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1 Risks associated with Chemical and Non-Chemical Pest Control From known to unknown Paul Leonard Nov 2009

2 Agenda 1. EU non-chemical pest control legislation? 2. What do we know about risks associated with non-chemical ca pest control? o 3. The battle of ideologies 4. What can we learn about EU policy and the need for science-based regulation? 1/8/2010 2

3 What does the New PPP Regulation say about Non-Chemical Pest Control? 10 references to Non-Chemical Pest Control, including: Definition 8: "Non-chemical methods means alternative methods to chemical pesticides for plant protection and pest management, based on agronomic techniques such as those referred to in point 1 of Annex III* to Directive 2009/ /EC +, or physical, mechanical or biological pest control methods *ANNEX III. General principles of integrated pest management Non-Chemical = physical, mechanical or biological pest control methods 1/8/2010 3

4 What does the New PPP Regulation say about Non-Chemical Pest Control? ANNEX IV: Substitution alternative must show significantly lower risk to health or the environment An assessment of the alternative shall be performed to demonstrate similar effect on the target organism and without significant economic and practical disadvantages Article 50: Replacement of candidates for substitution, with non-chemical alternatives, where possible, or under exceptional circumstances, even replacement of low risk active ingredients, where non-chemical alternatives are well established Substitution must show significantly lower risk, similar efficacy and without practical or economic disadvantage 1/8/2010 4

5 What does the New S.U. Directive say about Non-Chemical Pest Control? Six references to Non-Chemical Pest Control, including: Recital 19 and Article 1 In National Action Plan MSs must show they ensure IPM implementation, with priority given wherever possible to non-chemical methods of plant protection and pest and crop management. Article 7.1, Information and awareness-raising Member States shall take measures to inform the general public and to promote and facilitate information and awareness-raising programmes and the availability of accurate and balanced information relating to pesticides for the general public, in particular regarding the risks and the potential acute and chronic effects for human health, non-target organisms and the environment arising from their use, and the use of non-chemical alternatives. Priority for non-chemical methods, with need for accurate and balanced information on both chemical AND non-chemical alternatives 1/8/2010 5

6 What does the New S.U. Directive say about IPM and Organic? Article 14.1, Integrated pest management MS s States shall take all necessary measures to promote low pesticide-input pest management, giving wherever possible priority to non-chemical methods, so that professional users of pesticides switch to practices and products with the lowest risk to human health and the environment among those available for the same pest problem. Low pesticide-input pest management includes integrated pest management as well as organic farming. ANNEX III.4, General principles of integrated pest management Sustainable biological, physical and other non-chemical methods must be preferred to chemical methods if they provide satisfactory pest control. General Principal for IPM, non-chemical MUST be preferred 1/8/2010 6

7 Agenda 1. EU non-chemical pest control legislation? 2. What do we know about risks associated with non-chemical ca pest control? o 3. The battle of ideologies 4. What can we learn about EU policy and the need for science-based regulation? 1/8/2010 7

8 Insect Control - Pneumatic Several types of pneumatic equipment: Hand held tractor mounted The Bug-Vac : one-, two-,or three-row vacuum unit, reported to be effective against the Colorado potato beetle B B t Bug-Buster For control insects that are flying or lightly gripped to crop plants. The Beetle Eater : Combination of blowing and suction fans. The Bio-collector : Dislodged insects are collected on trays opposite the dislodging airstreams. CLM (Centre for Agriculture and Environment), The Spectrum and level of efficacy? Netherlands Impact on non-target species/energy consumption? Unknown, Unmeasured and Unmitigated Risks 1/8/2010 8

9 Insect control Introduced natural enemies The harlequin ladybird Harmonia axyridis Introduced to North America in 1988 Now the most widespread ladybird species on the continent. Already invaded much of northwest Europe Arrived in Britain in summer 2004 now widespread Unknown, Unmeasured and Unmitigated Risks 1/8/2010 9

10 Weed control - Flames Fire hazard? Air pollution? Carbon footprint? Soil compaction? Selectivity to non-target species? Impact on biodiversity? Unknown, Unmeasured and Unmitigated Risks 1/8/

11 Impact of Ploughing on Earthworms? 1/8/

12 Impact of Ploughing on Earthworms? Deep Ploughed: 60% reduction in earthworm burrow density Reduced burrow size 6 years to recover to preploughed population and tube densities Conservation tillage: Greater numbers & diameter of earthworm tubes Associated with: Better drainage Reduced surface run-off 1/8/

