Status and trends in perception of Organic vegetable and fruit production in China

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1 Chinese-Danish Networking Status and trends in perception of Organic vegetable and fruit production in China Yuhui Qiao Dr. Associate Professor Department of Ecology and Ecological Engineering China Agricultural University

2 Outline Present development of organic farming in China Farm types and their management ( 区 位 以 及 组 织 形 式 ) Production factors the main drivers for the development of the organic farming system Pest, disease and weed management status Future Potential work on pest and disease management

3 Production of main crops in China 1. Corn 2. Rice 3. Wheat 4. Vegetables=19mill. ha 5. Oil rape 6. Fruits=11.54 mill. ha 1000 ha 35,000 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 29,873 24,257 32,500 11,276 8,750 13, ,000 11,544 5,000-4, ,905 1,345 1,970 TOTAL ARABLE LAND =120mill. ha Rice 稻 谷 Wheat 小 麦 Corn 玉 米 Soybeans 豆 类 Potatoes 薯 类 Oil rape 油 料 Cotton 棉 花 Fibre 麻 类 Sugar 糖 料 Tabaco 烟 叶 Vegetables 蔬 菜 Tea 茶 园 Fruits 果 园

4 Present development of Organic Farming in China till 2010 Type Acreage (mill. ha) total arable land Crop % Wild Collection Enterprises/certificate 4390 Companies Products (million tons) Domestic sales Export 5439 certificates Number or quantities 3976 production bases; 2018 factories TOTAL=10.71 Plant products=6.34 Livestock products=0.6 Aquaculture products=0.24 Processed products= billion RMB ; 3.79 million tons 0.2 billion US$; million tons Source: CNCA report,

5 9% of world 80% of Asia 5

6 000 ha 000 ha Organic Organic in conversion Total organic % of total organic arable land % of conventional +organic vegetable fruit and nuts

7 Distribution of organic arable land 7

8 Chinese standard Shandong=9300ha 8.46% Zhejiang=8350ha 7.6% International standard Vegetable production mainly in east of China

9 Organic vegetable production in China (2010) ha

10 Xinjiang=48000ha 19.62% Chinese standard Beijing =15000ha 6.13% Shandong=10000ha 4.09% Shanxi =12000ha 4.91% International standard Fruit and nut production mainly in north of China

11 ha

12 Outline Present development of organic farming in China Farm types and their management Production factors the main drivers for the development of the organic farming system Pest, disease and weed management status Future Potential work on pest and disease management

13 Diversity nature condition

14 Farm types and their management ---- Northern China large land area with monoculture with more than 1ha for each household/wheat corn rotation sometime farmers have more than hundreds of ha in Heilongjiang and Xinjiang Province; mainly for rice, beans production State farms in these areas

15 Farm types and their management ---- Southern China South China: small piece of land especially in mountain area less than 1 ha per household, they plant different crops by the small household/ rice and upland crops

16 Considerable Precipitation : mm lower temperature: 4-8 Fertile soil is available for Rice, soybean and maize Some areas is suitable to develop OA Considerable Precipitation : mm Trenchant seasons Advanced economy Educated farmers Long history in the production of vegetable and fruits High Precipitation : mm low-income Abundant marginal area Long history in the production of medicinal materials High Precipitation : mm Advanced economy Fertile soil Long history in the production of tea, mushroom and bamboo shoot

17 OA farming model based on traditional practices and modern theoretic Integrative system Animal food feedstuff Homestead Animal production Duck and fish in pond Cropland

18 Traditional farming is the basis of organic agriculture --- Multiform ecosystem and farming Mulberry, silkworm and fishery symbiosis Paddy and duck symbiosis

19 Numerous experiences from traditional agriculture Various cultivation system Combination of cropping with animal system

20 Intercropping is well done in fruit production

21 Crop rotation is well done in vegetable production especially in greenhouse Winter spinach -- Green beans -- Autumn cauliflower/broccoli -- Winter fallow Spring Broccoli / Cauliflower -- Summer soybean (Edamame) -- Winter spinach / Winter small shallots Spring pea pods / Sugar Snap peas -- Summer carrots -- Winter Spinach

