Ecologically based weed management! Chuck Mohler! Cornell University!

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Ecologically based weed management! Chuck Mohler! Cornell University!"

Transcription

1 Ecologically based weed management! Chuck Mohler! Cornell University!

2 Outline! Understanding weeds! Behavior of wandering perennials! Tillage and emergence cues! Life and death of weed seeds in the soil! Season of emergence and crop rotation! Seed size and crop competitiveness! Weeds and nutrient management! Prevention!

3 Weeds are plants that thrive in disturbed environments! For example, in a farm field! We kill off natural vegetation & disturb the soil to make conditions suitable for crops! But this also creates habitats for weeds! Managing soil disturbance is critical for weed control! When? How?!

4 Understanding the biology of weeds is a key to their control! Managing the weeds without harming your crops depends on the biological differences between the weeds and crops.!

5 Ecological weed management requires multiple tactics! Conventional agriculture relies on a few big hammers (broad spectrum herbicides)!

6 Ecological weed management relies instead on many little hammers! Crop rotation! Enhanced crop competition! Mulches! Nutrient management! Timing and type of tillage! Cultivation!

7 Any little hammers Requires an integrated approach based on the biological characteristics of the weeds present in a particular field! Attack the whole life cycle of the weed! Multiple year strategy!

8 System design! 1. You need to get to know the weeds who they are, how they make a living! Also needs to know soil, crops, cover crops, pests etc. too! 2. Design the system to prevent the weeds from causing problems! And supply nutrients, insure crop health etc.! 3. Return to 1 (keep learning and tinkering)! Ecological management works best for people who find learning fun.!

9 Multiple ways to be a weed! Annuals! Summer annuals! Cool season annuals! Perennials! Stationary perennials! Wandering perennials!

10 Wandering perennials! Spread by thickened storage roots or by rhizomes (underground stems)!

11 Apical dominance in perennials! Tillage

12 Shoot above ground Shoot below ground New rhizomes Old rhizome fragment

13 Management of perennials! Key is exhaustion of reserves.! Time shoot removal relative to growth stage! Hit them repeatedly! Cultivated fallows! Frequently cultivated crops,! Short season crops (with post-harvest clean up)! Competitive crops!

14 Annual weeds! Live less than one year! Establish from seed each year! Seeds/seedlings are critical stages!

15 Seeds of most weeds are tiny why?! Disturbed environments are risky! Tiny seeds spread the risk over many offspring! Seedlings can be small because in a recently disturbed environment they have little competition.! Consequence: seedlings have limited resources!!

16 0.4 Velvetleaf Lambsquarters Redroot pigweed Small seeded species only emerge if near the soil surface! Depth (cm)

17 Germination cues! Seedlings compete poorly with established plants! So weed seeds need to know when other plants are absent! Respond to cues associated with! absence of plants! Near-surface conditions! soil disturbance!

18 Common germination cues! Light!! Warm soil temperature (90 F +)! Redroot pigweed, purslane! Day-night fluctuation in temperature! Common chickweed, curly dock! Nitrate! Lambsquarters, annual bluegrass! Most species respond to multiple cues! Lambsquarters: light, fluctuating temperatures and nitrate!

19 Consequences! Can use tillage to flush seeds out of the soil! Cultivated fallow! Conversely, soil cover suppresses germination of weed seeds! Mulch! Dense crop canopy! Absence of tillage suppresses germination! Stale seedbed!

20 Stale seedbed for carrots & parsnips! Prepare beds! Let the weeds emerge for 2 weeks! Flame, then plant! Flame again 10 days later! Crop emerges with few weeds!

21 Seed longevity! Loss per year (%) Species Cultivated Uncultivated Lambsquarters 31 8 Annual bluegrass Common chickweed Common groundsel High 45

22 1.0 Seeds Seed survival (%) Velvetleaf Pigweed survive better deep in the 0.0 soil! Depth in soil (inches)

23 a l u s r u f i p e s Death near the soil surface! Seed predation! Wetting and drying! Freeze-thaw! D e j. )

24 Plowing vs. minimum tillage?! Small seeded species with short lived seeds à plow them under! Most will die before they find their way to surface again! Example: hairy galinsoga! Large seeded species with long lived seeds à keep them near the surface! Their mortality will be greater at the surface! And most that are tilled under will come back to bother you later! Example: velvetleaf!

25 Weeds emerge at different times of year! Giant ragweed early spring! Lambsquarters spring! Redroot pigweed spring and summer! Purslane midsummer! Shepherd s-purse fall, spring! Downy brome fall (winter in warm climates)!

26 Rotate spring, summer and fall planted crops! This favors different suites of species in different years! Prevents build-up of any one species.! Fall germinating species get wiped out by spring tillage! Spring germinating species get wiped out by summer tillage!

27 More advantages of crop rotation! Can use different cultivation methods in different crops! Short season crops can be harvested before weeds go to seed. break the life cycle! Also allow extra soil disturbance to deplete perennials! Hay crops outcompete most annuals; repeated mowing of alfalfa sets back many perennials!

