Integrated Pest Management

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1 Integrated Pest Management Andrea Veres Junior Technical Officer FAO REU Yerevan, Armenia 2013 Why develop IPM? Agriculture was: not sustainable optimized inputs for maximum profit posed environmental, health and agronomic risks Economic Inputs Agronomic Environmental Social Nitrogen overdose aphids eutrophication drinking water Non careful use of insecticide High productive varieties, hybrids Simplifying crop rotation e.x.: codling moth, thrips, mites no predatorparasitoid system pesticide residues sensitive to diseases loss of biodiversity low nutritional and taste value western corn rootworm, soil born diseases Loss of diversity at landscape scale imported products 1

2 The vicious spiral Agronomic problems Pesticide induced pest outbreaks Sublethal quantities of pesticides Elimination of natural enemies Resistant pest population Leads to Increasing application frequency Increasing dose rates Use of illegal pesticides Leads to More pest problems Increasing residue levels Leads to Increasing environmental impact Decreasing Food Safety 1.Agronomic problem 2.Environmental problem 3.Food Safety problem What s the problem with agricultural production? Conventional pest management Integrated pest management Environmental Environmental Social plant production Agronomic Social plant production Agronomic Economic Economic 2

3 Integrated Pest Management: a definition Integrated Pest Management (IPM) means the careful consideration of all available pest control techniques and subsequent integration of appropriate measures that discourage the development of pest populations and keep pesticides and other interventions to levels that are economically justified and reduce or minimize risks to human health and the environment. IPM emphasizes the growth of a healthy crop with the least possible disruption to agro-ecosystems and encourages natural pest control mechanisms (FAO). Integrated Pest Management: a definition The use of all economically, ecologically and toxicologically defensible methods to keep damaging organisms below economic damage levels whilst conscious exploitation of natural control factors is emphasized (IOBC) IPM is a sustainable approach to managing pests by combining biological, cultural and chemical tools in a way that minimises economic, environmental and health risks (ENDURE 2010) 3

4 IPM approach System approach Field selection Crop rotation Soil quality Nutrition Crop variety Seed quality Seed dressing Soil treatment (pre-emergence herbicides, insecticides, mechanical weed control) Plant treatment (post emergence herbicides +fungicide+insecticide) Harvest Post-Harvest Plant wellness IPM approach Series of steps repeated or modified as needed: Prevention/avoidance Scouting/monitoring Decision making Intervention Evaluation Indirect protection + Monitoring systems + Direct protection 4

5 Indirect plant protection Optimal use of natural resources: e.g. crop adapted to local conditions; appropriate yield expectations; resistant varieties and clones; weed management with adequate intensity of competition; mixtures of varieties and crops; optimal timing of sowing; optimal training systems; ecological compensation areas Farming practices without negative impact on the agro-ecosystems e.g. no surplus input of nutrients (especially N); optimal density of crop and foliage (ventilation); low intensity of tillage/cultivation and production methods protecting soil fertility; weed management (erosion control); habitat-management (green cover) to enhance biodiversity Protection and augmentation of antagonists (beneficial arthropods, fungi, plants) e.g. assessing importance of individual antagonist species; inoculative releases; suppressive soils; habitat-management Monitoring and forecasting systems Monitoring and forecasting systems Epidemiology and forecasting models Economic Injury Level and Action Threshold 5

6 Direct plant protection (control measures) Use of selective pest control methods e.g. biological control, biopesticides Use of other pest control methods chemical control, but also with a preference for the most specific and selective pesticides: 1 harmless 2 slightly harmful 3 moderately toxic 4 toxic IPM elements to control potato moth Indirect control methods Controlling alternate weed hosts Clean harvesting of potatoes (no tubers left in the field) Careful ridging (covering) of potatoes during, and after harvesting (min 25cm soil) Clean planting material (infested tubers should be avoided for planting) Crop rotation, isolation of potato fields if possible Keep the soil moist via overhead irrigation to avoid soil cracking Repellent plants (Eucalyptus) Monitoring Pheromon trap, scauting Direct control methods Biopesticides: Bt, plant extracts like Neem (Azadirachta indica ), chinaberry (Melia azedarach), garlic Biological control (e.g. nemathodes) Chemical control 6

7 Active ingredients for potato moth control Pyretroid insecticide Decamethrin (Decis) = WHO toxicity class II NOT approved by FAO!! Pyretroid-insecticide Lambda-cyhalothrin = kills beneficial insects, WHO toxicity class II NOT approved by FAO!! Neonicotinoid insecticide Thiacloprid (a.i. chloronicitinyl) = highly toxic to bees, banned in many European countries = WHO toxicity class II NOT approved by FAO!! Insecticide Indoxacarb (a.i. oxadiazine) = WHO toxicity class II NOT approved by FAO!! Insecticide/Acaricide Lufenuron (a.i. benzoylurea) & Lufenuron (a.i. benzamide) = WHO toxicity class III would be permitted for use by FAO Insecticide Novaluron (benzoylurea) = similar to Lufenuron, would be permitted for use by FAO Insecticide Spinosad = Product unlikely to present acute hazard in normal use; cleared for use by FAO! Insecticide Chlorantraniliprole (a.i. diamide) = WHO toxicity class III would be permitted for use by FAO Insecticide Cyromazine = WHO class U, unlikely to present acute hazard in normal use; cleared for use by FAO! IPM the way to sustainable agriculture 7

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