kw, 850 kw). This wind farms was established on several stages since 2001, through the governmental cooperation protocols with Germany, Denmark, Spain and Japan.

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1-Some related indicators: Total land area is 1 million Km 2. Only 3% of the land area is arable. The rest 97% is hyper arid desert. The whole lands a

1-Some related indicators: Total land area is 1 million Km 2. Only 3% of the land area is arable. The rest 97% is hyper arid desert. The whole lands a BIO FUEL PRODUCTION IN EGYPT FROM PROMISES TO PRACTICES November 17, 2011 Dr. Ahmed Abd El-Ati Ahmed GBEP Egypt Focal Point 1-Some related indicators: Total land area is 1 million Km 2. Only 3% of the

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