Chapter I. Historical Perspective on Crop Protection

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Chapter I. Historical Perspective on Crop Protection"

Transcription

1 Chapter I Historical Perspective on Crop Protection

2 Chapter I Historical Perspective on Crop Protection Since recorded history, the impact of pests on food crops has been important. Many practices of traditional and modern agriculture have evolved because of pest problems. Without doubt, pests of food crops influenced the course of civilizations-for example, the ancient Greeks and Remans knew of and used pesticides in the Mediterranean Basin. Crop losses from pests during those times were probably even more severe in the humid tropics, just as they are today. Over the 10,000 or more years that man has cultivated crops, he gradually evolved production systems that ensured an adequate food supply for the family or tribal unit from one harvest until the next. Seeds were selected from plants that survived the rigors of weather and pest infestations; cultivation, planting time, and other production practices were adopted that ensured consistent rather than high but variable yields. At best, however, such ancient practices were based on trial and error without the benefit of modern genetics, chemistry, and cultural capabilities; they were only moderately effective and resulted in relatively low and unstable production levels. Furthermore, effective means did not exist to deal with disasters such as locust plagues and blight. During the last century agriculture in industrial countries has changed from relatively small, labor-intensive, diversified family units to large, highly mechanized operations. As production became concentrated in favorable areas and as monoculture, high fertility, irrigation, and other components of modern agriculture were widely adopted, pest problems frequently became more severe. Insects, disease organisms, and nematode problems were magnified, particularly on fruits and vegetables, and weed problems became more acute as those species most suited for the new cropping systems proliferated. This situation was further exacerbated by the movement of pest species from one continent to another. Many of the most serious pests in the United States were introduced from other centinents. As a result of the increasing need for methods to prevent losses due to pests, an impressive array of crop protection technologies has evolved. Included are pest-resistant plants, cultural controls, biological controls, pesticides, behavior-modifying substances, quarantine laws, and pest eradication programs. Some cultural controls are not adaptable to high-production agriculture: some pesticides have declined in effectiveness: other controls are used successfully to manage only a limited number of pests: none are entirely satisfactory or universally applicable, Recently, the increasing dependence on chemical pesticides has raised concern regarding risks to human health and the environment. Pest-resistant plants were recognized in the 19th century, but only in the 20th century has breeding for pest resistance become an active area of research. Numerous cultivars (varieties) resistant to one or more diseases were developed, and varieties of apples, grapes, and wheat were known to be resist- 11

3 12 Pest Management Strategies ant to woolly aphid, phylloxera, and Hessian fly, respectively. During the last 30 years the development of cultivars resistant to major disease organisms and nematodes has accelerated. The development of insect-resistant crops has received less emphasis partly because of the easy availability of economical and effective insecticides. Breeding for weed resistance has focused on the ability to compete but otherwise has been given little attention. Recently, allelopathy (the ability of one plant to suppress another by producing toxic substances) has received attention as a weed control tactic. Cultural control methods are as old as agriculture and are used primarily for weed, nematode, and disease control. These methods include sanitation, destruction of alternate hosts and volunteer plants, crop rotation, tillage, trap crops, time of planting, water and fertilizer management, and use of pest-free seed and planting stock. Although cultural methods alone are not likely to ensure adequate controls, they often can reduce pest population pressures and enhance other control tactics. The availability of economical herbicides, fungicides, and insecticides has reduced emphasis on cultural controls; the integrated pest management (1PM) approach to crop protection has brought renewed attention to these old cultural methods, Biological control is the regulation of pest organisms by their natural enemies and is important in pest management. Primarily, insects and mites are controlled by this method, but it may play an important role in the regulation of some disease organisms, weeds, and vertebrates. Natural enemies are macrobial (vertebrates, insects, and mites) or microbial (fungi, bacteria, viruses), and may be indigenous or introduced from other areas. The earliest known use of biological control was by the Chinese who used ants to control insect pests in citrus orchards. Other better known cases were the introduction of the Vedalia beetle into California citrus groves in 1890 to control the introduced cottony cushion scale and the control of prickly pear cactus in Australia through the introduction of a lepidopterous insect in The importance of biological control was not realized for many situations until certain insecticides that affected a broad range of organisms were used on crops such as cotton and apple. This resulted in the removal of the natural enemies for some secondary or even previously unknown pests that then became major damaging pests, The earliest planned 1PM control efforts were made in 1940 on apples in Nova Scotia in an attempt to use insecticides and fungicides that would not interfere with biological control of insects and mites. Pesticides have been used for more than 2,000 years but, until the last century, only to a limited extent. During the late 1800 s and early 1900 s, the first widespread use of insecticides was initiated, Arsenical were used on potatoes, cotton, apples, and a few other crops, Bordeaux mixture and liquid lime sulfur were used on grapes, potatoes, and fruits to prevent severe losses by disease organisms. By 1903 crude but practical gasoline-powered spraying and dusting equipment was in use: by 1915 the use of chemical insecticides and fungicides on most crops had become standard practice, The inorganic predominated until the 1940 s when DDT, BHC, the dithiocarbamate fungicides, and 2,4-D became the forerunners of a revolutionary new class of chemicals, the synthetic organic compounds. During the last 30 years the total use of pesticides has increased twelvefold in the United States alone; increases in the developing countries have been much more gradual, The latest figures show the rate of increase slowing for fungicides and insecticides, while herbicide use continues to expand until now its use far exceeds that of any other group of pesticides. In 1977, 7 percent of pesticide sales in the United States were for fungicides, 35 percent were for insecticides, and 58 percent were for herbicides. Although microbial pesticides have been explored, only one bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis, is in extensive commercial use at

