INTRODUCTION. The 3-year upper primary syllabus development was guided by the RNPE, 1994, which called for the review of the Primary curriculum.

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1 INTRODUCTION The 3-year upper primary syllabus development was guided by the RNPE, 1994, which called for the review of the Primary curriculum. It followed the introduction of lower primary Environmental Science, which is a multidisciplinary subject; bringing together Agriculture, Science and Home Economics. It therefore, became necessary to develop an upper primary Agriculture syllabus, which was also a pre requisite for the 3 year Junior Certificate Agriculture syllabus. In the process of developing this syllabus, extensive consultations with relevant stakeholders had been conducted to solicit their views and input with regards the proposed programme objectives, content, assessment strategies and format. For the effective implementation of the syllabus, student centred approach is emphasised. This is to be achieved through carrying out a lot of experiments and practical work. Students should develop an appreciation of Agriculture as a means of economic empowerment; acquire some basic skills, knowledge and understanding of crop and animal production. RATIONALE The Upper Primary Agriculture syllabus builds onto the Environmental Science from Lower Primary and a pre requisite for the Junior Certificate Agriculture syllabus, which is offered as a core subject. This syllabus is aimed at developing a human resource base, capable of sustaining agricultural production and stimulating economic growth in the country. The agriculture sector contributes an insignificant amount (3.1 %) to the macro-economic structure (National Agricultural Master Plan for Arable Agriculture and Dairy Development, NAMPAADD, 2000). Agriculture is expected to play a very important role in the country s development (RNPE, 1994), as about 50% of Batswana live in rural areas, where agriculture plays a major economic role (NAMPAADD, 2000) The development of Upper Primary agriculture syllabus and its teaching in schools is coming at a time when attitude change in the subject is necessary. Teaching of Agriculture at this level will further encourage learners to develop positive attitudes towards practical work and inculcate the idea of taking agriculture as a form of business. The syllabus will enable learners to develop manipulative, problemsolving, experimenting, investigating and record keeping skills. The learners will be expected to develop a sense of responsibility in using agricultural equipment. Furthermore, some objectives in the syllabus address emerging issues such as HIV and AIDS, Environmental Awareness, gender issues, and population issues. These will enable the learners to learn about sustainable ways of agriculture amidst such negative impact of some of the emerging issues. SUBJECT AIMS At the end of standard seven, the learners should have: 1. Developed an understanding and appreciation of agriculture in terms of its role and contribution towards social and economic growth and development. 2. Acquired knowledge and skills that would assist them to investigate problems in Agriculture, their causes and seek solutions. 3. Acquired knowledge and skills needed in food production for selfreliance and food security. 1

2 4. Acquired knowledge and understanding of the relationships between agriculture and the need for sustainable use of scarce natural resources. 5. Acquired knowledge, skills and understanding of basic concepts such as measuring, observation and record keeping which are necessary in carrying out agricultural projects. 6. Developed awareness about HIV and AIDS and its effects on Agricultural productivity. 7. Developed skills in the correct use, storage, handling and servicing of commonly used farm tools and equipment. 8. Developed initiation, problem-solving abilities, interpersonal skills and scientific methods so as to promote resourcefulness. 9. Developed an understanding of the basic concepts and principles involved in the growth, development and improvement of crops and animals. 10. Identified the different programmes made available to enhance agricultural production. ATTAINMENT TARGETS On completion of the Upper Primary Agriculture programme (Standard 5-7), learners should have: - 1. Acquired an appreciation of Agriculture as a source of personal income and a base for national economic development; 2. Acquired an understanding of the problems in Agriculture, and be able to identify them, as well as suggest or devise possible means of solving them; 3. Acquired an appreciation of the need to utilise the environment in a sustainable way; 4. Acquired an understanding of the basic concepts and principles involved in the growth, development and improvement of plants and animals; 5. Developed skills in the correct use, storage, handling and servicing of commonly needed farm tools and equipment; 6. Acquired awareness about HIV and AIDS and its effects on Agricultural productivity; 7. Acquired knowledge and developed skills of basic concepts such as measuring, observation and keeping accurate records; 8. Developed basic skills in cultivation and animal rearing; 9. Developed inquiry, problem solving and critical thinking skills. ORGANIZATION OF THE SYLLABUS The content of the syllabus is presented in four (4) modules. Each module consists of several units, as follows Module 1: General Agriculture It enables the learner to learn about the different branches and systems of agricultural production in existence in the country. It also emphases the importance of Agriculture, proper use and care for tools and implements, general problems faced by farmers, and agricultural opportunities and solutions available. Module 2: Soils The module is on the different soil constituents, soil formation, soil fertility, soil profile, texture, structure and erosion. This is meant to make the learners appreciate the different concepts as used in Soil Science and their implications to agricultural production. Module 3: Crop Husbandry This module addresses the general principles of plant growth, vegetable production, field crop production and fruit production. 2

