Napoleon Bonaparte Rise & Reform

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1 Napoleon Bonaparte Rise & Reform

2 Personal Life Born into a noble family on the French island of Corsica Quickly rose through the military, fighting for the Revolutionary army Supported the Jacobins Self-proclaimed Son of the Revolution Personality Extremely intelligent & Analytical Photographic Memory Like a chess master Charismatic, all wanted to follow One of his famous opponents claimed that his presence on the battlefield was worth 40,000 men. Married Josephine when he was 26 Love of his life. Famous love letters.

3 Excerpts from Napoleon s Love Letters to Josephine Sweet incomparable Josephine, what a strange effect you have on my heart! Oh, my adorable wife! I don't know what fate has in store for me, but if it keeps me apart from you any longer, it will be unbearable! My courage is not enough for that. I wake filled with thoughts of you. Your portrait and the intoxicating evening which we spent yesterday have left my senses in turmoil. Yielding to the profound feelings which overwhelm me, I draw from your lips, from your heart a love which consumes me with fire. Until then, mio dolce amor, a thousand kisses; but give me none in return, for they set my blood on fire. I don t love you, not at all; on the contrary I detest you You re a naughty, gawky, foolish slut.

4 Key Terms Josephine Coup d etat Coup of 1799 French Consulate Duke of Enghien Affair Emperor of the French Coronation of Napoleon Plebiscite Napoleonic Code Codification Meritocracy Concordat of 1801 Neoclassicism

5 Focus Question Did he destroy the French Revolution or make the changes permanent?

6 I. Napoleon s Rise to Power

7 Coup d etat of 1799(Year VII) Displeasure with the Directory Coup d etat Overthrow of a government from within, often by the military Coup of 1799 NB return from Egyptian Campaign Invited by Sieyes (then one of the Five Directors) to overthrow the government NB becomes Consul, moves into the Tuileries Palace Citizens, the Revolution is established on the principles with which it began. It is over. Napoleon, 1799

8 French Consulate (Year VII to Year XI) At first, 3 Consuls, one legislative body NB was one of the Consuls, would consolidate power over time NB expanded power by popular support Plebiscite similar to a referendum. Form of direct democracy in which everyone votes on a single question. Plebiscite of 1800 Napoleon s first plebiscite asked??? Should Napoleon be the First Consul? Results? 99.9% of voters approved. Plebiscite of 1802 Should Napoleon be Consul for Life? 99.8% of voters approved.

9 The Duke of Enghien Affair (Jan, 1804) Attempted assassination of NB by French Royalists seeking to restore the Bourbon Family Louis Antoine (Bourbon), Duke of Enghien blamed and Executed Likely had nothing to do with the plot. NB used this plot to justify the Re-creation of a hereditary line in France. After the murder of the Duke, even the most partial ceased to regard Bonaparte as a hero. If to some people he ever was a hero, after the murder of the duke there was one martyr more in heaven and one hero less on earth. -War & Peace, Tolstoy Believed a Bourbon Restoration would be near impossible if Bonapartist line was guranteed in the Constitution Bourbon Family out, Bonaparte Family in

10 Plebiscite of 1804 Plebiscite of 1804 people voted to make NB emperor

11 Coronation of Napoleon Jacques-Louis David

12

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14 Coronation of Napoleon Jacques-Louis David Example of Neoclassicism Art Neo =? Classicism =? Incredible Dimensions 10 meters wide 6 meters tall 1 meter = inches Housed at Louvre today Napoleon crowns himself

15 Sketch by David

16 Coronation of Napoleon I (Event) December 2, 1804 (11 Frimaire XIII) NB refused to be crowned like the monarchs of the Ancien Regime To be a king is to inherit old ideas and genealogy. I don't want to descend from anyone. -Napoleon Took the title Emperor of the French NB crowned at the Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris Pope present, but NB stopped him and crowned himself

17 II. Napoleonic Reforms Concordat of 1801 Napoleonic Code Bank of France Public Education Limitations on Liberty

18 Napoleonic Reform: Overview Above all else NB was a general, therefore NB valued order & clarity Clear laws Orderly society

19 Concordat of 1801 Concordat of Agreement between NB and Pope Pius VII Declared Catholicism as the great majority religion of France, but not the state religion. 1. Pope gave up claims to land taken during FR 2. French Gov t could elect and fire bishops 3. Catholic worship allowed / Seminaries opened 4. Granted religious freedom and protection of rights to all people

20 Napoleonic Code 1804 Significance Codification writing down of laws Replaced collection of feudal law Standard law for all (new) Codified and solidified many of the gains of the French Revolution Would spread through Europe with Napoleon s Empire Became law everywhere Nearly all systems of civil law set up after this time were based on the Napoleonic Code

21 Napoleonic Code Forbade the Estate system Forbade privilege based on birth 2. Allowed freedom of Religion 3. Set up a system of Meritocracy Jobs and titles went to most qualified Criticism: Step backwards for women Legally dependent on husband / father Could not buy/sell property Women s incomes went to husband

22 Other Reforms 1. Public Education for all children Intended to result in a large pool of officers for the military 2. Bank of France Centralized economy and balanced the French budget 3. Limitations on liberty Freedom of press drastically reduced System of spies Thousands of political prisoners No democratic system, similar to absolutism

23 Review Rise Coup d etat of 1799 French Consulate Plebiscite of 1800 First Consul Plebiscite of 1802 First Consul for Life Reform Concordat of 1801 Napoleonic Code Public Education Bank of France Limitations of Liberty Coronation of 1804 Became Emperor

24 Did Napoleon continue and make permanent the goals of the Revolution or did he destroy them? Continued Destroyed

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