4 Ch. / Historical Perspective on Crop Protect/on 13 present for control of agricultural pests. one insect virus is registered for full use and several others have experimental-use permits for field tests as the first step toward full registration. It is noteworthy that commercially produced Microbials are considered. by law, to be pesticides. but the regulation of pests by their natural enemies, which include microbial agents, is biological control. Behavior-modifying substances such as insect pheromones are a recent development and their ultimate role in crop protection is unknown. The pheromone Gossyplure is registered for control of the pink bollworm on cot ton. They, and other attractants, are now widely used to monitor insect activity. Quarantine regulations originated in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Germany instituted regulatory measures in 1873 to prohibit entry of products that might spread grape phylloxera. During the next 10 years various States enacted the first quarantine laws in the United States. In 1905 the Federal Insect Pest Act was enacted, and in 1912 the Federal Plant Quarantine Act was passed by Congress. These regulations were based on the concept that the spread of pests through human activity can be prevented, especially if a geographic barrier. such as an ocean or mountain range, exists between the place of origin and the area to be protected. Today. the extent and rate of world travel and trade has led to a reexamination of these procedures in an attempt to adapt to changing conditions. In 1974 Congress passed the Noxious Weed Act which was not funded until and then only modestly. Eradication is the complete extermination of a pest from an area and is permanent unless the pest is reintroduced. It may be the ideal method of dealing with a newly introduced species. Eradication programs are politically attractive because of their visibility and because they offer short-term relief from attacks of the pest involved, but permanent success is difficult, if not impossible, to attain for most pests with present technology. Eradication of the screw worm in the Southeast and, on several occasions, of the Mediterranean fruit fly in Florida are successful examples, but attempts to eradicate the common barberry, field bindweed. witchweed, gypsy moth. golden nematode, and fire ant have failed. Also the potential hazards to human health and the environment must be considered. Much concern exists that funds and manpower so badly needed for other crop protection efforts will be wasted on futile eradication projects. Integrated pest management (1PM) is a concept of crop production incorporating effective, stable, long-lasting crop protection components that minimize the negative side effects of current pest control actions. As mentioned above, none of the current control tactics are entirely satisfactory or universally applicable even though U.S. farmers have achieved a high degree of dominance over many plant pests during the last century. organic pesticides were first acclaimed as the ultimate solution to crop protection problems, but experience over time has shown that, for all their advantages with respect to human heaith and conservation of food and fiber, they have many limitations. On cotton and a few other crops in some areas, pest resistance to insecticides and secondary induced pests have resulted in disastrous losses. Biological, cultural, host-plant resistance, and other tactics are all effective against specific pests but have Iimitations that restrict their general usefulness in crop production. These developments have led to a general recognition over the past two decades of the need for improved crop protection systems. The 1PM concept developed in response to this need. * Integrated pest management is a term that has different meanings to different people. Definition problems have plagued the 1PM effort since its inception. It is an allinclusive concept that should be applicable to all pests (weeds, plant pathogens, nematodes, vertebrates, insects, etc. ) However, terminology, control tactics, and strategies vary among disciplinary groups so that it is difficult to arrive at a definition completely appropriate to all interests. The term inte-

5 74. Pest Management Strategies grated pest management,* as used throughout this report, is defined as follows: Integrated pest management (1PM) is the optimization of pest control in an economically and ecologically sound manner, accomplished by the coordinated use of multiple tactics to assure stable crop production and to maintain pest damage below the economic injury level while minimizing hazards to humans, animals, plants, and the environment. In the above definition, 1PM is synonymous with integrated pest control, a term generally used outside the United States. Integrated pest management and pest management are used interchangeably in this report. The current definitions of some common terms used in crop protection are: Pest Formerly restricted in common use to insects and certain rodents, now applies to all noxious and damaging organisms including insects. mites, nematodes, plant pathogens, weeds, and vertebrates. Pesticides Includes insecticides, miticides, nematicides, herbicides, fungicides, etc. Strategies Pest control strategies are the general approaches or systems used to manage a pest or pests. 1PM is the strategy of using applicable multiple tactics to prevent pest losses. Tactics These are the specific methods used to achieve pest control. These include pesticides, pest-resistant varieties, cultural practices, biological control, and others. 1PM in its broadest form considers all major pests in an agroecosystem and is integrated as one component of the total crop production system, However, integrated control tactics for individual or groups of similar pests can be implemented without waiting for the perfect total program to be developed, These tactics can be modified, improved, and integrated with control tactics for other pests as new information becomes available, Pest management is not a primary goal; rather, it is one component of the total crop production system which is a series of interlocking physical, biological, and management functions all interacting to determine the yield of a cultivated crop (see figure I). Crop pests are important elements of the system that interact among themselves and with other components of the system; they are managed not as a primary objective but only as they reduce productivity of the system by an amount greater than the cost of control. As an organized, comprehensive approach to the management of crop pests, 1PM proceeds through a series of steps in planning pest management programs. These steps and their underlying principles, presented in the order of their priority in developing programs, are: 1. Identify the pests to be managed in the crop production system (agroecosystem). An organism should not be classed as a pest until it is proven to be so. A species may be a pest in some situations and not in others. Pest identification should be coupled with the establishment of economic thresholds. (See no, 4 below. ) 2. Define the management unit the agroecosystem. The limits of the agroecosystem should be determined by the characteristics of the local cropping system and the patterns of movement of the key pests involved. Multiple-species management requires a best compromise solution to the overall pest problems within the capabilities of the involved farmers. 3. Development of the pest management strategy. The fundamental strategy of pest management is the coordinated use of multiple control tactics in a single integrated system. The goal is to hold pest numbers and crop damage to tolerable levels. It is generally a containment strategy rather than an eradication strategy. 4 Establish economic injury thresholds. The economic injury threshold is the pest population level that causes a loss to the

6 Ch. l Historical Perspective on Crop Protection 15 Figure 1. Diagrammatic Concept of an Agroecosystem Population of a Cultivated Crop Variety SOURCE J L APrle Impact of Plant Dtsease on World Food Product Ion pp In D Plmentel ed Wor/d Food Pesf /.osses and the ErivIron men f (Boulder Colo Westv(ew Press 1978 I 5. Develop reliable monitoring techniques. Monitoring information on some pests provides the basis for decisions on imme- diate suppressive pest managment ac- tions, whereas for other pests such in- formation is useful only for management decisions concerning future cropping crop greater than the cost of carrying out a pest control action. Obviously, the economic threshold values (pest population levels) vary for a given crop depending on the value of the crop, the state of its development, and environmental conditions (both biological and physical).