28 Crop seeds are mostly much larger than weed seeds!

29 Seed size controls growth rate! Initial growth rate Relative growth rate Seed weight Species (mg) (mg/d) (mg/mg/d) Lambsquarters Velvetleaf Cocklebur Sunflower Soybean

30 Enhance the crop s head start!! Plant when crop will emerge and grow quickly! Use transplants for small seeded vegetables! Don t delay between seedbed prep and planting! Or use a stale seedbed and kill the weeds right before planting!

31 Take advantage of the crop s head start! High density planting! Space plants for quick canopy closure! Trade-offs with cultivation! Use competitive cultivars! Put the competitive cultivars in the weediest fields/beds! In-row cultivation!

32 Weed dry weight (lb/a) Uniform Uniform Rows Random Using crop competition! Yield (bu/a) Rows Random Wheat density (plants/ft 2 )

33 Nutrients and weeds! A lot of mythology and not much data! Weeds are nutrient sponges! Avoid pulsed release of nutrients! Most agricultural weeds are highly responsive to N and P! Over fertilization leads to weed problems!

34 Response of corn to compost!

35 Height (cm) Lambsquarters Ragweed Foxtail Fitted curve Response of weeds to compost! Compost rate (ton/a)

36 Prevention!! Clean up after harvest to reduce seed production! Rogue out the big individuals! Avoid contaminated manure, mulch hay, cover crop seed!! Watch for and eliminate species that are new to the farm!

37

WEED MANAGEMENT LEARNING OBJECTIVES

WEED MANAGEMENT LEARNING OBJECTIVES C 6 H A P TE R WEED MANAGEMENT LEARNING OBJECTIVES After completely studying this chapter, you should: Be able to define a weed and its four stages of development. Understand the differences between annual,

More information

This presentation provides an introduction to weed science and weed identification.

This presentation provides an introduction to weed science and weed identification. This presentation provides an introduction to weed science and weed identification. 1 There are many different definitions of a weed. The same plant can be considered a weed in one setting and beneficial

More information

Weeds WEEDS. Common Purslane

Weeds WEEDS. Common Purslane WEEDS Introduction Weeds are any plants that grow where they are unwanted. Common weeds are fast growing, resilient nuisances that compete with your cultivated plants for nutrients, water, and sunlight.

More information

Whitetail Deer Food Plot Considerations

Whitetail Deer Food Plot Considerations Whitetail Deer Food Plot Considerations Food plots are a way the sportsman or nature enthusiast can provide nutrients for deer. Currently, Illinois game law prohibits any other means of feeding whitetail

More information

Tillage RootMax Annual Ryegrass

Tillage RootMax Annual Ryegrass Tillage RootMax Annual Ryegrass Tillage RootMax Annual Ryegrass is the premium annual ryegrass in today s marketplace. It has been screened and selected for winter hardiness, rooting depth, and especially

More information

Identifying & Managing Weeds in Gardens. Todd Mervosh Valley Laboratory - Windsor The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station

Identifying & Managing Weeds in Gardens. Todd Mervosh Valley Laboratory - Windsor The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station Identifying & Managing Weeds in Gardens Todd Mervosh Valley Laboratory - Windsor The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station Definitions of WEED Plant out of Place - any plant growing where it is not

More information

BENEFITS OF USING IPM

BENEFITS OF USING IPM Edward J. Bechinski and William H. Bohl Potato growers who use IPM consider all available pest control tools. Alternatives to conventional pesticides are the foundation of every IPM plan. Pesticides play

More information

Managing Annual Ryegrass as a Cover Crop

Managing Annual Ryegrass as a Cover Crop Managing Annual Ryegrass as a Cover Crop Michael Plumer Natural Resources Management Reasons to Use Cover Crops Improved soil tilth Increase Organic Matter Increase soil biological activity Improve soil

More information

COVER CROPS FOR RASPBERRY PLANTINGS

COVER CROPS FOR RASPBERRY PLANTINGS COVER CROPS FOR RASPBERRY PLANTINGS Dr. Marvin Pritts, Department of Horticulture, Cornell University s College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Ithaca, NY 14853 (For more information visit www.fruit.cornell.edu)

More information

CORN IS GROWN ON MORE ACRES OF IOWA LAND THAN ANY OTHER CROP.

CORN IS GROWN ON MORE ACRES OF IOWA LAND THAN ANY OTHER CROP. CORN IS GROWN ON MORE ACRES OF IOWA LAND THAN ANY OTHER CROP. Planted acreage reached a high in 1981 with 14.4 million acres planted for all purposes and has hovered near 12.5 million acres since the early

More information

Weed I.D. and Management

Weed I.D. and Management Weed I.D. and Management featuring 10 common weeds Test your skills Bill Curran Penn State University Weed identification Most people want to know the names of (and how to control) the weeds they encounter

More information

Establishing Bermudagrass for Forage

Establishing Bermudagrass for Forage DIVISION OF AGRICULTURE R E S E A R C H & E X T E N S I O N University of Arkansas System Agriculture and Natural Resources Establishing Bermudagrass for Forage FSA19 John Jennings Professor Animal Science

More information

AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES Vol. II - Pest Control: Herbaceous Weeds - A. DiTommaso, C.L. Mohler and R.E. Nurse

AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES Vol. II - Pest Control: Herbaceous Weeds - A. DiTommaso, C.L. Mohler and R.E. Nurse PEST CONTROL: HERBACEOUS WEEDS A. DiTommaso, C.L. Mohler and R.E. Nurse Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Cornell University, USA Keywords: Mechanical control, biological control, Integrated Weed Management

More information

Strawberry Production Basics: Matted Row

Strawberry Production Basics: Matted Row Strawberry Production Basics: Matted Row David T. Handley, Vegetable and Small Fruits Specialist University of Maine Cooperative Extension Highmoor Farm, P.O. Box 179, Monmouth, Maine 04259 (207) 933-2100

More information

o d Propagation and Moon Planting Fact Sheet

o d Propagation and Moon Planting Fact Sheet o d Propagation and Moon Planting Fact Sheet Propagation Propagation is actually quite simple and requires very little effort on your part. Most seeds are ready to go, complete with all the nutrients and

More information

Alternative Land Use Services Growing a Healthier Environment. Tallgrass Prairie Guide ALUS is generously supported by ALUS.

Alternative Land Use Services Growing a Healthier Environment. Tallgrass Prairie Guide ALUS is generously supported by ALUS. TM Alternative Land Use Services Growing a Healthier Environment Tallgrass Prairie Guide 2015 ALUS.CA ALUS is generously supported by What is a Tallgrass Prairie? A Tallgrass Prairie is a diverse open

More information

UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY AND LIFE SCIENCE in Bydgoszcz, Poland

UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY AND LIFE SCIENCE in Bydgoszcz, Poland UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY AND LIFE SCIENCE in Bydgoszcz, Poland Wheat in Poland Cereals are cultivated on 7859 kha, in which 22,9% is covered by wheat. Winter wheat monoculture in Poland Monoculture effects

More information

OSU Extension Service Master Gardener Program. Organic Pest Control. Weston Miller OSU Extension Service Community and Urban Horticulture faculty

OSU Extension Service Master Gardener Program. Organic Pest Control. Weston Miller OSU Extension Service Community and Urban Horticulture faculty Organic Pest Control Weston Miller OSU Extension Service Community and Urban Horticulture faculty Audience Question What does the term organic pest control mean to you? Preview of Presentation Organic

More information

International safflower production an overview

International safflower production an overview International safflower production an overview John Gilbert Adams Vegetable Oils PO Box 799, Arbuckle, California, 95915, USA Abstract Safflower is most certainly a crop with unexploited potential and

More information

Planning Your Vegetable Garden A first step to a successful growing season!

Planning Your Vegetable Garden A first step to a successful growing season! Planning Your Vegetable Garden A first step to a successful growing season! 10 Steps to Plan a Successful Garden 1. Figure out what you want to grow 2. Assess your resources (location, equipment, time)

More information

#SoilBasics #Groundchat Date: August 1, 2014 Topic: #SoilBasics: soil temperature & how it s used in gardening

#SoilBasics #Groundchat Date: August 1, 2014 Topic: #SoilBasics: soil temperature & how it s used in gardening #SoilBasics #Groundchat Date: August 1, 2014 Topic: #SoilBasics: soil temperature & how it s used in gardening Host: Cristina da Silva @CristinaGardens Website: www.therealgardener.com Facebook: Cristina

More information

Science of Life Explorations

Science of Life Explorations Science of Life Explorations Celebrate the Growing Year: The Farmer s Year A Farmer s Year While you are in school or on a vacation, farmers are working hard to provide us with the foods we eat and the

More information

Organic Gardening Certificate Program Quiz Week 3 Answer Key

Organic Gardening Certificate Program Quiz Week 3 Answer Key Q uiz for week 3 readings: 1. The database on the Organic Weed management Website contains the following sections except: A. Picture B. Ecology C. Management D. Description 2. The weed quackgrass can reproduce

More information

Fertilizer, Weed Control, Grubs, and General Application Questions

Fertilizer, Weed Control, Grubs, and General Application Questions Lawn Care FAQ s Fertilizer, Weed Control, Grubs, and General Application Questions Why do we have so many weeds? Dandelions in particular, weeds in general, do not seem concerned about how long lawn has

More information

Weed Management. Organic Farming Requires Weed Management. Organic farmers use a wide variety of tools and strategies to control weeds without

Weed Management. Organic Farming Requires Weed Management. Organic farmers use a wide variety of tools and strategies to control weeds without Weed Management F O R Organic farmers O R G A N I C F A R M E R S Organic Farming Requires Weed Management use a wide variety of tools and O Organic farmers use a wide variety of tools and strategies to

More information

Data Mining and Meta-analysis as Tools to Evaluate the Impact of Management Practices on Dynamic Soil Properties

Data Mining and Meta-analysis as Tools to Evaluate the Impact of Management Practices on Dynamic Soil Properties Data Mining and Meta-analysis as Tools to Evaluate the Impact of Management Practices on Dynamic Soil Properties Carmen Ugarte, Michelle M. Wander University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign National Cooperative