3 Module 4: Animal Husbandry The module deals with the appreciation of both wild and domestic animals. The learners are taught on the different animals, breeds and their products. They are also taught the basic skills of poultry production and its management. ASSESSMENT The assessment will be school-based, and an end of Standard seven examinations administered as per procedures set by Examinations Research and Testing Division. TIME ALLOCATION The recommended time allocation for the subject is two and a half hours a week, with at least 40% of the time spent on practical work. 3

4 STANDARD 5 MODULE 1: GENERAL AGRICULTURE 1.1 Introduction to Agriculture Acquire knowledge and understanding of agriculture in Botswana 1.2 Farm tools Understand the use and care of farm tools 1.3 Farm implements Understand the use and care of farm implements 1.4 Biotechnology Appreciate the biotechnological processes related to agriculture Describe agriculture List the different branches of agriculture Describe the three systems of agriculture Outline the importance of agriculture in Botswana Discuss the impact of HIV and AIDS in agricultural productivity Discuss problems faced by farmers in Botswana Suggest solutions to problems faced by farmers Discuss government programmes aimed at assisting farmers Discuss career opportunities in agriculture Describe farm tools List at least five common farm tools Demonstrate the proper use of at least five common farm tools Demonstrate the proper care and storage of farm tools Describe farm implements List at least three common farm implements Demonstrate the proper use of at least three common farm implements Demonstrate the proper care and storage of farm implements Describe problems caused by the use of farm implements on the environment Suggest solution to the problems caused by use of farm implements Explain the types of biotechnology as traditional and modern List the effects of biotechnology Use traditional biotechnology processes to produce products 4

5 MODULE 2: SOIL General Objectives Specific Objectives Topics 2.1 Soil formation Understand the processes of soil Describe the process of rock weathering to form soil formation Demonstrate the process of weathering 2.2 Soil constituents Understand soil and its constituents Discuss the importance of soil Investigate soil constituents 2.3 Soil fertility Understand the concepts of soil Explain soil fertility fertility and fertilizers Describe ways of increasing soil fertility Describe fertilizers Differentiate between organic and inorganic fertilizer State the advantages and disadvantages of adding organic fertilizers State the advantages and disadvantages of adding inorganic fertilizers Demonstrate the proper application practices of organic and inorganic fertilizers MODULE 3: CROP HUSBANDRY 3.1 Plant growth Understand germination and requirements for plant growth 3.2 Vegetable production Appreciate the importance of vegetables Develop skills in vegetable production Describe germination Investigate the requirements needed for seed germination Explain requirements for plant growth State the importance of vegetable crops Discuss the nutritional value of vegetables Explain the importance of vegetables to HIV and AIDS infected people Identify samples of five indigenous and five exotic vegetable crops found in Botswana State advantages and disadvantages of indigenous and exotic vegetable crops Investigate problems faced by vegetable growers Suggest solutions to problems faced by vegetable growers Explain at least three factors to consider when selecting a garden site Prepare of a plot Demonstrate methods of planting (spacing/seed rate, depth of planting) 5

