France (Monarchs of France)

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1 TUDOR FOREIGN POLICY: TIMELINE Year England (Monarchs of England) Spain & The Netherlands (Monarchs of Spain) France (Monarchs of France) Scotland & Ireland (Monarchs of Scotland) Other (Holy Roman Empire, Portugal, etc)

2 Aragon & Castile unified by Ferdinand and Isabella Battle of Bosworth: Henry VII takes the throne with Breton and French backing 1486 Anglo-Breton commercial treaty 1487 Battle of Stoke, Simnel defeated 1488 Defeat of Francis II of Brittany by France at St 1489 Treaty of Medina Del Campo with England, Prince Arthur engaged to Catherine of Aragon Aubin Treaty of Redon; Henry sends 6000 men to the aid of Brittany Bretons accept defeat by France 1492 Columbus reaches the West Indies, working for Ferdinand & Isabella; Conquest of Granada 1493 Trade Embargo on the Henry attacks Boulogne, France quickly moves for peace; resulting Treaty of Etaples sets up Henry VII s pension 3 Year Anglo-Scottish truce formed James III of Scotland assassinated, James IV succeeds him

3 Netherlands to oppose support for Warbeck Warbeck gains favour in Scotland 1496 Magnus Intercursus 1497 Warbeck tries to invade, fails and is captured Treaty of Ayton concludes full peace with Scotland 1498 Death of Charles VIII, accession of Louis XII 1499 Louis XII captures Milan Death of Prince Arthur 1503 Death of Elizabeth of York Marriage of Margaret Tudor to James IV 1504 Death of Isabella Malus Intercursus Henry VII dies, Henry VIII succeeds him Holy League formed against France (England, HRE, Spain, Pope) 1512 First French War 1513 Battle of the Spurs Battle of Flodden; death of James IV, accession of young James V 1514 End of First French War Swiss forces take Milan back from France

4 1515 Louis XII dies, Francis I crowned; defeats Swiss at Marignano 1516 Charles (later Charles V) becomes King of Spain and Aragon 1517 Luther s 95 Theses 1518 Treaty of London 1519 Charles V becomes Holy Roman Emperor 1520 Field of the Cloth of Gold improves Anglo-French relations 1521 Valois-Habsburg wars begin Diet of Worms; Defeat of the Aztec Empire by Cortez 1522 Second French War 1523 Failed march on Paris Sweden becomes independent from Denmark Battle of Pavia; Francis I soundly defeated in Italy; German Peasants War 1526 Second French War ends Battle of Mohacs; Ferdinand becomes King of Hungary 1527 First attempts to annul marriage to Catherine of Aragon Fall of Wolsey Ferdinand becomes King of Croatia

5 1530 Augsburg confession Act of Supremacy: Henry formally leads Church of England Founding of the Jesuit order Battle of Solway Moss, James V dies soon afterwards. Mary of Guise becomes regent for the infant Mary Stuart Capture of Boulogne 1545 Council of Trent begins Death of Henry VIII; Edward is crowned Death of Francis I, accession of Henry II Battle of Pinkie Cleugh, England occupies southern Scotland. Start of garrison strategy 1548 Mary Stuart taken to France 1549 East Anglian & Western risings; fall of Somerset Battle of Muhlberg; Schmalkadic League defeated.

6 1550 France buys Boulogne back Withdrawal from Scotland Revolt of the German Princes; Charles V flees the Holy Roman Empire 1553 Death of Edward; Lady Jane Grey takes the throne, but is replaced by Mary 1554 Act of Supremacy repealed 1555 Charles V abdicates, Philip II becomes King of Spain Death of Mary, accession of Elizabeth 1559 Religious Settlement, new Act of Supremacy France recaptures Calais Death of Henry II, accession of Francis II; Treaty of Cateau- Cambresis ends Italian wars 1560 Death of Francis II, accession of Charles IX Pope orders shunning of Huguenot/Catholic Church of England violence begins to break services out; Le Havre expedition Lords of the Congregation rebel against Mary of Guise Mary Stuart returns to Scotland Charles V abdicates as ruler of all his territories: religious peace of Augsburg. Ferdinand I becomes Holy Roman Emperor 1563 Loss of Le Havre 1564 Death of Ferdinand I