More information

A Guide to Collecting Soil Samples for Farms and Gardens

A Guide to Collecting Soil Samples for Farms and Gardens A Guide to Collecting Soil Samples for Farms and Gardens M. Fery and E. Murphy Without a soil analysis, it s nearly impossible to determine what a soil needs in order to be productive. Laboratory soil

More information

Fresh From the Field: Growing the Irish Potato in the Mutare Farming Area of. Zimbabwe

Fresh From the Field: Growing the Irish Potato in the Mutare Farming Area of. Zimbabwe Fresh From the Field: Growing the Irish Potato in the Mutare Farming Area of Zimbabwe By Tsitsi Nyabando (Tanaka Churu) nyabando@goldmail.etsu.edu For ENGL 4057/5057 Writing: Theory and Teaching Tsitsi

More information

mulching Action Sheet 34 So what is mulching?

mulching Action Sheet 34 So what is mulching? mulching Action Sheet 34 So what is mulching? nutrients release as leaves decompose leaf litter shallow roots take up Have you ever looked closely at a forest floor? It s covered in leaf litter - a nutrient-rich,

More information

Soil Sampling for Nutrient Management

Soil Sampling for Nutrient Management Soil Sampling for Nutrient Management Nutrient Management Factsheet No. 2 in Series Revised September 2010 Order Reference No. 631-500-1 For nutrient management, soil sampling is done to collect a soil

More information

Weed Control in Garlic, New York 2012 Summarized by Christy Hoepting, Cornell Cooperative Extension Vegetable Program

Weed Control in Garlic, New York 2012 Summarized by Christy Hoepting, Cornell Cooperative Extension Vegetable Program Weed Control in Garlic, New York 2012 Summarized by Christy Hoepting, Cornell Cooperative Extension Vegetable Program Organic Weed Control Options Straw mulch for frost protection and weed control Pros:

More information

Virginia Cooperative Extension

Virginia Cooperative Extension Virginia Cooperative Extension A partnership of Virginia Tech and Virginia State University College of Agriculture and Life Sciences Bedford County/City Office County Administration Building 122 East Main

More information

Extensive Commercial Farming (arable)

Extensive Commercial Farming (arable) Extensive Commercial Farming (arable) Aims Exam Questions Describe the main characteristics of the landscape. Describe and explain the main features of the farming system. Describe the changes and the

More information

Can Grazing Make Organic No-Till Possible?

Can Grazing Make Organic No-Till Possible? Can Grazing Make Organic No-Till Possible? Harun Cicek, Caroline Halde, Kristen Podolsky, Martin Entz, Keith Bamford, Joanne Thiessen Martens and David Feindel WCCA, Winnipeg 2014 ICARDA reduced tillage

More information

1. What plant types and physical characteristics are used to identify crop and weed plants?

1. What plant types and physical characteristics are used to identify crop and weed plants? UNIT IV - IDENTIFYING AND SELECTING CROPS AND SEEDS Lesson 1: Crop and Weed Identification Competency/Objective: Identify crop and weed seeds and plants. Study Questions References 1. What plant types

More information

Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) is a

Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) is a E-503 03-09 Easy Gardening ASPARAGUS ASPARAGUS ASPARAGUS ASPAR Joseph Masabni, Assistant Professor and Extension Horticulturist, The Texas A&M University System Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) is a highly

More information

EPA Reg. No. 59639-166 (Except California and New York)

EPA Reg. No. 59639-166 (Except California and New York) Supplemental Label EPA Reg. No. 59639-166 (Except California and New York) LEAGUE HERBICIDE USE ON MELONS AND POTATO This supplemental label expires on August 31, 2016 and must not be used or distributed

More information

Overseeding and Transition for Year Round Turfgrass. Kai Umeda David Kopec

Overseeding and Transition for Year Round Turfgrass. Kai Umeda David Kopec Overseeding and Transition for Year Round Turfgrass Kai Umeda David Kopec Year Round Desert Turfgrass Summer Bermudagrass Overseed Transition Winter Turf Year Round Desert Turfgrass Summer bermudagrass

More information

Mulching is a long-established horticultural

Mulching is a long-established horticultural E-512 07-09 Easy Gardening MULCHING MULCHING MULCHING MULCHING Joseph Masabni, Assistant Professor and Extension Horticulturist, The Texas A&M University System Mulching is a long-established horticultural

More information

Drought Damaged Lawns Need Help

Drought Damaged Lawns Need Help September 2012 Prepared by David Minner, extension turfgrass specialist Iowa State University Extension and Outreach Drought Damaged Lawns Need Help While the drought of 2012 may be remembered more for

More information

Crop Water Use & Rooting Depth - Crop Rotation for a Dry Cycle. Joel Ransom NDSU Extension Agronomist

Crop Water Use & Rooting Depth - Crop Rotation for a Dry Cycle. Joel Ransom NDSU Extension Agronomist Crop Water Use & Rooting Depth - Crop Rotation for a Dry Cycle Joel Ransom Extension Agronomist Presentation overview Topics to be covered: Crop water requirements Soil water holding capacity Rooting

More information

Fodder Beet Growing & Grazing Guide

Fodder Beet Growing & Grazing Guide Introduction. Fodder Beet is potentially the highest yielding winter forage options available to farmers currently. Some of the advantages of growing fodder beet include: High dry matter yield Not in the

More information

JAPANESE KNOTWEED. What is Japanese Knotweed?