6 3.3 Farm chemicals Acquire knowledge on the use of farm chemicals Demonstrate the planting at least two vegetables crops Carry out the following management practices: watering, mulching, shading, weeding, thinning, pruning, pest control, harvesting Describe the different methods of preserving vegetables as freezing, dehydration and refrigeration Demonstrate the keeping of proper vegetable production records Describe the marketing of vegetables Make a plot at home and raise at least two vegetable using used water Distinguish between pesticides and herbicides State precautions taken when handling and storing farm chemicals Describe the dangers of using farm chemicals 6

7 STANDARD 6 MODULE 2: SOIL 2.1 Soil profile Demonstrate knowledge of soil Explain soil profile profile Identify the layers that make up the soil profile in a dug pit 2.2 Soil texture Know different types of soils and their texture Draw and label the layers/ horizon that make up the soil profile Explain soil texture Determine the types of soil texture Name three types of soil State the four characteristics of each soil type Identify clay, loam and sandy soils MODULE 3: CROP HUSBANDRY 3.1 Field crops Develop practical skills in field crop Identify at least five field crops grown in Botswana production Discuss the importance of field crops Discuss the nutritional value of field crops Explain the importance of eating field crops to HIV and AIDS infected people Investigate problems faced by field crop growers Suggest possible solutions to problems faced by field crop growers Prepare a plot suitable for a field crop Plant at least two field crops Carry out field crop management practices Describe the processing field crops Keep proper field crop production records 3.2 Fruit production Acquire skills in the management practices of fruit production Describe the marketing of field crops Identify at least five indigenous fruits Identify at least five exotic fruits State the importance of fruits consumption 7

8 Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of exotic and indigenous fruits Discuss the nutritional value of fruits Explain the importance of eating fruits to HIV and AIDS infected people Investigate problems faced by fruit producers Suggest solutions to the problems faced by fruit producers Prepare a planting hole for growing a fruit tree Plant a fruit tree Carry out fruit production management practices Describe the preserving fruits as freezing, dehydration and refrigeration Demonstrate the keeping of proper fruit production records Describe the marketing of fruits MODULE 4: ANIMAL HUSBANDRY 4.1 Introduction to Appreciate the importance of wild List at least five domesticated and at least five wild animals Animal Production and domestic animals State the advantages and disadvantages of protecting wild animals and keeping domesticated animals State at least five diseases of animals Describe methods of controlling and preventing animal diseases State at least three parasites of animals Describe methods of controlling parasites State at least two uses of the following animals: cattle, chicken, goats, sheep, ostriches and rabbits Identify at least two breeds of each of the following: beef cattle, dairy cattle, layer chickens, broiler chickens, goats and sheep 8

9 STANDARD 7 MODULE 2: SOIL 2.1 Soil structure Know the different types of soil Describe at least three types of soil structure structure Identity crumb, single-grain, blocky and platy structures 2.2 Soil Erosion Acquire knowledge and Describe the process of soil erosion understanding on soil erosion and Identify at least three signs of soil erosion measures taken to conserve the soil Name at least two types of soil erosion Explain agents of soil erosion Explain causes of soil erosion Demonstrate the process of soil erosion State the effects of soil erosion Suggest at least three soil erosion control measures 9

10 MODULE 4: ANIMAL HUSBANDRY 4.1 Animal Production Apply the management practices involved in an animal production enterprise State at least four reasons for housing animals Discuss four features of a good named animal house Demonstrate proper animal production management practices Investigate problems faced by farmers of the named animal Suggest ways of solving problems faced by these farmers State at least four signs of ill health in the named animal Discuss at least two common diseases of the named animal Suggest at least three general disease prevention and control measures Describe the life cycle of an external parasite of the animal Describe the life cycle of an internal parasite of the animal Suggest at least three control measures of parasites Demonstrate the keeping of proper records Demonstrate the marketing of the animal and its products 10

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