13 Agenda 1. EU non-chemical pest control legislation? 2. What do we know about risks associated with non-chemical ca pest control? o 3. The battle of ideologies 4. What can we learn about EU policy and the need for science-based regulation? 1/8/

14 Pathogen control - Organic Solution Copper The most widely used organic fungicide Toxic to earthworms Persistent in soil Toxic to aquatic organisms EFSA opinion exposed significant data gaps in the dossier Annex 1 granted for 7 years, with MSs to mitigate risks Are the same standards being applied? 1/8/

15 Drive for Sustainability The stressed farmer Putting sustainable agriculture in context is a complex task Sustainable solutions can not be defined by ideologies, but should be based on evidence Comprehensive eco-efficiency analysis can give interesting and sometimes unexpected perspectives BASF is establishing officially certified & comprehensive eco-efficiency analysis, for our orientation, in a multi-stakeholder environment Achieving Sustainability Means Making Rational Choices 1/8/2010 Sept. 17,

16 Eco-efficiency analysis Locally Sourced vs. Imported Apples? Which is more sustainable? Locally sourced apples sold in spring and summer have to be cooled Energy consumption for cool storage reduces eco-efficiency Locally sourced? Source: BASF SE, REWE Group Imported from southern hemisphere? After 3-4 months, environmental impact of cold storage exceeds that of transport from southern hemisphere From April, imported apple with better environmental profile Accuracy of claiming local is better depends on time of year 1/8/

17 0,0 Environmental Impact Eco-efficiency analysis Organic vs. Conventional Apple Production? Which apple is more sustainable? Low ecoefficiency 2,0 2,0 Source: BASF SE, REWE Group Costs High ecoefficiency 0,0 Organic apple growing Germany, 2008 Conventional apple growing Germany, 2008 Cost of organic was higher Conventional apple production had a slightly more favourable ecological profile Organic production resulted in less waste water and consumed less energy from inputs such as fertilizers and pesticides Overall energy consumption, CO 2 emission and land use was higher for organic apples The main drivers were Higher use of machinery (+70%) Lower yield (-30%) Organic is not necessarily more eco-efficient than conventional farming 1/8/2010 Sept. 17,

18 Scientist warns over farm greenhouse emissions "The notion that somehow or another this is a case of organic farming good, conventional farming bad, doesn't really get us anywhere," Professor Ian Crute Source: Farmers Weekly Interactive, 28/08/ :44:00 1/8/

19 Getting the Best of Both Worlds Infection rate in % Pure nature 80 Untreated Biological fungicide 42 Chemical fungicide 27 Cucumber Control of Pseudoperonospora cubensis, Utrera 2008 Combining best of both 19 Biological fungicides alone can not provide sufficient control Modern chemical fungicides have sufficient control even at high disease pressure, but can not be applied shortly before harvest A combination of a premium fungicide with SERENADE, a leading biofungicide, provides superior quality and control NB:Market launch 2009 in Turkey, 2010 in Greece, 2012 in Germany, Austria, Netherlands, Belgium and many other European countries We need to use the best available technologies, irrespective of ideology! 1/8/2010 Sept. 17,

20 Agenda 1. EU non-chemical pest control legislation? 2. What do we know about risks associated with non-chemical ca pest control? o 3. The battle of ideologies 4. What can we learn about EU policy and the need for science-based regulation? 1/8/

21 Key Observations: Non-chemical pest control can have much to offer, but also can pose significant risks to human health and the environment but these are largely unknown. The Statistics Regulation will require member states to measure, monitor and report pesticide use and associated risks, There is no planned EU regulatory requirement to evaluate or measure or monitor risks associated with non-chemical pest control Non-chemical pest control should be subject to an equivalent level of human and environmental safety criteria 1/8/

22 EU Policy Key Themes: Where possible, MSs will be put under pressure to substitute nonchemical in place of chemical pest control There appears to be an underlying assumption that non-chemical pest control & organic agriculture, represent reduced risk to human health and the environment the validity of this assumption has not been adequately tested Non-chemical & organic pest control are given preferential treatment by the legislation Terminology is confusing: non-chemical, organic, traditional & sustainable agriculture Chemical pest control is treated as the undesirable option 1/8/

23 How many more pesticides can we afford to lose? New AS Existing AS Comparative Risk Assessment & Substitution Prepared by the European Crop Protection Association We can t afford to throw the baby out with the bath water 1/8/

24 Need for Rationality 1/8/

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