IPM Principles, objectives and implementation in Europe

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1 Switzerland IPM Principles, objectives and implementation in Europe Franz Bigler President IOBC-WPRS Contents IPM definitions and application in the EU Case studies of IPM IPM in the context of sustainable agriculture Conclusions IOBC WPRS, 2 1

2 The visualised IPM concept Preventive (indirect) crop protection Responsive (direct) crop protection Risk assessment/ Monitoring Certified seeds/ plants Tolerant/ Resistant cultivars Meissle et al Pest Manag. Science,67 Chemical Biotechnical Biological Physical Warning/ Forecasting/ Early diagnosis systems Dec. Support Systems Threshold values Cultural control: Cultivation techniques, Fertilizer, Weed management, Irrigation, Crop rotation Enhancement of natural enemies IOBC WPRS, Directive 2009/128/EC (SUD) The Framework Directive on the sustainable use of pesticides aims to achieve a sustainable use of pesticides by reducing the risks and impacts of pesticide use on human health and on the environment and by promoting the use of IPM and of alternative techniques such as non-chemical alternatives. IOBC WPRS, 2

3 EU member states must promote the use of IPM by professional users of pesticides establish necessary conditions for the implementation of IPM (in particular information and tools for pest monitoring and decision making, advisory services); ensure that the general principles of IPM are implemented by all professional users by 1 January 2014; IOBC WPRS, Contents IPM definitions and application in the EU Case studies of IPM IPM in the context of sustainable agriculture Conclusions IOBC WPRS, 6 3

4 Case studies of successful IPM in Europe 1. Field hygiene, crop sequence, resistant cultivars, tillage: Fusarium diseases 2. Crop rotation: Corn root worm 3. Sexual pheromones for insect control: Rice stem borer IOBC WPRS, 7 Effect of preventive methods on Fusarium incidence in wheat Problem: reduction of yield and quality (mycotoxins) Major preventive methods with impact on wheat: Choice of wheat varieties Crop rotation, crop sequence Tillage & residue management F. graminearum F. avenaceum Vogelgsang et al photos: B. Dorn & H. R. Forrer IOBC WPRS, 8 4

5 Fusarium graminearum life cycle F. graminearum F. avenaceum A. Schilder & G. Bergstrom Vogelgsang et al IOBC WPRS, 9 Effect of wheat variety and crop sequence on F. graminearum Grains infected by F. graminearum (%) P = n = 495 Vogelgsang et al Wheat variety Galaxie Pegassos Arina Fiorina Levis Mulan Siala Runal Ludwig Zinal Tapidor Arolla Hermann Forel Titlis Caphorn Claro Winnetou Segor Drifter Grains infected with F. graminearum (%) P < n = 483 Crop sequence: wheat is grown after wheat soybean sunflower peas meadow potatoes colza sugar beets grain maize silage maize IOBC WPRS,

6 Adults/week/trap J Durchschnitt Käfer/Tag/Falle Control options for the Western Corn Rootworm Problem: larvae feed on maize roots, adults on silk, reduction of yield, harvest problems Control options: Crop rotation Insecticides Gen. modified resistant varieties Entomopathogenic nematodes IOBC WPRS, 11 Impact of crop rotation on Diabrotica adult populations Switzerland, Ticino Maize monocrop Monokultur Crop rotation Fruchtfolge Week N Bertossa et al IOBC WPRS,

7 New organisational models to implement crop rotation Farm 1 Farm 2 Farm 3 Joint purchase of goods & services Land, machinery, labour «Crop rotation association» Product markets benefits Organisational and legal questions Different types of cooperation models are possible Adopt an appropriate legal model with written agreement and exit clause Support by advisory service is needed Full agreement on production system needed Swiss green subsidy system makes crop rotation compulsory (min. 4 crops) IOBC WPRS, 13 New organisational models to implement crop rotation Incentives and benefits Better economic result due to cost reduction % less work hours per ha - up to 30% lower investment in machinery - purchase of pesticides, fertilizers, seeds, etc. More flexibility and better planning of work - fewer work peaks - more flexibility to grow crops on appropriate soils (e.g. potato) More time to generate additional income Less time investment in education (specialization of each partner in one or two crops or in one farm branch) IOBC WPRS,