7 16 pest Management Strategies seasons. This involves the measurement knowledge gaps that must be filled to of pest populations (numbers of spores, understand the system, and in predicting insects, nematodes, weeds, etc. ) or over time the behavior of the crop proamount of disease. duction system and its pest components. This is a desired goal in the development 6. Develop descriptive and predictive of sophisticated systems but is not an abmodels. Modeling is a very useful tool in solute requirement for all 1PM proorganizing research, in identifying grams,

What is a pest? How Insects Become Pests. How do insects become pests? Problems with Pesticides. What is most commonly used to control insect pests?

What is a pest? How Insects Become Pests. How do insects become pests? Problems with Pesticides. What is most commonly used to control insect pests? What is a pest? How Insects Become Pests How do insects become pests? Introduction outside of native range Becomes disease vector Plant or animal (inclu. human) disease vector Host shift in native insect

More information

Integrated Pest Management

Integrated Pest Management Chapter 2 Integrated Pest Management In This Chapter Keywords After learning the information in this chapter, you will be able to: 1. Define Integrated Pest Management (IPM). 2. List and describe the 5

More information

BARRIERS TO WIDESPREAD CONVERSION FROM CHEMICAL PEST CONTROL TO NON-CHEMICAL METHODS IN U.S. AGRICULTURE

BARRIERS TO WIDESPREAD CONVERSION FROM CHEMICAL PEST CONTROL TO NON-CHEMICAL METHODS IN U.S. AGRICULTURE BARRIERS TO WIDESPREAD CONVERSION FROM CHEMICAL PEST CONTROL TO NON-CHEMICAL METHODS IN U.S. AGRICULTURE 1 Leonard Gianessi and 2 Nathan Reigner CropLife Foundation, Crop Protection Research Institute,

More information

BENEFITS OF USING IPM

BENEFITS OF USING IPM Edward J. Bechinski and William H. Bohl Potato growers who use IPM consider all available pest control tools. Alternatives to conventional pesticides are the foundation of every IPM plan. Pesticides play

More information

Chapter 1: Integrated Pest Management (IPM)

Chapter 1: Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Chapter 1: Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Introduction Pests are an inevitable problem faced by nursery growers. For the purposes of this document, the term pest refers to insects, diseases, weeds, slugs,

More information

Entomology 101 Integrated Pest Management IPM. Terminology Related to Pests. Types of damage. Strategies of Pest Control or Management

Entomology 101 Integrated Pest Management IPM. Terminology Related to Pests. Types of damage. Strategies of Pest Control or Management Entomology 101 Integrated Pest Management IPM David J. Shetlar, Ph.D. The BugDoc The Ohio State University, OARDC & OSU Extension Columbus, OH November, 2009, D.J. Shetlar, all rights reserved The evolution

More information

Outline. What is IPM Principles of IPM Methods of Pest Management Economic Principles The Place of Pesticides in IPM

Outline. What is IPM Principles of IPM Methods of Pest Management Economic Principles The Place of Pesticides in IPM Improving Control Systems in Thailand for Plant and Plants Products Intended for Export to the European Union co-funded by the European Union and Thai Department of Agriculture Preharvest Use of Pesticides

More information

Introduction to Integrated Pest Management. John C. Wise, Ph.D. Michigan State University MSU Trevor Nichols Research Complex

Introduction to Integrated Pest Management. John C. Wise, Ph.D. Michigan State University MSU Trevor Nichols Research Complex Introduction to Integrated Pest Management John C. Wise, Ph.D. Michigan State University MSU Trevor Nichols Research Complex What is Integrated Pest Management? Integrated Pest Management (IPM) New concept;

More information

Pest Control Products Board Nairobi, Kenya PESTICIDE REGISTRATION IN KENYA - BIOPESTICIDES. by P. N. Ngaruiya (Dr)

Pest Control Products Board Nairobi, Kenya PESTICIDE REGISTRATION IN KENYA - BIOPESTICIDES. by P. N. Ngaruiya (Dr) Pest Control Products Board Nairobi, Kenya PESTICIDE REGISTRATION IN KENYA - BIOPESTICIDES by P. N. Ngaruiya (Dr) Introduction Pesticides, an indispensable tool in farming Chemical pesticides such as the

More information

Introduction to the concepts of IPM

Introduction to the concepts of IPM DEPARTMENT OF PRIMARY INDUSTRY AND FISHERIES Principles of Integrated Pest Management Deanna Chin and Brian Thistleton, Entomology, Diagnostic Services What is a pest? Principles of IPM Introduction to

More information

Integrated Mosquito Management. Rosmarie Kelly Public Health Entomologist Georgia Dept of Public Health

Integrated Mosquito Management. Rosmarie Kelly Public Health Entomologist Georgia Dept of Public Health Integrated Mosquito Management Rosmarie Kelly Public Health Entomologist Georgia Dept of Public Health Topics of discussion: Integrated pest management (IPM) History of pest management Definition of IPM

More information

Integrated Pest Management

Integrated Pest Management Integrated Pest Management Science and Language Arts Brief Description: This lesson will focus all of the information the students have learned about pests in the other insect lessons in a decision-making

More information

What is Integrated Pest Management?

What is Integrated Pest Management? SLIDE 1: This is Steve Johnson, University of Maine Cooperative Extension, bringing you information on Integrated Pest Management. It is possible to receive a Maine Board of Pesticides Control recertification

More information

Ch. 10 - Pest Control. Outline

Ch. 10 - Pest Control. Outline Ch. 10 - Pest Control 1 Outline Pests Pesticides Types Benefits Problems Alternatives Reducing Exposure Regulating Use Organic Farming 2 16 July 2011 1 Pests and Pesticides Biological Pests - organisms

More information

Integrated Pest Management

Integrated Pest Management Integrated Pest Management Andrea Veres Junior Technical Officer FAO REU andrea.veres@fao.org Yerevan, Armenia 2013 Why develop IPM? Agriculture was: not sustainable optimized inputs for maximum profit

More information

Upscaling of locally proven IPM technologies for control of pest of economic importance i

Upscaling of locally proven IPM technologies for control of pest of economic importance i Technology Fact Sheet for Adaptation Upscaling of locally proven IPM technologies for control of pest of economic importance i Technology: Upscaling of locally proven IPM technologies for control of pest

More information

Comparison of Production Costs and Resource Use for Organic and Conventional Production Systems