JAPANESE KNOTWEED. What is Japanese Knotweed? JAPANESE KNOTWEED What is Japanese Knotweed? Japanese Knotweed (botanical name Fallopia japonica) was introduced into Britain from Japan in the early 1800 s. It was originally grown as an ornamental plant,

More information

ennessee is one of the top livestock producing states in the country. Much of the livestock in Tennessee is raised by smaller-scale, parttime

ennessee is one of the top livestock producing states in the country. Much of the livestock in Tennessee is raised by smaller-scale, parttime T ennessee is one of the top livestock producing states in the country. Much of the livestock in Tennessee is raised by smaller-scale, parttime producers. No matter what size operation, good pasture management

More information

Increasing soil organic carbon of agricultural land

Increasing soil organic carbon of agricultural land JANUARY 2008 PRIMEFACT 735 Increasing soil organic carbon of agricultural land Dr Yin Chan Principal Research Scientist (Soils), Richmond Increasing soil organic carbon (SOC) can improve soil health and

More information

Crop residue management (CRM), a cultural practice that

Crop residue management (CRM), a cultural practice that Chapter V Crop Residue Management Practices Crop residue management (CRM), a cultural practice that involves fewer and/or less intensive tillage operations and preserves more residue from the previous

More information

COVER CROPS FOR VEGETABLE GROWERS

COVER CROPS FOR VEGETABLE GROWERS COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION COVER CROPS FOR VEGETABLE GROWERS BY CHARLES W. MARR RHONDA JANKE PAUL CONWAY Cover crops are not grown for harvest; rather, they are grown to protect and improve soils.

More information

Grade 7. Objective. Students will be able to:

Grade 7. Objective. Students will be able to: Grade 7 Objective Students will be able to: Describe the carbon cycle in more detail: o Learn about the importance of carbon and the role it plays in photosynthesis and cellular respiration, Identify elements

More information

EVALUATION OF SEED TREATMENTS FOR ORGANIC CORN: 2006 Janet Hedtcke, Bill Stangel, Gregg Sanford, John Hall

EVALUATION OF SEED TREATMENTS FOR ORGANIC CORN: 2006 Janet Hedtcke, Bill Stangel, Gregg Sanford, John Hall EVALUATION OF SEED TREATMENTS FOR ORGANIC CORN: 2006 Janet Hedtcke, Bill Stangel, Gregg Sanford, John Hall INTRODUCTION In 2003, to comply with the National Organic Program (NOP) standards, we started

More information

ENERGY IN FERTILIZER AND PESTICIDE PRODUCTION AND USE

ENERGY IN FERTILIZER AND PESTICIDE PRODUCTION AND USE Farm Energy IQ Conserving Energy in Nutrient Use and Pest Control INTRODUCTION Fertilizers and pesticides are the most widely used sources of nutrients and pest control, respectively. Fertilizer and pesticides

More information

Management Tips for Flax Production

Management Tips for Flax Production L.L. Hardman, Department of Agronomy and Plant Genetics 1 A Brief History - Minnesota Flax Yields and Acreage, 1903-2003 Uses/Markets - Growth and Development - NCIS Adjusters Sketches Drawings of Roots,

More information

Keeping Your Hoophouse Busy. Collin Thompson Farm Manager The North Farm at the MSU UP Research & Extension Center

Keeping Your Hoophouse Busy. Collin Thompson Farm Manager The North Farm at the MSU UP Research & Extension Center Keeping Your Hoophouse Busy Collin Thompson Farm Manager The North Farm at the MSU UP Research & Extension Center thom1264@msu.edu Where I Began River Root Farm Decorah Iowa ~13,000 Ft 2 of covered growing

More information

Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) is a

Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) is a EHT-066 5/14 Easy Gardening asparagus asparagus asparagus aspar Joseph Masabni, Assistant Professor and Extension Horticulturist, The Texas A&M University System Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) is a

More information

The farm: Placed in the middle of Sealand 250 hektar 5000 pigs 30-110 kg produced Soiltype: JB 6

The farm: Placed in the middle of Sealand 250 hektar 5000 pigs 30-110 kg produced Soiltype: JB 6 The farm: Placed in the middle of Sealand 250 hektar 5000 pigs 30-110 kg produced Soiltype: JB 6 (app. 14% clay, 14 silt, 45% fine sand, 27% sand) The principles of Conservation Agriculture (CA): - Minimum

More information

Managing Pesticide Resistance

Managing Pesticide Resistance Chapter 2 Managing Pesticide Resistance In This Chapter Keywords What is Pesticide Resistance? After learning the information in this chapter, you will be able to: 1. Define pesticide resistance. 2. Define

More information

Grasslands. Environmental Science Chapters 8

Grasslands. Environmental Science Chapters 8 Grasslands Environmental Science Chapters 8 Grassland Biome A grassland ecosystem is an area that receives more rainfall than a desert, but not enough to support the trees of a forest. These usually exist