8 Mass trapping of Rice stem borer in the Ebro Delta, Spain Chilo suppressalis Ramoneda et al Problem Yield and quality of rice Insecticide use polluting the delta Incentives Environment (bird res.) Fish (farms, wild catch) Tourism EU envir. subsidies as from 1998 onward IOBC WPRS, 15 Insecticide reduction in rice in the Ebro Delta due to mass-trapping Percent surface treated with insecticides Savings Total reduction % 65% 45% % Ramoneda et al IOBC WPRS,

9 Contents IPM definitions and application in the EU Case studies of IPM IPM in the context of sustainable agriculture Conclusions IOBC WPRS, 17 IPM in the context of sustainable production and society Technical solutions Farm sustainability Human health Environment Farmer economy Policy, Government Pesticide risk reduction, nonchem. alternat. Env. laws, Directives, «green» subsidies Market, retailers High quality products Production standards Premium price products (labels) Consumer s willingness to pay Residue free products Healthy environment Higher price for «added values»? IOBC WPRS,

10 Another 50 years to implement IPM in Europe? No, in the EU, 50% pesticide reduction by 2025 is possible if the potential of IPM is fully exploited What is needed? Governments and policy to create frameworks for IPM: 1. Set ambitious goals for pesticide reduction 2. Give incentives to farmers through funding of extension, training & knowledge transfer, economic support in transitional period 3. Establish IPM regulation and certification/control system IOBC WPRS, 19 Another 50 years to implement IPM in Europe? No, in the EU, 50% pesticide reduction by 2025 is possible if the potential of IPM is fully exploited What is needed? Governments and policy to create frameworks for IPM: 4. Redirect funds for innovative IPM research (e.g. EIP) 5. Faster and cheaper registration of IPM compatible and low risk products is urgently needed 6. Indicators to assess IPM adoption and impact (success/failure) in NAPs 7. Communicate added values of IPM products to retailers, consumers and society at large IOBC WPRS,

11 Conclusions IPM is a valid and innovative concept in many crops with a great potential for pesticide reduction Preventive methods should be the fundament of IPM Major incentives for farmers to apply IPM are economic benefits, problems with pesticides, available knowledge, and government green subsidy systems Alternatives to replace pesticides are available and waiting to be adopted by farmers (slow technology transfer!) Added value to health and environment by IPM and IP must pay off for farmers (labels?) and be communicated to retailers and consumers IOBC WPRS, 21 The necessity of change is the engin of innovation Thank you for your attention IOBC WPRS, 11

12 Definition of IPM in the Sustainable Use of Pesticide Directive (SUD) «Integrated Pest Management» means careful consideration of all available plant protection methods and integration of appropriate measures that discourage the development of populations of harmful organisms and keep the use of plant protection products and other forms of intervention to levels that are economically and ecologically justified and minimise the risks to human health and the environment. IPM emphasises the growth of a healthy crop with the least possible disruption to agro-ecosystems and encourages natural pest control mechanisms. (EU Directive 2009/128/EC: Chapter 1, Art. 3, parag. 6) IOBC WPRS, 23 IPM concept in EU Directive 2009/128/EC (SUD) Chapter 1, Art. 3, IPM means (definition): To carefully consider all plant protection methods and integration of all possible measures To keep the use of PPP and other interventions to levels that are economically and ecologically justified To minimize risks to human health and the environment To grow healthy crops with the least possible disruption of agro-ecosystems To encourage natural pest control mechanisms IOBC WPRS,

13 IPM concept in EU Directive 2009/128/EC Important additional points are listed in Annex III: Preventive (indirect) control measures are the 1st choice Direct interventions should be justified by assessing the economic threshold Non-chemical methods (biological, biotechnical, physical) are the preferred direct control options Pesticides are the last option of direct measures IOBC WPRS, 25 IPM and IP are interrelated to each other IPM already in development since the late 1950 s Gained attention in the 1970 s It became clear that optimal IPM, using the full potential, requires adaptations on different levels of a farming system IP concept emerged in the 1970 s from this IPM work and was pushed forward by farming systems (FS) research in the period all over Europe IOBC offered a platform for a FS working group ( ) IOBC WPRS, 13

14 IP definition by the IOBC IP (Integrated Production) is a concept of sustainable agriculture (economy, ecology, social) based on: - a holistic systems approach involving the entire farm - the use of natural resources and regulating mechanisms to replace potentially polluting inputs - preventive measures to safeguard the environment, the health of workers and consumers - IPM adoption to control pests, diseases and weeds - balanced nutrient cycles - Welfare of all species of animal husbandry IOBC WPRS, 14

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