Comparison of Production Costs and Resource Use for Organic and Conventional Production Systems Comparison of Production Costs and Resource Use for Organic and Conventional Production Systems KAREN KLONSKY The USDA established the National Organic Program (NOP) to develop national standards for organically

More information

Tree Integrated Pest Management. Dan Nortman Virginia Cooperative Extension, York County

Tree Integrated Pest Management. Dan Nortman Virginia Cooperative Extension, York County Tree Integrated Pest Management Dan Nortman Virginia Cooperative Extension, York County IPM Refresher Definition: The use of a combination of appropriate pest control tactics to reduce pest population

More information

IPM Plan for Campus Landscape

IPM Plan for Campus Landscape Created June 2014 IPM Plan for Campus Landscape Statement of Purpose The purpose of this integrated pest management (IPM) plan is to guide the use of environmentally sensitive pest management strategies

More information

INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT

INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT C 1 H A P TE R INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT LEARNING OBJECTIVES After completely studying this chapter, you should: Be able to define integrated pest management. Understand the importance of an economic

More information

Comparison of Production Costs and Resource Use for Organic and Conventional Production Systems. Karen Klonsky 1

Comparison of Production Costs and Resource Use for Organic and Conventional Production Systems. Karen Klonsky 1 Comparison of Production Costs and Resource Use for Organic and Conventional Production Systems Karen Klonsky 1 The USDA established the National Organic Program (NOP) to develop national standards for

More information

Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Learning Objectives. What is Integrated Pest Management (IPM)? After studying this section, you should be able to:

Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Learning Objectives. What is Integrated Pest Management (IPM)? After studying this section, you should be able to: General Knowledge: Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Learning Objectives After studying this section, you should be able to: Define the concept of Integrated Pest Management

More information

Adoption of GE Crops by U.S. Farmers Increases Steadily

Adoption of GE Crops by U.S. Farmers Increases Steadily Adoption of GE Crops by U.S. Farmers Increases Steadily Farmers are more likely to adopt new practices and technologies if they expect to benefit from them. Benefits are usually thought of in monetary

More information

OSU Extension Service Master Gardener Program. Organic Pest Control. Weston Miller OSU Extension Service Community and Urban Horticulture faculty

OSU Extension Service Master Gardener Program. Organic Pest Control. Weston Miller OSU Extension Service Community and Urban Horticulture faculty Organic Pest Control Weston Miller OSU Extension Service Community and Urban Horticulture faculty Audience Question What does the term organic pest control mean to you? Preview of Presentation Organic

More information

Pest Management - Holistic Pest Control?

Pest Management - Holistic Pest Control? Pest Management - Holistic Pest Control? 2. Modern control tactics and the birth of IPM The action of parasites, predators, and pathogens in maintaining another organism s density at a lower average than

More information

Effect of Pesticide in soil 346 BOT

Effect of Pesticide in soil 346 BOT Effect of Pesticide in soil 346 BOT The most common chemicals involved in causing soil pollution are: Petroleum hydrocarbons Heavy metals Pesticides Solvents Soil pollutant any factor which deteriorates

More information

INTEGRATED PEST CONTROL

INTEGRATED PEST CONTROL 19 TOPIC 3 INTEGRATED PEST CONTROL Scope Chemical pesticides are now the traditional solution to pest problems, and they have saved lives and crops. Their use, however, has created significant problems,

More information

Integrated Pest Management

Integrated Pest Management Integrated Pest Management Ecology and Human Impact R. Bruce Chapman Insect Science Ltd Pest organisms When do organisms become pests? When an organism s population exceeds a threshold level, and control

More information

3. Which relationship can correctly be inferred from the data presented in the graphs below?

3. Which relationship can correctly be inferred from the data presented in the graphs below? 1. Recent evidence indicates that lakes in large areas of New York State are being affected by acid rain. The major effect of acid rain in the lakes is (1) an increase in game fish population levels (3)

More information

From known to unknown

From known to unknown Risks associated with Chemical and Non-Chemical Pest Control From known to unknown Paul Leonard Nov 2009 Agenda 1. EU non-chemical pest control legislation? 2. What do we know about risks associated with

More information

Fungal Entomopathogens: An Enigmatic Pest Control Alternative

Fungal Entomopathogens: An Enigmatic Pest Control Alternative Fungal Entomopathogens: An Enigmatic Pest Control Alternative Nicole Rusconi $ and Cerruti R 2 Hooks! $ Student Research Assistant and 1 Associate Professor and Extension Specialist, University of Maryland

More information

Development of Lygus Management Strategies for Texas Cotton

Development of Lygus Management Strategies for Texas Cotton Development of Lygus Management Strategies for Texas Cotton Ram Shrestha, Megha Parajulee, and Stanley Carroll Texas A&M AgriLife Research and Extension Center Lubbock, Texas 3 rd International Lygus Symposium,

More information

Speaker Summary Note

Speaker Summary Note 2020 CONFERENCE MAY 2014 Session: Speaker: Speaker Summary Note Building Resilience by Innovating and Investing in Agricultural Systems Mark Rosegrant Director, Environment and Production Technology Division

More information

Pests and Pest Control

Pests and Pest Control Pests and Pest Control The need for pest control Philosophies of control Development of Chemical Pesticides Promises and problems of the chemical approach Some of the more commonly used icides Alternative

More information

Biotechnology and its Applications

Biotechnology and its Applications Chapter-12 Biotechnology and its Applications Very Short Answers Questions: 1. Give different types of cry genes and pests which are controlled by the proteins encoded by these genes? A: cryiac, cryiiab

More information

INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT

INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT Definitions Biological Controls -- Use of a pest s natural enemies to control pest population. Conservation and augmentation are the biological control strategies most commonly

More information

UTAH CERTIFIED NURSEY PROFESSIONAL UCNP TEST SYLLABUS

UTAH CERTIFIED NURSEY PROFESSIONAL UCNP TEST SYLLABUS UTAH CERTIFIED NURSEY PROFESSIONAL UCNP TEST SYLLABUS Contact Information: Utah Green-UNLA 1174 E 2760 S #16 Salt Lake City UT 84152 801-484-4426 or unlautahgreen@aol.com UCNP Program Description: The

More information

San Diego County Agriculture How Sustainable and Resilient are We?