More information

Risk Management in Prairie Organic Agriculture

Risk Management in Prairie Organic Agriculture Risk Management in Prairie Organic Agriculture Putting risk management into practice. Ian Cushon - Moose Creek Organic Farm Inc. Oxbow, Saskatchewan Manitoba Agronomist Conference December 9, 10, 2008

More information

Corn Production in Tennessee

Corn Production in Tennessee Agricultural Extension Service The University of Tennessee PB443 Corn Production in Tennessee 1 Corn Production in Tennessee Wayne T. Flinchum, Professor Plant & Soil Sciences Contents Corn Land 4 Corn

More information

College of Agricultural Sciences Agricultural Research and Cooperative Extension

College of Agricultural Sciences Agricultural Research and Cooperative Extension Start Farming Introduction to Soils Fact 4 Determining Nutrient Applications for Small Farms Basic Calculations Conventional Generally production systems in Pennsylvania use a mixture of nutrient sources.

More information

Crop rotation and legumes cultivation: Effective measures to increase the environmental performance and long-term viability of European agriculture.

Crop rotation and legumes cultivation: Effective measures to increase the environmental performance and long-term viability of European agriculture. Crop rotation and legumes cultivation: Effective measures to increase the environmental performance and long-term viability of European agriculture. Christine Watson (SAC), Donal Murphy-Bokern (DMB), Fred

More information

Saintbridge Allotment Gardens Association

Saintbridge Allotment Gardens Association Saintbridge Allotment Gardens Association July 2015 newsletter In July the allotment looks at its best with a wide range of crops coming ready for harvest including; courgettes, cucumber, runner beans,

More information

How Does My Garden Grow?

How Does My Garden Grow? How Does My Garden Grow? Grade Level: K-3 Approximate Length of Activity: A garden whether planted outside in a bed or in containers is an ongoing project that spans 8-12 weeks. As you plan your garden

More information

by Erik Lehnhoff, Walt Woolbaugh, and Lisa Rew

by Erik Lehnhoff, Walt Woolbaugh, and Lisa Rew Designing the Perfect Plant Activities to Investigate Plant Ecology Plant ecology is an important subject that often receives little attention in middle school, as more time during science classes is devoted

More information

Organic Farm Yield and Profitability. from NEON, NASS, and other sources

Organic Farm Yield and Profitability. from NEON, NASS, and other sources Organic Farm Yield and Profitability from NEON, NASS, and other sources From SARE Ecosystem Study Abby Seaman, PI Studied winter squash and potatoes on 4 organic and 4 IPM farms in NYS Squash * Yield and

More information

ABCDEFG s of Small Scale Composting

ABCDEFG s of Small Scale Composting Composting ABCDEFG s of Small Scale Composting Ron Godin Area Agronomist Organic/Sustainable Agriculture Colorado State University Extension Delta, CO (970) 874-2197 ron.godin@colostate.edu Composting

More information

BANANA PRODUCTION. ARC-Institute for Tropical and Subtropical Crops. Banana Production - English

BANANA PRODUCTION. ARC-Institute for Tropical and Subtropical Crops. Banana Production - English BANANA PRODUCTION ARC-Institute for Tropical and Subtropical Crops Banana Production - English BANANA PRODUCTION Compiled by Directorate Communication National Department of Agriculture and W. Willemse,

More information

Fire and The Tasmanian Forest Environment

Fire and The Tasmanian Forest Environment The present - day patterning of Tasmania s forest and plant communities is the result of changes in climate, soil fertility and the interplays between humans, fire and vegetation over many thousands of

More information

Integrated Pest Management

Integrated Pest Management Chapter 2 Integrated Pest Management In This Chapter Keywords After learning the information in this chapter, you will be able to: 1. Define Integrated Pest Management (IPM). 2. List and describe the 5

More information

Soil Sampling The Key to Effective Nutrient Management Planning

Soil Sampling The Key to Effective Nutrient Management Planning Soil Sampling The Key to Effective Nutrient Management Planning Why Soil Sample? Agriculture is subject to high input costs along with increasing demands to protect the environment. As a result, farmers

More information

United Arab Emirates University Date Palm Development Research Unit Dept. Date Palm Tissue Culture Laboratory (DPTCL)

United Arab Emirates University Date Palm Development Research Unit Dept. Date Palm Tissue Culture Laboratory (DPTCL) United Arab Emirates University Date Palm Development Research Unit Dept. Date Palm Tissue Culture Laboratory (DPTCL) Guidelines and Tips for the Cultivation of Tissue Culture-Derived Date Palm Trees Introduction

More information

Summer Stress Arrives Early on Cool Season Lawns

Summer Stress Arrives Early on Cool Season Lawns Summer Stress Arrives Early on Cool Season Lawns Figure 1. A fall installed tall fescue sod showing the first signs of summer stress following the arrival of record setting heat in central Virginia in

More information

Kentucky Forage News Current Crop Conditions Waters of the United States (WOTUS) Update

Kentucky Forage News Current Crop Conditions Waters of the United States (WOTUS) Update Hopkins County Agriculture Today September, 2015 By: Curtis Dame, County Extension Agent for Agriculture and Natural Resources In this issue: Current Pest News (Palmer Amaranth and Waterhemp Continue to

