Poultry manure as a substrate for methane fermentation: problems and solutions

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1 Poultry manure as a substrate for methane fermentation: problems and solutions Robert Mazur Ph.D., Jakbu Mazurkiewicz M.Sc. eng. Andrzej Lewicki M.Sc. Eng, Sebastian Kujawiak M.Sc. Eng Poznan University of Life Sciences

2 Poland Number of agricultural holdings, by NUTS 2 regions, 2010 [thousand holdings], by NUTS 2 regions, 2010 Eurostat.

3 Some facts about Poland National and European obligations for Poland before 2020: i) 15% of reduction of CO 2 emission ii) 15% of energy produced from renewable energy sources (RES). but: Relatively bad geographical conditions for investment in hydro- and wind power In consequence: Biomass used as renewable energy source seems to be one of the main factors which can help to reach Polish obligations at 2020

4 The potential of biomass from agricultural sources in Poland 1. The total technical potential for the production of agricultural biogas from manure in Poland is 674 million m 3 of biogas i.e. 26,2 PJ, which represents approximately 21% of the theoretical capacity from all RES in Poland. 2. The economic potential of agricultural biogas is even more limited.

5 The potential of biomass from agricultural sources in Poland The calculation includes the sources such as: Cattle farms with stocking density more than 100 animals Pig farms with stocking density more than 500 animals Poultry farms with stocking density of over 5000 birds.

6 Poultry farms with stocking density of over 5000 birds

7 Laying hens population - annual data PL - Poland [thous.] Laying hens population in Poland - annual data (Eurostat)

8 Laying hens population - annual data DE - Germany FR - France PL - Poland Laying hens population in De., Fr., Pl. in thousand - annual data (Eurostat)

9 Production of chicken meat, % 14% 13% 10% 12% 11% 11% Fr UK Pl De Es It Other Members Production of poultry meat, 2012 (% share of EU-28 total) AgriPB13.png

10 Production of chicken meat, 2012 Poland already surpassed UK last year as the leading producer of chicken meat in the EU.

11 Poultry production in Poland Thousand

12 Poultry production in Poland 2012

13 Chicken manure biogas potential The enormous potential of biogas production also results from the possibility of using manure from poultry farms. Chicken manure gas efficiency (about 32% dry matter) is estimated at m 3 of biogas per tone of FM (with 60% methane). Poland is one of the leading poultry producers in Europe, with some large chicken farms with up to birds for meat or egg production.

14 Chicken manure biogas potential According to data from Professor Zbigniew Dobrzański (Wroclaw University of Life Sciences), the annual amount of manure generated by poultry consists of 2.7 million tons of chicken manure, 0.72 million tons of turkey manure and nearly 0.38 million tons of other poultry manure. The result is a composite theoretical performance of 170, 38 and 20 million m 3 of methane per year, or a total electrical capacity of over 105 MW. With a standard working time of cogeneration units of hours, these produce 840 MWh of energy per year.

15 Problems with biogas production based on chicken manure: 1. In Europe, there is no technology fermenting 100% chicken manure 2. Biogas plants that generates biogas based on chicken manure only, have a very low yield of methane (China). 3. The Wabio Company - has developed a 5 stages (5 chamber) technology, operating on highly concentrated chicken manure (too expensive and not profitable for investors).

16 What the sources of problems in biogas fermentation of chicken manure: Excessive concentration of nitrogen in the substrate Too much mineral matter Antibiotics and steroids might be a serious threat to many cultures of methane fermentation bacteria Excessive concentration of sulfur compounds (from proteins)

17 Problems with poultry manure methane fermentation All of the above factors should lead potential investors to particular care in investments associated with the production of biomethane from chicken manure. The scale of production of chicken manure in Poland and Europe leads to a deep take an interest in this market, and the possibility of management of this type of substrate for energy purposes.

18 Poultry manure and poultry litters: Poultry manure is the organic waste material from poultry consisting of animal feces and urine. Poultry litter refers to the manure mixed with some of the bedding material or litter (wood shavings or sawdust) and feathers.

19 Poultry manure from chicken farm in China

20 Poultry litter from chicken farm in Poland

21 Nitrogen is the main inhibitor of the process Many authors report that ammonium nitrogen (i.e. the dissolved form of ammonia to form NH 4+ ) becomes an inhibitor for the proper development/propagation of methane bacteria and therefore inhibits the production of biomethane. In concentration of 2.7 g/kg of solution.

22 Average nutrient composition of poultry Manure Type manures Total N Ammonium (NH 4 -N) Phosphorus (as P 2 O 5 ) Potassium (as K 2 O) Broiler lb/ton Fresh (no litter) Broiler house litter Breeder house litter Stockpiled litter Layer Fresh (no litter) Undercage scraped Highrise stored lb/1,000 gallons Liquid slurry Anaerobic lagoon sludge lb/acre-inch Anaerobic lagoon liquid Source: Biological and Agricultural Engineering Dept., North Carolina State University, as reported in "Poultry Manure as a Fertilizer Source," 1997, Soil Facts fact sheet AG authored by J.P. Zublena, J.C. Barker, and T.A. Carter,

23 Chicken manure and poultry litter case study The study on chicken manure in the Laboratory of Ecotechnologies in Poznan University of Life Sciences The study of biogas efficiency from chicken manure and poultry litter The study was carried out in bioreactors in accordance with DIN

24 Figure: Scheme of bioreactor (Section of 5-chambers): 1. Water heater with a temperature controller, 2. Isolated pipes with heating liquid, 3. The water jacket at a temperature of o C, 4. Bioreactor with a load capacity of 1,4-2 dm 3, 5. Biogas tank, 6. Shut-off valves, 7. Gas Flow Meters, 8. Gas analyzers (CH 4, CO 2, NH 3, H 2 S, O2 ), 9. ph sensors, 10. Temperature sensor, 11. The control panel and registration, 12. Magnetic stirrers for batch mixing.