San Diego County Agriculture How Sustainable and Resilient are We? San Diego County Agriculture How Sustainable and Resilient are We? Karen Melvin Deputy Agricultural Commissioner/ Sealer The San Diego County Department of Agriculture, Weights and Measures Thriving Ag,

More information

BUSINESS AND NONINSTRUCTIONAL OPERATIONS BP 3514 PESTICIDE USE ON SCHOOL CAMPUSES

BUSINESS AND NONINSTRUCTIONAL OPERATIONS BP 3514 PESTICIDE USE ON SCHOOL CAMPUSES PESTICIDE USE ON SCHOOL CAMPUSES I Pesticide Risks to Children The use of pesticides and chemicals has become increasingly common in our schools when dealing with such problems as pests and weeds. Many

More information

POLICY REGARDING PEST MANAGEMENT ON CITY PROPERTY

POLICY REGARDING PEST MANAGEMENT ON CITY PROPERTY POLICY REGARDING PEST MANAGEMENT ON CITY PROPERTY 1. The purpose of this policy is to eliminate or reduce pesticide use to the greatest possible extent. The City of Madison agrees with the US EPA that

More information

Integrated Pest Management: Principles & Practice. Dr. Ana Legrand Connecticut IPM Program University of Connecticut

Integrated Pest Management: Principles & Practice. Dr. Ana Legrand Connecticut IPM Program University of Connecticut Integrated Pest Management: Principles & Practice Dr. Ana Legrand Connecticut IPM Program University of Connecticut Integrated Pest Management IPM is the selection, integration and implementation of pest

More information

University of Hawaii at Manoa, College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources

University of Hawaii at Manoa, College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources University of Hawaii at Manoa, College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources J. Sugano, J. Uyeda, S. Fukuda, K. Wang, M. Kawate, C. Tamaru, B. Fox, and T. Radovich College of Tropical Agriculture

More information

Integrated Pest Management At Boise State University

Integrated Pest Management At Boise State University Integrated Pest Management At Boise State University Purpose The purpose of this document is to provide an overview of Boise State University Landscape Service department s philosophy regarding plant health

More information

BIOS 3010: Ecology Lecture 16: Manipulating abundance: 2. Manipulating abundance: 3. Pest and weed control:

BIOS 3010: Ecology Lecture 16: Manipulating abundance: 2. Manipulating abundance: 3. Pest and weed control: BIOS 3010: Ecology Lecture 16: Manipulating abundance: Lecture summary: Manipulating abundance: Pest control. Pesticides:» Benefits.» Problems. Biological control. Cultural control. Integrated pest management.

More information

Lecture 11: PEST - DEFINITION, CATEGORIES, CAUSES FOR OUTBREAK, LOSSES CAUSED BY PESTS

Lecture 11: PEST - DEFINITION, CATEGORIES, CAUSES FOR OUTBREAK, LOSSES CAUSED BY PESTS Lecture 11: PEST - DEFINITION, CATEGORIES, CAUSES FOR OUTBREAK, LOSSES CAUSED BY PESTS PEST - Derived from French word Peste and Latin term Pestis meaning plague or contagious disease - Pest is any animal

More information

Integrated Pest Management

Integrated Pest Management Integrated Pest Management 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS 2 CropLife International Policy on IPM OVERVIEW 3 What is IPM? 4 Why is IPM Important? 5 Benefits of IPM IPM COMPONENTS 5 Overview 6 Prevention 8 Monitoring

More information

THE SCIENCE THE FUTURE OF CANADIAN CANOLA: APPLY THE SCIENCE OF AGRONOMICS TO MAXIMIZE GENETIC POTENTIAL.

THE SCIENCE THE FUTURE OF CANADIAN CANOLA: APPLY THE SCIENCE OF AGRONOMICS TO MAXIMIZE GENETIC POTENTIAL. THE SCIENCE THE FUTURE OF CANADIAN CANOLA: APPLY THE SCIENCE OF AGRONOMICS TO MAXIMIZE GENETIC POTENTIAL. WHERE WE HAVE BEEN CANOLA PRODUCTION HAS SURPASSED THE INDUSTRY TARGET OF 15 MMT. This was achieved

More information

INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR KENNESAW STATE UNIVERSITY

INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR KENNESAW STATE UNIVERSITY INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR KENNESAW STATE UNIVERSITY KENNESAW, GEORGIA PREPARED JANUARY 1997 REVISED NOVEMBER 2006 TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction and Principles of Integrated Pest Management

More information

AP ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 2012 SCORING GUIDELINES

AP ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 2012 SCORING GUIDELINES AP ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 2012 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 3 The active ingredients in many pesticides are chemical compounds that kill organisms such as insects, molds, and weeds. Proponents claim that

More information

ENERGY IN FERTILIZER AND PESTICIDE PRODUCTION AND USE

ENERGY IN FERTILIZER AND PESTICIDE PRODUCTION AND USE Farm Energy IQ Conserving Energy in Nutrient Use and Pest Control INTRODUCTION Fertilizers and pesticides are the most widely used sources of nutrients and pest control, respectively. Fertilizer and pesticides

More information

Population Ecology. Life History Traits as Evolutionary Adaptations

Population Ecology. Life History Traits as Evolutionary Adaptations Population Ecology An Overview of Population Ecology Population ecology is the study of factors that affect population: Density Growth A population is a group of individuals of a single species that occupy

More information

ORGANIC. PEST MANAGEMENT POLICY for. Turf and Landscape

ORGANIC. PEST MANAGEMENT POLICY for. Turf and Landscape WAYNE 0. ATTRIDGE, D TOWN OF MARBLEHEAD Board of Health 7 WIDGER ROAD CARL D. GOODMAN, Esq., Ch MARBLEHEAD, MA 01945 DAVID B. BECKER, D.M.D., (781-631-0212) HELAINE R. HA ORGANIC PEST MANAGEMENT POLICY

More information

Integrated Pest Management Strategies 1

Integrated Pest Management Strategies 1 Circular 1149 1995 Integrated Pest Management Strategies 1 L. B. McCarty 2 One of the most appealing aspects of a landscape is the beauty of the lawn. The responsibility for maintaining this beauty and