More information

REDUCED TILLAGE FOR SOIL EROSION CONTROL

REDUCED TILLAGE FOR SOIL EROSION CONTROL REDUCED TILLAGE FOR SOIL EROSION CONTROL "Why move several thousand tonnes of soil repeatedly each year to control several hundred kilograms of weeds." Published 1978 WHAT IS REDUCED TILLAGE? Reduced tillage

More information

T. Lennox 1, A. Iwaasa 2, G. McLeod 2 and E. Bork 3

T. Lennox 1, A. Iwaasa 2, G. McLeod 2 and E. Bork 3 ========================================================== Assessing the Winter Hardiness of Perennial Cereal Rye Relative To Winter Cereals Traditionally Grown in Western Canada. T. Lennox 1, A. Iwaasa

More information

A Systems Approach To Cover Crops In A Rotation

A Systems Approach To Cover Crops In A Rotation A Systems Approach To Cover Crops In A Rotation Norfolk SCIA - Tier One Grant Project Final Report Cover Crops and their benefits, both economic and environmental, are not a new concept to members and

More information

Managing Healthy Pastures in Clallam County

Managing Healthy Pastures in Clallam County Managing Healthy Pastures in Clallam County What is Pasture Management? This guide will help you learn how to take care of your pastures so you can grow more feed for your livestock. Think of yourself

More information

EXTENSION. Garden Terms: Plant Classification. Anne Streich, Horticulture Educator. Plant Life Cycles EC1258. Seed Germination.

EXTENSION. Garden Terms: Plant Classification. Anne Streich, Horticulture Educator. Plant Life Cycles EC1258. Seed Germination. EXTENSION EC1258 Garden Terms: Plant Classification Anne Streich, Horticulture Educator Plants are grouped by similar characteristics to help describe how they look and grow. Morphological and environmental

More information

AP ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 2012 SCORING GUIDELINES

AP ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 2012 SCORING GUIDELINES AP ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 2012 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 3 The active ingredients in many pesticides are chemical compounds that kill organisms such as insects, molds, and weeds. Proponents claim that

More information

Commercial Fruit Production. Essential Commercial Fruit Production Decisions

Commercial Fruit Production. Essential Commercial Fruit Production Decisions 2014 Farming For Profit Workshop Series Commercial Fruit Production Essential Commercial Fruit Production Decisions The questions in this document are intended to help you make the key decisions necessary

More information

Today we will talk about the importance of our environment: what it is and how do we use it.

Today we will talk about the importance of our environment: what it is and how do we use it. In the previous presentation on Human Health and Pesticides, we discussed some of the negative consequences associated with pesticide use. In this presentation we will focus on environmental degradation

More information

Vegetable Gardening for the Texas Gulf Coast

Vegetable Gardening for the Texas Gulf Coast Vegetable Gardening for the Texas Gulf Coast Carol Brouwer, Ph.D. With thanks to Thomas R. LeRoy Montgomery County Extension Agent Horticulture Texas AgriLife Extension Service What to do Now Garden prep

More information

PUTTING FORAGES TOGETHER FOR YEAR ROUND GRAZING

PUTTING FORAGES TOGETHER FOR YEAR ROUND GRAZING PUTTING FORAGES TOGETHER FOR YEAR ROUND GRAZING Jimmy C. Henning A good rotational grazing system begins with a forage system that allows the maximum number of grazing days per year with forages that are

More information

Basics of Organic Gardening in 15 minutes!

Basics of Organic Gardening in 15 minutes! Basics of Organic Gardening in 15 minutes! Jan Garrett, M.S., Botany PhD, Ecology Auburn University Organic Vegetable Production Research Owner, manager Sunbright Farm garrecj@auburn.edu All the World

More information

Looking at Agricultural Sustainability

Looking at Agricultural Sustainability Looking at Agricultural Sustainability Sustainable Small Farming & Ranching Understanding Sustainability and Whole Farm Concepts What is sustainable agriculture? USDA Sustainable Agriculture Research and

More information

Nematode Management in Okra 1

Nematode Management in Okra 1 ENY-043 Nematode Management in Okra 1 J.W. Noling 2 Okra is infamous for its susceptibility to root-knot nematodes; it is also extremely sensitive to sting nematodes. Because of this, okra should not be

More information

SOIL HEALTH COVER CROPS RELAY CROPPING

SOIL HEALTH COVER CROPS RELAY CROPPING SOIL HEALTH COVER CROPS RELAY CROPPING Sustainable Agriculture in North Dakota Tim Semler Extension Agent Farm Business Management 1 As a crop producer only Why grow a cover crop (CC)? CC pros: Prevented

More information

I. RECOMMENDED PRACTICES BASED ON GOOD AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES (GAP) AND GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICES (GMP)

I. RECOMMENDED PRACTICES BASED ON GOOD AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES (GAP) AND GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICES (GMP) CAC/RCP 51-2003 Page 1 of 8 CODE OF PRACTICE FOR THE PREVENTION AND REDUCTION OF MYCOTOXIN CONTAMINATION IN CEREALS, INCLUDING ANNEXES ON OCHRATOXIN A, ZEARALENONE, FUMONISINS AND TRICOTHECENES CAC/RCP