22 Vegetable and Fruit production certified by ECOCERT Production bases for vegetable and Fruit Vegetable Fruit Fruit+Vegetable Total acreage(ha) bases acreage(ha) bases acreage(ha) bases acreage(ha) bases

23 Farm types and management Vegetable production area Shandong(37)>Jiangxi(8)>Beijing(5) for all kinds of vegetable production FARM SIZES 50% bases > 46.83ha 75% bases > 90.80ha 90% bases > ha ha

24 Farm types and management Fruit production area Distributed mainly in Xinjiang(21)>Shandong(5)>Liaoning (3) Chinese date (22) ; apple(16); grape (10)and strawberries (23) bases FARM SIZES 50% bases > 78.47ha 75% bases > ha 90% bases > ha ha

25 Outline Present development of organic farming in China Farm types and their management Production factors the main drivers for the development of the organic farming system Pest, disease and weed management status Future Potential work on pest and disease management

26 Export of organic products by region (2010) Region Countries Quantity(tons) % Values (million $) % Europe North America Asia Australia South America Africa Other countries Total

27 Chinese Organic Exportation by products 2010 Vegetables=3936 tons 1.6% Frozen, dry vegetables Fruits=440 tons 0.2% Juice, dry fruit Small foreign market for vegetables and fruit Source: China Agricultural University, CNCA, China Organic Farming Report,

28 People with higher income constitutes the main consumers of organic food in China % % <1000 4% > % % Average salary: 1250 yuan RMB per month Unit: yuan RMB per month > <1000 Survey by China Consumer s Association (CCA) at 45 supermarkets in Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou, 2005 Offered by CCA office

29 CSA trend in large city suburb--- Domestic requirements Suburb organic Farms are booming in large cities for home delivering and relax

30 Government promoting National Demonstration areas for organic production promoted by CNCA, MEP, MOA Most of them have good environment Local government promoting to pay for certification fee etc.

31 Outline Present development of organic farming in China Farm types and their management ( 区 位 以 及 组 织 形 式 ) Production factors the main drivers for the development of the organic farming system Pest, disease and weed management status Future Potential work on pest and disease management

32 Current situation for pest & disease control Better environment and climate condition =seldom use chemicals in conventional production like in Northeast area, high mountain remote area, they are organic in default.

33 Current situation for pest & disease control ---most popular used measures(yellow boards and Lamp)

34 Current situation for pest & disease control ---most popular used measures(net cover)

35 Current situation for pest & disease control ---most popular used measures(hormones, sugar-venegar)

36 Bordeaux mixture Lime sulfur To control plant diesease Making and spraying

37 Current situation for pest & disease control main constraints Mainly depends on bio-pesticide and certified agents (commercial products) Not in tentatively apply system method for pest and disease control (to make full use of land for food production) No professional guidance No practical measures without information

38 Outline Present development of organic farming in China Farm types and their management ( 区 位 以 及 组 织 形 式 ) Production factors the main drivers for the development of the organic farming system Pest, disease and weed management status Future Potential work on pest and disease management

39 Policy and Management Strategies Farmer Consumer Market Driving forces of organic agriculture

40 Future Potential work on pest and disease management Good training for operators about the ethic of organic farming Develop integrated and practical system measures for implementation Demonstration is very important way for technique distribution

41 Strategies to develop OA 1 The role of OA in China: To replace the intensive agriculture? To match the demand for national and international market To improve the economy in rural area To protect the natural resources and environment NO YES YES PARTLY YES 2 Encourage and manage the development of OA Financial support for the conversion period Improve the certification standard and regulate the certification agencies 3 Improve the awareness and acceptance Train the producer, especially the farmer and the consumer The precise prescription for production of OA should be extended by authoritative department

42 Strategies to develop OA Give publicity to the consumers Market promoting Quality ensure Market development especially domestic Operator training Interest promoting Training and publicity

43 Make the world organic!!!!

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