More information

The BioAg Alliance: Unleashing the Potential of Microbial Solutions in Agriculture

The BioAg Alliance: Unleashing the Potential of Microbial Solutions in Agriculture The BioAg Alliance: Unleashing the Potential of Microbial Solutions in Agriculture Novozymes & Monsanto JOINT MEDIA ANNOUNCEMENT DECEMBER 10, 2013 Forward-Looking Statements As It Pertains to Novozymes:

More information

Tomato Year-Round IPM Program ANNUAL CHECKLIST (Reviewed 12/12)

Tomato Year-Round IPM Program ANNUAL CHECKLIST (Reviewed 12/12) Tomato Year-Round IPM Program ANNUAL CHECKLIST (Reviewed 12/12) These practices are recommended for a monitoring-based IPM program that reduces water quality problems related to pesticide use. Track your

More information

LIME SULPHUR INSECTICIDE MITICIDE FUNGICIDE COMMERCIAL DANGER: CORROSIVE TO EYES READ THE LABEL AND ATTACHED BOOKLET BEFORE USING

LIME SULPHUR INSECTICIDE MITICIDE FUNGICIDE COMMERCIAL DANGER: CORROSIVE TO EYES READ THE LABEL AND ATTACHED BOOKLET BEFORE USING datapak group M fungicide LIME SULPHUR INSECTICIDE MITICIDE FUNGICIDE COMMERCIAL DANGER: CORROSIVE TO EYES READ THE LABEL AND ATTACHED BOOKLET BEFORE USING REGISTRATION NO. 16465 PEST CONTROL PRODUCTS

More information

A Perspective of Research on HLB and its Vector in the United States David G. Hall, Tim R. Gottwald and Calvin E. Arnold

A Perspective of Research on HLB and its Vector in the United States David G. Hall, Tim R. Gottwald and Calvin E. Arnold A Perspective of Research on HLB and its Vector in the United States David G. Hall, Tim R. Gottwald and Calvin E. Arnold US Horticultural Research Laboratory, USDA-ARS, Ft Pierce, FL ACP Asian citrus psyllid

More information

Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Policy

Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Policy Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Policy What is Integrated Pest Management (IPM)? Integrated pest management (IPM) is an approach to pest control that utilizes regular monitoring and record keeping to

More information

TOWN OF WOODSIDE RESOLUTION ADOPTING AN UPDATED INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT POLICY

TOWN OF WOODSIDE RESOLUTION ADOPTING AN UPDATED INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT POLICY TOWN OF WOODSIDE Report to Town Council Agenda Item 3 Prepared by: Kevin Bryant, Assistant Town Manager September 27, 2011 Approved by: Susan George, Town Manager SUBJECT: RESOLUTION ADOPTING AN UPDATED

More information

Sustainability in Agricultural Marketing:

Sustainability in Agricultural Marketing: International Journal of scientific research and management (IJSRM) Special Issue On National Level Conference Business Growth and Social Development Pages 19-24 2014 Website: www.ijsrm.in ISSN (e): 2321-3418

More information

Genetically modified crops in Integrated Pest Management

Genetically modified crops in Integrated Pest Management Federal Department of Economic Affairs, Education and Research EAER Agroscope Genetically modified crops in Integrated Pest Management Franz Bigler, Michael Meissle and Jörg Romeis Agroscope ART Zürich,

More information

This lesson is part of a larger, comprehensive school garden guide called Minnesota School Gardens: A Guide to Gardening and Plant Science developed

This lesson is part of a larger, comprehensive school garden guide called Minnesota School Gardens: A Guide to Gardening and Plant Science developed This lesson is part of a larger, comprehensive school garden guide called Minnesota School Gardens: A Guide to Gardening and Plant Science developed by Minnesota Agriculture in the Classroom in 2013. The

More information

KNOWLEDGE EXPECTATIONS FOR PEST CONTROL ADVISORS: INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT I. ECOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES AS THEY RELATE TO PEST MANAGEMENT

KNOWLEDGE EXPECTATIONS FOR PEST CONTROL ADVISORS: INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT I. ECOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES AS THEY RELATE TO PEST MANAGEMENT KNOWLEDGE EXPECTATIONS FOR PEST CONTROL ADVISORS: INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT I. ECOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES AS THEY RELATE TO PEST MANAGEMENT A. Levels Of Ecological Organization natural selection; ecological

More information

GUIDELINES FOR THE REGISTRATION OF BIOLOGICAL PEST CONTROL AGENTS FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS

GUIDELINES FOR THE REGISTRATION OF BIOLOGICAL PEST CONTROL AGENTS FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS GUIDELINES FOR THE REGISTRATION OF BIOLOGICAL PEST CONTROL AGENTS FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS -ii- GUIDELINES ON THE REGISTRATION OF BIOLOGICAL PEST CONTROL AGENTS FOOD AND

More information

DESCRIPTION LEARNING OUTCOMES

DESCRIPTION LEARNING OUTCOMES Science Grade 10-12 Classroom Individual Reading DESCRIPTION Pesticides are used extensively to control pests, which can harm crops and other plant species. There are many different types of pesticides.

More information

Recommended Resources: The following resources may be useful in teaching

Recommended Resources: The following resources may be useful in teaching Unit D: Controlling Pests and Diseases in the Orchard Lesson 1: Managing and Controlling Pests of Fruit and Nut Crops Student Learning Objectives: Instruction in this lesson should result in students achieving

More information

to the Julius Kühn-Institute Federal Research Institute for Cultivated Plants Dr. Frank Riepert

to the Julius Kühn-Institute Federal Research Institute for Cultivated Plants Dr. Frank Riepert WELCOME to the Julius Kühn-Institute Federal Research Institute for Cultivated Plants Dr. Frank Riepert Institute for Pesticide Research in Berlin-Dahlem (1905) Julius Kühn-Institute The Federal Research

More information

Karen J. English Graphic and Web Designer. Please click the thumbnails on the following pages to view larger versions of the images.