7 1565 Mary Queen of Scots marries Lord Darnley 1566 Darnley and others murder Mary s secretary, Riccio 1567 Darnley murdered, Mary marries Bothwell 1568 Mary Queen of Scots arrives in England 1569 Northern Rebellion 1570 Ridolfi Plot; Papal excommunication of Elizabeth 1571 Treason act; upholding the Bull of Excommunication a treasonable offence 1572 Expulsion of the Sea Beggars; Execution of the Duke of Norfolk Sea Beggars capture Brielle and Flushing; Dutch Revolt begins in earnest St Bartholomew s Day Massacre Mary flees to England; her infant son James becomes King Death of Charles, Accession of Henry III 1575 First Seminary priests arrive 1576 Catholic League formed by Guise faction 1577 Drake sets off on world voyage; Martyrdom of Cuthbert Mayne 1578 Official end of James VI s

8 Drake returns from circumnavigating the globe; Papal pronouncement in favour of Elizabeth s assassination; Campion & Parsons mission to England 1581 Edmund Campion found and executed; Act to retain Obedience implements heavy fines Spain captures Portugal; Iberian unification Act of Abjuration: Netherlands declare formal independence minority for recusancy Throckmorton Plot James VI of Scotland takes full control of government 1584 Assassination of William I of Orange 1585 Act against Jesuits & Seminary Priests Direct English intervention in the Netherlands under Leicester 1586 Mary formally disinherits James in favour of Philip of Spain to try and get the Spanish to work on her behalf; Babington Plot 1587 Execution of Mary, Queen of Scots; Land seizure act 1588 Spanish Armada defeated Defeat of the Armada Paris revolts against

9 at Gravelines Henry III 1589 Death of Henry III; accession of Henry of Navarre, as Henry VI Restraining & Gathering act stops Catholics meeting one another 1594 Death of William Allen Archpriest controversy; unpopular George Blackwell appointed by Rome to supervise English Catholics Death of Elizabeth, accession of James VI of Scotland as James I English defeated at Yellow Ford by Hugh O Neill HENRY VII - Came to the throne with a weak claim - Focussed on security for this reason (Warbeck & Simnel problems) - Recognition from other monarchs vital (Medina Del Campo & Marriages) - Had a strong financial focus to help keep his position secure (Magnus & Malus intercursus, trade treaties)

10 - Made money from his invasion of Brittany via his pension HENRY VIII - Wanted to compete with other European monarchs (Field of the Cloth of Gold, Treaty of London) - Very stable position left by Henry VII (No major claimants or contenders to his throne) - Mismanaged finances badly to pay for wars with little gain (Lost vastly more money than he got from gaining Boulogne, 3 French wars) - Debased currency for finances, money gained from monasteries not conserved EDWARD VI - Somerset regime; wanted to deal with Scotland more permanently and marry Mary Stuart to Edward - Large expenditure on garrisons - French still able to move Mary to France - Policy failed, despite further currency debasement to pay for it - Northumberland regime; tried to move expenditure back to workable levels - Gave Boulogne back to France, ended garrison policy - More aggressively Protestant - Succession altered in favour of Jane Grey to try and keep Protestantism going; this fails majorly. MARY - Married to Philip of Spain - English foreign policy very strongly linked to Habsburg/Spanish interests - Enmity with France and Papacy as a result despite England s return to Catholicism - Loss of Calais the result of being in this conflict and largest foreign policy loss ELIZABETH - Wanted to end turmoil of mid-tudor era and religious issues - Thus had a very stability and security focussed regime and policies - Resisted demands from court to be Protestant saviour of Europe - Intervened in Netherlands, Le Havre, Scotland to prevent Spa/Fra controlling all the nearby coast and/or having Scotland as an invasion base. - Preferred not to innovate in government and instead kept nobles on side (left tax rates at Marian levels, allowed monopolies etc) - After Scotland ceased being a threat (became Protestant 1568 onwards) and Le Havre fails, less obvious tensions with France, Spain becomes the major enemy due to its interference in the Netherlands

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