Outline. What is IPM Principles of IPM Methods of Pest Management Economic Principles The Place of Pesticides in IPM

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1 Improving Control Systems in Thailand for Plant and Plants Products Intended for Export to the European Union co-funded by the European Union and Thai Department of Agriculture Preharvest Use of Pesticides - Training of Trainers Workshop Principles of Integrated Pest Management to minimize pesticide use and residue problems George Fuller, Ph.D. Asia Food Solutions

2 Outline What is IPM Principles of IPM Methods of Pest Management Economic Principles The Place of Pesticides in IPM

3 What is IPM Uses all available techniques to manage pests in the most effective and efficient way. the careful consideration of all available pest control techniques and subsequent integration of appropriate measures that discourage the development of pest populations and keep pesticides and other interventions to levels that are economically justified and reduce or minimise risks to human health and the environment. IPM emphasises the growth of a healthy crop with the least possible disruption to agro-ecosystems and encourages natural pest control mechanisms. FAO

4 What is IPM Farmer based Location specific Combines suitable techniques Must be combined with all agronomic practices Considers economics of pest management Optimizes pesticide use as little as possible but as much as is necessary

5

6 Mechanical Methods of Pest Management Tillage can kill pests, bury them or expose them as food for birds and other predators Traps Hand collection of insects, diseased leave Hand weeding Cultural Quality of site and soil Crop Rotation Land preparation Quality of seed and planting material Time of planting Plant spacing Fertilizer regime Irrigation practices

7 Resistant crops Methods of Pest Management Traditional plant breeding Biotechnology Sanitation Removal of infected crop amterial Plowing in or burning of crop residues Removal of food sources such as seed and grain Using nets and screens in greenhouses

8 Biological Control Methods of Pest Management Use of natural enemies of pests Chemical Control Use of chemical pesticides to kill pests Use of chemicals to control their activity, e.g. pheromones

9 Economic Principles Crop production inputs cost money Profit = value of crop production costs transport/marketing costs For pesticides, cost over the season is more important than cost per liter. If pests are at a high level, the value added is higher than the cost of treatment - economical If pests are at a lower level, value added can be lower than the cost of treatment - not economical

10 Economic Principles Pests that transmit virus diseases need high level of attention Crops can withstand direct pest damage without loss of yield Rice can lose more than 25% of leaves before losing yield

11 Decision Making Continuous cycle Detection monitoring of pests, diseases and beneficial insects Early detection important Identification is organism a pest, a beneficial or not significant? Need to know symptoms of diseases

12 Decision Making Economic Significance What will be result if no action taken? Potential effect of treatment on beneficial insects? Decision If pests below economic threshold no treatment If pests above economic threshold - treatment Selection of Control Methods Evaluation Continuation of monitoring procedure Beginning of next decision making cycle

13 Pesticides in IPM Advantages Effective and quick reduction in pests Can control several pests at the same time Disadvantages Can be hazardous to applicator and environment Can kill beneficial insects Excessive use can result in insect resistance

14 Pesticides in IPM In IPM, use pesticides when monitoring shows economically important presence of pests. Pre-emptive treatment sometimes needed Seed treatment against soil borne disease Control of disease vectors Do not attempt to eradicate pests Nearly impossible Small numbers of pests needed to maintain predator population

15 Pesticides in IPM Pesticide Dose Rate: Follow Label Directions Too low not all pests are killed, crop losses not prevented and increased risk of resistance Too high excess wasted

16 Pesticides in IPM Causes of failure of pesticide applications Incorrect pesticide for the pest Incorrect timing Not at susceptible stage Disease too far advanced Incorrect Dose rate Incorrect application Not aimed at proper target Poorly calibrated spray equipment

17 Pesticides in IPM Other Causes for Failure Substandard or counterfeit pesticide used Pest resistance to the pesticide

18 Pesticides in IPM Factors that Minimize Development of Resistance Immigration of susceptible insects from outside the treated area A long pest life cycle Following IPM principles Using the correct pesticide dose rate Applying pesticides correctly Using less persistent pesticides Applying pesticides only when necessary

19 Questions? Further information:

20 Thank You

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