Karen J. English Graphic and Web Designer. Please click the thumbnails on the following pages to view larger versions of the images. Karen J. English Graphic and Web Designer Please click the thumbnails on the following pages to view larger versions of the images. graphic design: small pieces graphic design: large pieces web design

More information

Alternative Pesticide Management for the Lawn and Garden

Alternative Pesticide Management for the Lawn and Garden Alternative Pesticide Management for the Lawn and Garden XCM-221 A pest-free lawn and garden may sound ideal, but is it really? Maintaining the perfect urban landscape may result in a reliance on pesticides

More information

I. RECOMMENDED PRACTICES BASED ON GOOD AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES (GAP) AND GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICES (GMP)

I. RECOMMENDED PRACTICES BASED ON GOOD AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES (GAP) AND GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICES (GMP) CAC/RCP 51-2003 Page 1 of 8 CODE OF PRACTICE FOR THE PREVENTION AND REDUCTION OF MYCOTOXIN CONTAMINATION IN CEREALS, INCLUDING ANNEXES ON OCHRATOXIN A, ZEARALENONE, FUMONISINS AND TRICOTHECENES CAC/RCP

More information

Resistance: The Facts - History & overview of resistance

Resistance: The Facts - History & overview of resistance www.irac-online.org Resistance: The Facts - History & overview of resistance An Overview Resistance to insecticides was first documented in 1914 by A.L. Melander in the Journal of Economic Entomology.

More information

12. INSECT PEST AND DISEASE MANAGEMENT

12. INSECT PEST AND DISEASE MANAGEMENT 12. INSECT PEST AND DISEASE MANAGEMENT Conservation farming promotes a diversity of insect life, influences pest populations and also favours many beneficial insects. The beneficial insects which act as

More information

FACT SHEET. Production Risk

FACT SHEET. Production Risk ALABAMA AGRICULTURAL & MECHANICAL UNIVERSITY SMALL FARMERS RESEARCH CENTER FACT SHEET Production Risk Any production related activity or event that is uncertain is a production risk. Agricultural production

More information

Introduction to Plant Pests

Introduction to Plant Pests Lesson 361b Introduction to Plant Pests Core Area. Plant Science Unit 360. Pest Management Topic 361. Intro to Plant Pests California Academic Standard. Science Grades 9 through 12 Biology/Life Sciences

More information

Integrated Pest Management Plan

Integrated Pest Management Plan Integrated Pest Management Plan ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH & SAFETY Version 1.2 October 21, 2015 Table of Contents A. Introduction...1 B. Scope...1 C. Responsibilities...2 1. Department...2 2. Supervisor...3

More information

Attachment I. Santa Barbara County Integrated Pest Management Strategy

Attachment I. Santa Barbara County Integrated Pest Management Strategy Attachment I Santa Barbara County Integrated Pest Management Strategy Mission Statement It is the mission of the County of Santa Barbara to promote environmentally sensitive pest management while preserving

More information

Best Lawns News. Late Spring 2014 Edition Virginia Cooperative Extension Prince William Unit. Featured in This Issue

Best Lawns News. Late Spring 2014 Edition Virginia Cooperative Extension Prince William Unit. Featured in This Issue Best Lawns News Late Spring 2014 Edition Virginia Cooperative Extension Prince William Unit Featured in This Issue Stilt Grass 2 National Arboretum s Grass Roots Exhibit 4 Grub Control 5 All content was

More information

RED SORREL PRODUCTION. PRESENTERS: DENTON ALVARANGA & Eistein McLean Deputy PAM RADA-St Andrew. Agri. Ext. Officer RADA-ST. Andrew

RED SORREL PRODUCTION. PRESENTERS: DENTON ALVARANGA & Eistein McLean Deputy PAM RADA-St Andrew. Agri. Ext. Officer RADA-ST. Andrew RED SORREL PRODUCTION PRESENTERS: DENTON ALVARANGA & Eistein McLean Deputy PAM RADA-St Andrew. Agri. Ext. Officer RADA-ST. Andrew BACKGROUND Native from the East Indies Recorded in Jamaica in 1707 Scientific

More information

Model Policy Statement for Integrated Pest Management in Schools and Child Care Facilities

Model Policy Statement for Integrated Pest Management in Schools and Child Care Facilities Model Policy Statement for Integrated Pest Management in Schools and Child Care Facilities School Pest Management Policy Statement Structural and landscape pests can pose significant problems in the urban

More information

Pest Management. Civilization has been combating CHAPTER 1 LEARNING OBJECTIVES PEST PROBLEMS THROUGHOUT HISTORY

Pest Management. Civilization has been combating CHAPTER 1 LEARNING OBJECTIVES PEST PROBLEMS THROUGHOUT HISTORY CHAPTER 1 Pest Management Marlin E. Rice, Iowa State University Extension. LEARNING OBJECTIVES After studying this chapter, you should be able to: Define pest. State the four main groups of pests and give

More information

Indian Agrochemical Industry

Indian Agrochemical Industry Indian Agrochemical Industry Introduction. India is the fourth largest producer of agrochemicals globally, after United States, Japan and China. The agrochemicals industry is a significant industry for

More information

Integrated Pest Management

Integrated Pest Management CONTINUING EDUCATION UNIT Integrated Pest Management Tactics LEARNING OBJECTIVES The arborist will be able to h identify the main goals of pest preventive tactics h describe the considerations that should

More information

Integrated Pest Management. A Brief Guide to Pest Management For Fruit Trees

Integrated Pest Management. A Brief Guide to Pest Management For Fruit Trees Integrated Pest Management A Brief Guide to Pest Management For Fruit Trees 1 Introduction This report is based on a workshop held July 18, 2012 covering the basics of Integrated Pest Management. This

More information

TransGrid Pesticide Use Notification Plan For Community Consultation

TransGrid Pesticide Use Notification Plan For Community Consultation TransGrid Pesticide Use Notification Plan For Community Consultation CONTENTS PAGE 1 INTRODUCTION... 3 2 PUBLIC PLACES COVERED BY THIS PLAN... 6 3 NOTIFICATION ARRANGEMENTS... 8 4 WHAT INFORMATION WILL

More information

CRP Mid-Contract Management Option: Integrated Wildlife Management (645)

