Age of Absolutism Key Rulers & Their Impact

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1 Age of Absolutism Key Rulers & Their Impact

2 Introduction The Age of Absolutism was a period of time when ruling monarchs wielded unrestricted political power over the sovereign state and its people. Their justification was that their rule was in fact a Divine Right from God. Nations became superpowers but the strong rule created external conflicts, such as religious and colonial wars, and internal conflicts, such as revolutions and civil wars, as kings got too powerful.

3 Spain

4 Ferdinand & Isabella Spain was ruled by absolute monarchy during the s. At that time they were the most powerful and richest country in Europe. The marriage and rule of King Ferdinand & Queen Isabella united Spain, completed the Reconquest, and funded many voyages; notably, that of Christopher Columbus. They also built up a substantial naval fleet to protect their new colonies and trade routes.

5 Charles V Spain experienced further growth under King Charles V (a Holy Roman Emperor) who made Spain a superpower by taking gold/silver from the New World. Unfortunately, he used much of the wealth to fight religious wars defending the Roman Catholic Church. His son Philip II succeeded him as the ruler of Spain.

6 Philip II During his marriage to Queen Mary I, he was also King of England and Ireland. From 1555, he was lord of the 17 Provinces of the Netherlands. His empire included territories on every continent including his namesake the Philippine Islands. During his reign, Spain reached the height of its influence and power. This is sometimes called the Golden Age of Spain. The expression,"the empire on which the sun never sets," was coined during Philip's time to reflect the extent of his dominion.

7 Decline of Spain The Reconquest drove many brilliant Muslims and Jews to Spain's rival countries. Gold & Silver mines eventually dried up, was stolen by pirates and privateers across the Atlantic and the wars of Charles and Philip consumed gold. Age of Exploration required a modern, powerful navy to police overseas empires, Spain's navy was declining as England's was growing. After the American Revolution, Spanish colonies began fighting for independence and all were free or conquered by 1900.

8 France

9 Henry IV France developed into a wealthy and powerful absolute monarchy from New World trade. Henry IV ruled during the shock of the Protestant Reformation and used the Edict of Nantes to declare religious toleration in France, but was murdered by a religious fanatic. Louis XIII, at the age of 9 years old, inherited a divided and violent France. Cardinal Armand Richelieu, crushed power of the nobles and Protestants to make Louis XIII an absolute monarch of a unified and peaceful France.

10 The 30 Years War The Thirty Years War was a religious war between Catholic Spain and Austria versus Protestant North German kingdoms and the Netherlands. France helped Protestants to weaken Spain, but it was very costly to France.

11 Louis XIV Louis XIV, at the age of 5 years old, inherited a powerful/unified France and made it a superpower. Cardinal Jules Mazarin appointed by Richelieu to be chief minister. Louis XIV was known as the Sun King, made France the wealthy, powerful, cultural, intellectual center of Europe as important as the sun is to the galaxy.

12 Palace of Versailles Palace of Versailles was the most extravagant palace in Europe, housed 10,000 people so Louis could directly control the lives of the feudal nobility.

13 War of Spanish Succession Philip V, a grandson of Louis XIV, inherits the throne of Spain, so Louis XIV declares France and Spain united. England goes to war to keep them separated to maintain a "balance of power. This war became known as the War of the Spanish Succession.

14 France s Debt & Taxes Louis XIV's luxury and wars put France in debt so taxes had to rise. He never consulted the Estates General about spending of tax money.

15 Louis XV Louis XV inherited high taxes and debt, but continued France's luxury, then lost The Seven Years War which gave ground to England Canada and split Louisiana between England and Spain. France lost all New World money. The French Absolute Monarchy was the most powerful in Europe, but was going bankrupt.

16 England

17 Limited Monarchy England began developing a Limited Monarchy since the adoption of the Magna Carta of 1215, marking a move towards democracy. Trade with the New World is making England rich. England developed a strong navy which will make England the world superpower until 1918, as Spain declines and France goes broke and begins the French Revolution.

18 Henry VIII Henry VIII asked for Parliament's support when the Act of Supremacy created the Church of England.

19 Elizabeth I Elizabeth I was a powerful and popular queen for 45 years. She helped established New World colonies and made England rich & powerful. She protected Protestant Netherlands from Catholic Spain to keep access to continental Europe, defeated the Spanish Armada in 1588, but died with no heir.

20 James I James I began the Scottish Stuart Dynasty. He inherited the throne promoting Roman Catholic Church and Absolutism. Many Protestants flee to America to escape the unpopular James.

21 Charles I Parliament demanded Charles I to sign the Petition of Right, which gives full power of taxes to Parliament. Charles refuses to sign and dismisses Parliament so he can rule as an absolute monarch.

22 English Civil War Parliament forms an army of "roundheads" (disciplined Puritans) led by Oliver Cromwell to fight Charles's "cavaliers, which lead to the English Civil War. Charles is captured and beheaded which shocked Europe that a Divine Right" king could be disposed of by the people. This act made Spain and France more resistant to having a Limited Monarchy.

23 Monarchy Abolished Parliament abolishes the monarchy and Cromwell attempts to form a republic, but England is lost after having continuous kings since William in Once the republic failed, Parliament offered Charles II the throne to restore the monarchy in what became known as the Restoration. James II threatened to return to Roman Catholic Church and Absolutism rule.

24 The Glorious Revolution In the Glorious Revolution, Parliament invites William & Mary to rule England on the condition that they sign the English Bill of Rights which permanently makes Parliament supreme. William & Mary ruled England with limited powers. This cooperative effort led to an era of peace and prosperity in England.

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