25 Methods and Materials The physical-chemical parameters of chicken manure. Dry matter: 32,2% Total nitrogen concentration 18,1 g/kg of FM, ammonium nitrogen 13,94 g/kg of FM. ph 8,1

26 The biogas laboratory facilities at our University

27 Methods and Materials Water dilution method for chicken manure: In experiment used chicken manure diluted in five levels up to: 10, 8, 6, 4 and 2% of dry weight. After dilution, was added 10% fermentation bacteria inoculates. As a result of different levels of dilution of the chicken manure, there were obtained pulpy with different concentration of total and ammonium nitrogen.

28 The biogas laboratory facilities at our University

29 Changes in the content of total nitrogen and ammonia, depending on the dilution of chicken manure The N concentration [g / kg FM] ,38 3,52 2,81 N-tot N-NH4 2,7 g/kg 1,75 0,88 10% 8% 6% 4% 2% Dry matter of pulpe [%]

30 Production of biogas and methane, depending on the dilution and calculated on the dry matter of the pulp Biogas efficiency [m 3 /t DM] biogas methane 10% 8% 6% 4% 2% Dry matter of pulp [%]

31 Changes in the content of total nitrogen and ammonia, depending on the dilution of chicken manure with bacteria, characterized with a higher tolerance to nitrogen content The N concentration [g / kg FM] N-tot N-NH4 4,12 3,45 2,94 2,7 g/kg 1,63 1,03 10% 8% 6% 4% 2% Dry matter of pulp [%]

32 Production of biogas and methane, depending on the dilution and calculated on the fresh weight of the pulp with bacteria, characterized with a higher tolerance to nitrogen conten Biogas efficiency [m 3 /t DM] biogas methane 10% 8% 6% 4% 2% Dry matter of pulpe [%]

33 Production of biogas and methane, depending on the dilution and calculated on the fresh weight of the pulp with regular inoculum and inoculum containing bacteria with a higher tolerance to nitrogen Methane production [m 3 /t FM] without bacteria with added bacterial inoculum 10% 8% 6% 4% 2% Dry matter of pulpe [%]

34 Production of biogas and methane rom different type of poultry litter The cumulative methane production [m 3 /t DM] Ch. M. 9% T. L. 9% Ch. M. 6% Fermentation time [days] Ch.M. - chicken manure, T.L. turkey litter

35 Production of biogas and methane rom different type of chicken manure The cumulative methane production [m 3 /t DM] Ch. M. 9% Ch. M. 6% 80% (211) 35 days 90% (235) 39 days 80% (145) 41 days 90% (163) 46 days 100% (264) 60 days 100% (181) 63 days Ch.M. - chicken manure Fermentation time [days]

36 Production of biogas and methane rom different type of poultry manure /litter Efficiency of biogas production [m 3 /t DM] biogas methane Ch.M. 6% Ch.M. 9% T.L. 6% T.L. 9% Type of poultry manure /litter

37 Water consumption in the process of the substrate dilution 1 ton of chicken manure to be diluted to 32,2% of dry matter requires 0 m 3 of water 1 ton of chicken manure to be diluted to 10% of dry matter requires 2,2 m 3 of water 1 ton of chicken manure to be diluted to 8% of dry matter requires 3 m 3 of water 1 ton of chicken manure to be diluted to 6% of dry matter requires 4,4 m 3 of water 1 ton of chicken manure to be diluted to 4% of dry matter requires 7,1 m 3 of water 1 ton of chicken manure to be diluted to 2% of dry matter requires 15,1 m 3 of water

38 The biogas plant operating on 100% chicken manure in China

39 Chinese solution for the production of biogas from poultry manure

40 Raw chicken manure from farm

41 Raw chicken manure from farm

42 Raw chicken manure from farm

43 Digested poultry manure

44 Digested poultry manure facilities

45 Digested poultry manure facilities

46 Dried digested poultry manure as a valuable fertilizer

47 Dried digested poultry manure facilities

48 Dried digested poultry manure as a valuable fertilizer

49 The first plug flow digester of chicken manure from the 1990

50 Biogas plan - Complex of digesters

51 Biomethane to the gas network

52 Compressed biogas station

53 Pressure pump station

54 The final utilization of the biogas

55 Field application of afterdigest fertilizer

56 Field application of afterdigest fertilizer

57 Greenhouse crop production

58 Outloock for future To ensure an effective biogas production process based on poultry litter and poultry manure should be: To develop an appropriate method of N stripping from the substrate and percolate in the recycling (chemical or biological technologies).

59 Outloock for future It should be selected appropriate bacteria highly tolerant to high concentrations of NH 3 in the substrate, and other negatives factors (antibiotics and steroids) Whenever possible, use a method of cosubstrates to balance the ratio of C:N (100:33). It should be introduced the appropriate rearing conditions at the poultry farm in order to obtain stable parameters for the final chicken manure

60 Thank you for your attention Vielen Dank für Ihre Aufmerksamkeit

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