Entomology 101 Integrated Pest Management IPM. Terminology Related to Pests. Types of damage. Strategies of Pest Control or Management

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1 Entomology 101 Integrated Pest Management IPM David J. Shetlar, Ph.D. The BugDoc The Ohio State University, OARDC & OSU Extension Columbus, OH November, 2009, D.J. Shetlar, all rights reserved The evolution of pest control terminology Eradication Extermination Pest Control Pest Management Crop/Landscape Sustainability Terminology Related to Pests Chronic/Key pest Occasional, sporadic pest Rare pest Potential pest Secondary pest, induced pest Exotic (alien) pest Indigenous (native) pest Target pest Non-target pest Types of damage Direct damage (direct pest) Indirect damage (indirect pest) Aesthetic damage Vector (Disease transmission) Contamination Historical Background Pre-chemical Era Cultural controls Inorganic & botanical insecticides 1000 BC AD Synthetic insecticide era, Pest management era, 1960 to now Ecosystem sustainability era, 1990s Strategies of Pest Control or Management Tolerance - Do nothing Eradication completely eliminate pest populations Prevention stop pests before damage Curative control pests after some damage Suppression reduce pest to tolerable levels 1

2 Tactics of Pest Management Chemical Control Biological Control Cultural Control Mechanical & Physical Controls Host Plant Resistance Genetic Control Behavioral Control Regulatory Control IPM Concepts Program or Way of Thinking Preventive vs Reactive Single Control - Multiple Controls Pest Thresholds Integrated Pest Management (IPM) A Definition IPM is a process where the selection, integration, and implementation of pest control (biological, chemical or cultural) is based on predicted economic, ecological, and sociological consequences. IPM Flint & van den Bosch (1981) Definition Integrated pest management (IPM) is an ecologically based pest control strategy that relies heavily on natural mortality factors such as natural enemies and weather and seeks out control tactics that disrupt these factors as little as possible. IPM uses pesticides, but only after systematic monitoring of pest populations and natural control factors indicates a need. Ideally, an integrated pest management program considers all available pest control actions, including no action, and evaluates the potential interaction among various control tactics, cultural practices, weather, other pests, and the crop to be protected. 2

3 IPM Principles and Concepts IPM is NOT: a biological control program an organic program a pesticide free program the most expensive approach the least expensive approach IPM Principles and Concepts IPM is: a decision making process that is based on ecological, economic and sociological values/restrictions, uses pest monitoring and sampling, and considers all of the control options. IPM Principles and Concepts ET = Economic Threshold EIL = Economic Injury Level Traditional Crop IPM Approaches sample pest populations on a regular basis. develop pest economic injury levels. determine economic threshold levels (action thresholds) for each crop and pest. 3

4 IPM Principles and Concepts How do we handle diverse, non-crop habitats? Number of Plants urban landscapes can contain over 100 species of plants! Number of Pests each plant may host 1 to 5 pests each! IPM Principles and Concepts Urban Approaches (for landscapes, Raupp et al.) Key Plants - plants prone to damaging pest problems. Key Pests - pests that can cause serious damage or plant loss. Traditional Ornamental Plant Maintenance Program Fertilize spring and fall all plants treated the same. Mulch in spring and put down preemergence herbicide (crab grass and other annual weeds)! Visit landscape 4-5 times per year and use cover spray (contains mixture of miticide, fungicide and insecticide)! Sell other services pruning, weeding, etc. Current Approach to Ornamental Plant Maintenance MAP landscape, identifying key plants and key pests. Evaluate individual plants and consult with owner about desires for plants maintenance, push growth, etc. Use targeted pesticide applications. Recommend crop rotation!? Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Theoretically, chemical, biological and cultural control tactics are equal in importance! Current ideology is that biological and cultural tactics are preferred! Biological Chemical Cultural 4

5 Plant Health Care Current Thinking In Plant Health Care (PHC), the concept of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is only ONE component of the system - the one dealing with "intervention" after a plant stress has been identified as being caused by a pest. Stress (or Pest) Management Plant Health Care Plant Evaluation Plant Client Intervention? School IPM? Why? School IPM Assumptions To create a healthy and safe environment for students, teachers, workers and parents! Control pests (health concerns), but Reduce exposure to pesticides (safety concerns). Most pests can be managed using sanitary, mechanical and cultural controls. Pesticides are only used after documenting an actual need no scheduled (monthly) treatments are to be used. Scheduled treatments are replaced by inspections and prevention tactics. Pest Risk Example Ants in a Classroom (They keep getting onto teacher s desk!) What ant is it? (Pavement ant) Habitat? (soil outside building!) Food? (teacher keeps snacks in desk!) Water? (drip tubes from air conditioner!) Pest Risk Example Ants in a Classroom (They keep getting onto teacher s desk!) Pavement ant (bait?) Habitat? (soil - caulk?) Food? (teacher can keep snacks in airtight containers!) Water? (correct air conditioner drip tubes move away from foundation) 5

6 Pest Risk Example Ants in a Classroom (Costs?) Baits & sprays require licensed applicator (even janitor needs license!) Caulking (requires knowledge of where ants are nesting) Food? (costs acquiring containers!) Correct air conditioners? ($$$$$$$) 6

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