More information

The Effect of Tillage on Organic Soybean Production Following CRP Land. Kathleen Delate Assistant Professor Department of Agronomy and Horticulture

The Effect of Tillage on Organic Soybean Production Following CRP Land. Kathleen Delate Assistant Professor Department of Agronomy and Horticulture The Effect of Tillage on Organic Soybean Production Following CRP Land. Kathleen Delate Assistant Professor Department of Agronomy and Horticulture Organic farming has increased to a $6 billion industry

More information

GROWING FOREST TREES. For the new BMPs update - Call the Georgia Forestry Commission or visit

GROWING FOREST TREES. For the new BMPs update - Call the Georgia Forestry Commission or visit GROWING FOREST TREES TIMBER MANAGEMENT One forestry objective of many landowners is timber production. Even lands managed primarily for wildlife, recreation or water protection can produce timber. Forest

More information

WEED CONTROL IN FLUE-CURED TOBACCO Charles S. Johnson, Extension Plant Pathologist, Tobacco

WEED CONTROL IN FLUE-CURED TOBACCO Charles S. Johnson, Extension Plant Pathologist, Tobacco Weed Control WEED CONTROL IN FLUE-CURED TOBACCO Charles S. Johnson, Extension Plant Pathologist, Tobacco Good weed control uses crop rotation, early root and stalk destruction, cultivation, and appropriate

More information

INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR KENNESAW STATE UNIVERSITY

INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR KENNESAW STATE UNIVERSITY INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR KENNESAW STATE UNIVERSITY KENNESAW, GEORGIA PREPARED JANUARY 1997 REVISED NOVEMBER 2006 TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction and Principles of Integrated Pest Management

More information

CORN (MAIZE) & BIOFUEL CORN

CORN (MAIZE) & BIOFUEL CORN CORN CORN (MAIZE) & BIOFUEL CORN NaanDanJain has many years experience with corn irrigation. Modern irrigation can increase the productivity of the crop for higher yields, using less water and fertilizers.

More information

Introduction to Integrated Pest Management. John C. Wise, Ph.D. Michigan State University MSU Trevor Nichols Research Complex

Introduction to Integrated Pest Management. John C. Wise, Ph.D. Michigan State University MSU Trevor Nichols Research Complex Introduction to Integrated Pest Management John C. Wise, Ph.D. Michigan State University MSU Trevor Nichols Research Complex What is Integrated Pest Management? Integrated Pest Management (IPM) New concept;

More information

Kansas Crop Planting Guide

Kansas Crop Planting Guide Kansas Crop Planting Guide Kansas is agronomically rich, with diverse soils and growing conditions. The average number of freeze-free days ranges from 150 in the northwest to 200 in southeastern Kansas.

More information

Managing Weeds During Restoration: When to Worry and When to Wait. Jane Mangold Montana State University

Managing Weeds During Restoration: When to Worry and When to Wait. Jane Mangold Montana State University Managing Weeds During Restoration: When to Worry and When to Wait Jane Mangold Montana State University Outline Plant Succession, Disturbance, and Invasion Ruderal vs. Invasive Plants Weed Management Prevention

More information

Unit 2 Plants For Food And Fibre

Unit 2 Plants For Food And Fibre REVIEW Key Concepts Unit 2 Plants For Food And Fibre 1.0 Structures and Life Processes Seed plants have roots, stems, leaves and either flowers or cones Each structure performs a specific function Life

More information

Holt Ch. 6 Biomes. Section 6.1 pg # 1-6

Holt Ch. 6 Biomes. Section 6.1 pg # 1-6 Holt Ch. 6 Biomes Section 6.1 pg 153-155 # 1-6 1. Describe how plants determine the name of a biome. Scientists name biomes after their vegetation because the plants that grow in an area determine what

More information

PREVENTING PEST DAMAGE IN HOME LAWNS

PREVENTING PEST DAMAGE IN HOME LAWNS PREVENTING PEST DAMAGE IN HOME LAWNS Quick Tips Summary Use mixed grass seeds rather than a single variety Fertilize with composted organics or slow-acting synthetic products Keep soil at ph 5.8 6.5 Keep

More information

Introductory Vegetable Production Part 1. F.I.R.S.T. Planning F.I.R.S.T. STEPS. PRODUCTION Plan. MARKETING Plan. Veg Production Pt1 - Overview

Introductory Vegetable Production Part 1. F.I.R.S.T. Planning F.I.R.S.T. STEPS. PRODUCTION Plan. MARKETING Plan. Veg Production Pt1 - Overview Veg Production Pt1 - Overview Introductory Vegetable Production Part 1 Site Selection / Soil / Water / Crop Planning / Equipment First Steps Site Selection Soil Water / Irrigation Crop Planning Equipment

More information

Fruit is medium size, medium red, bright, medium firm, good flavour, a good fresh dessert variety, suitable for freezing.

Fruit is medium size, medium red, bright, medium firm, good flavour, a good fresh dessert variety, suitable for freezing. Strawberry The strawberry, considered by many people to be a favorite berry crop, is ideally suited for the home garden. A small plot of land can produce all the strawberries required for an average size

More information