CRP Mid-Contract Management Option: Integrated Wildlife Management (645) CRP Mid-Contract Management Option: Integrated Wildlife Management (645) Conservation Practice Job Sheet ID - CRP, JS-20 Revised August 2013 The purpose of mid-contract management activities is to enhance

More information

Section 5.1 Food chains and food webs

Section 5.1 Food chains and food webs Section 5.1 Food chains and food webs The ultimate source of energy in an ecosystem comes from sunlight This energy is converted to an organic form using photosynthesis which is then passed between organisms

More information

Integrated Pest Management Policy for City-Owned Facilities

Integrated Pest Management Policy for City-Owned Facilities Page 1 of 6 ARTICLE XII Integrated Pest Management Policy for City-Owned Facilities Section 1 Background The City s National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit from the California Regional

More information

General Technical Dossier Laminarin

General Technical Dossier Laminarin General Technical Dossier Laminarin The choice to produce better Fruits and vegetables Contents Technical dossier Laminarin 1) Plant natural defense mechanisms. 2) Laminarin: mode of action. 3) Laminarin:

More information

Reproduction of this microfiche document in any form is subject to the same restrictions as those of the original document.

Reproduction of this microfiche document in any form is subject to the same restrictions as those of the original document. A project of Volunteers in Asia Integrated Pest Management by Dale Bottrell Published by: Consortium for International Crop Protwtion 2888 Fulton Street Suite 310 Berkeley, CA 94704 USA Available from:

More information

Integrated Pest Management

Integrated Pest Management ARIZONA COOP E R AT I V E E TENSION THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE AND LIFE SCIENCES Integrated Pest Management Protecting Arizonaʼs Environment, Human Health and Economic Vitality Protecting

More information

Biopesticides Provide More Options Plus Customer Satisfaction for Produce Buyers and Retailers

Biopesticides Provide More Options Plus Customer Satisfaction for Produce Buyers and Retailers Biopesticide Industry Alliance Advancing Knowledge About Biopesticides Biopesticides Provide More Options Plus Customer Satisfaction for Produce Buyers and Retailers Contents Introduction... 3 Biopesticides

More information

B. Reduce the use of broad spectrum pesticides when feasible. C. Create awareness among City staff of less-toxic pest management techniques.

B. Reduce the use of broad spectrum pesticides when feasible. C. Create awareness among City staff of less-toxic pest management techniques. City of Newark MAINTENANCE POLICY: INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT POLICY ORIGINAL DATE: January 11, 2010; revised May 24, 2012 PURPOSE: The purpose of the City of Newark s Integrated Pest Management (IPM)

More information

Chemical versus Biological Control of Sugarcane. By Abid Hussain Matiari Sugar Mills Ltd.

Chemical versus Biological Control of Sugarcane. By Abid Hussain Matiari Sugar Mills Ltd. Chemical versus Biological Control of Sugarcane By Abid Hussain Matiari Sugar Mills Ltd. Sugarcane It is an important cash crop, Pakistan is the fifth largest cane producing country. However, its yield

More information

Dormant Season. Of Dormant Oil Spray Apple scab, Pear scab, Powdery mildew. pre-pink, pink, calyx, 1st & 2nd cover spray.

Dormant Season. Of Dormant Oil Spray Apple scab, Pear scab, Powdery mildew. pre-pink, pink, calyx, 1st & 2nd cover spray. 99/2004 CLEAN CROP(R) LIME SULPHUR Lime Sulphur Insecticide Miticide Fungicide COMMERCIAL CAUTION CORROSIVE READ THE LABEL BEFORE USING REGISTRATION NO. 16465 PEST CONTROL PRODUCTS ACT GUARANTEE: Sulphide

More information

BIOTECHNOLOGY Vol VIII - Crop Protection Through Pest-Resistant Genes - Stanley Freeman, Anges W. Mwang ombe

BIOTECHNOLOGY Vol VIII - Crop Protection Through Pest-Resistant Genes - Stanley Freeman, Anges W. Mwang ombe CROP PROTECTION THROUGH PEST-RESISTANT GENES Stanley Freeman Department of Plant Pathology, Agricultural Research Organization, The Volcani Center, Bet Dagan, Israel Anges W. Mwang ombe Department of Crop

More information

Cotton Situation in the World 1 M. Rafiq Chaudhry Technical Information Section

Cotton Situation in the World 1 M. Rafiq Chaudhry Technical Information Section 1 Cotton Situation in the World 1 M. Rafiq Chaudhry Technical Information Section Abstract The world cotton production for the year 1996/97 is currently placed by the ICAC at about 19 million metric tons

More information

NATURE AND SCOPE OF BIOLOGICAL CONTROL

NATURE AND SCOPE OF BIOLOGICAL CONTROL Biological Control of Pests, ENTO 675, UH-Manoa, Fall 2000, M. W. Johnson 1 NATURE AND SCOPE OF BIOLOGICAL CONTROL I. DEFINITIONS A. H. S. Smith (1919) first used term "biological control" to signify the

More information

PEST MANAGEMENT (CSP Enhancements) January 2006 Enhancement Activity Task Sheet

PEST MANAGEMENT (CSP Enhancements) January 2006 Enhancement Activity Task Sheet Reduced risks to ground and surface water quality Lower costs by limiting chemical applications to only when necessary To learn more about Integrated Pest Management go to the following website: http://extension.usu.edu/files/gardpubs/ipm01.pdf

More information

#1: Threshold and Injury Calculations the Theory. #2: Putting Economic Injury Levels and Action Thresholds to Use. Related Topics

#1: Threshold and Injury Calculations the Theory. #2: Putting Economic Injury Levels and Action Thresholds to Use. Related Topics Module #4 What is a Threshold? p. 1 www.nysaes.cornell.edu/ipmnet/ne.ipm.region What is a Threshold? By James VanKirk Overview Concept Activity Handouts The Economic Injury Level and the Action Threshold

More information

INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT (IPM) PLAN

INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT (IPM) PLAN CITY OF BRANDON INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT (IPM) PLAN FINAL DRAFT City of Brandon IPM Plan Page 2 CITY OF BRANDON INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT (IPM) PLAN TABLE OF CONTENTS Overview 3 Definition 3 Principles

More information