OSU Extension Service Master Gardener Program. Organic Pest Control. Weston Miller OSU Extension Service Community and Urban Horticulture faculty

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1 Organic Pest Control Weston Miller OSU Extension Service Community and Urban Horticulture faculty

2 Audience Question What does the term organic pest control mean to you?

3 Preview of Presentation Organic IPM: opportunity and challenge Weed control techniques and products Insect control case study Disease control case study IPM Resources

4 Interest in Organic Gardening 5% of America s 90 million households use exclusively organic management An additional 31% are hybrid gardeners Trend expected to double in coming years National Gardening Association. (2005). Environmental Lawn and Garden Survey. South Burlington: National Gardening Association. Retrieved May 12, 2008 at

5 Organic Industry Trickle-down effect from organic foods industry to gardening

6 Organic does not mean Pesticide free or chemical free derived from natural sources Plant Animal Mineral Somewhat more safe to use follow label instructions

7 The Word Organic in Context Organic agriculture and foods Defined by United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)

8 Practically Speaking No use of synthetic chemical pesticides and fertilizers Use natural products: Derived from mineral, plant, animal

9 Organic Garden Products USDA National List of Allowed and Prohibited Substances Organic Materials Review Institute (OMRI) Washington State Department of Agriculture (WSDA)

10 Principles of IPM Prevention Monitor the plants Identify the pest organism learn life cycle Establish an acceptable injury level Manage the situation Cultural Physical Biological Chemical (organic and synthesized) Evaluation

11 Organic Weed Management Consistent weed control over five years or so can dramatically reduce the weed seed bank and the time needed to control weeds.

12 Habitat for beneficials and pollinators Parsley, brassica, aster families Let several plants flower, not go to seed

13 Don t let invasives go to seed Many weeds produce ,000 seeds/plant Some produce 100,000 or more (pigweed) Half-life of many common weeds is 2-8 years

14 Planting Density

15 Mulch: Use it!

16 Control Weeds Over Time

17 Hand and Mechanical Weed Management Weeds are easier to kill when they are very small white thread with up to 2-3 true leaves. Mechanical weeding is more effective during warm, dry, windy weather. Control weeds early in crop growth

18 Flame-weeder

19 Stale Seedbed Method 1. Till or spade 2. Prepare seedbed 3. Irrigation or rain then wait 1-2 weeks 4. Flame or very light cultivation 5. Repeat if possible 6. Plant or sow seed

20 Coping with Perennial Weeds Morning glory, quack grass, creeping buttercup, bent grass with rhizomes

21 Retreat!!!- Quack Grass

22 Sturdy Edging

23 Mowing Oregon Tilth Organic Land Care Use 4-stroke engines or electric Timing is key mow regularly Keep weeds from setting seeds

24 Organic Herbicides Acetic acid (vinegar-based) Clove/citric acid based Herbicidal Soap All are: Contact Non-selective Do not translocate OK for small annuals Perennials- not effective

25 Don t bother Corn gluten Pre-emergent? Not effective in soggy NW Good N fertilizer

26 Organic Weed Management Resources Identification: Northwest Center for Alternatives to Pesticides: Professional toolbox eorganic Twelve Steps Toward Ecological Weed Management in Organic Vegetables Cornell University Organic Weed Management Website

27 Case Study Rhododendron Root Weevil

28 Know the pest Once the pest is identified, learn about its life cycle and its natural enemies. Root weevil larva Root weevil pupa Root weevil adult

29 One generation per year

30 Resistant varieties

31 Barriers: Sticky barrier Root weevils Ants tending aphids

32 Beneficial nematodes soil drench

33 Very low mammalian toxicity Soil must remain moist Soil must be greater than 55 degrees F.

34 Infected root weevil pupa Infected root weevil adult

35 Botanical insecticide: Neem From seeds of the neem tree Broad spectrum against many pests Must be ingested to be toxic Low mammalian toxicity May require repeat applications

36 Beauvaria bassiana

37 Root Weevil Management Plant resistant varieties Physical Sticky barrier strip, hand pick Cultural Cultivation in April/May to kill larvae if planting Biological Beneficial nematodes Chemical (organic) (O) azadirachtin (neem extract) - stomach (O) Beauveria bassiana- contact

38 Rose Black Spot

39 Black Spot Conditions that favor black spot Presence of infected plant material Presence of susceptible tissue Splashing by rain or watering Leaves wet 24 hours

40 Black Spot Disease Cycle

41 Cultural Controls for Black Spot Plant resistant cultivars Avoid dense plantings and shaded areas Avoid overhead watering Prune canes back to two buds if canes are severely infected

42 Carefree Spirit - AARS award winning rose w/o fungicides

43 Rake and destroy Sanitation Hot compost, yard waste, bury, burn, trash

44 Mulching A fresh layer in spring can help prevent spread of spores (fungal diseases) from splashing rain

45 Organic Fungicides Horticultural oils inc. neem Copper based Sulfur Lime sulfur Serenade (Bacillus subtilus) Potassium bicarbonate This is a peach tree grafted with two curl resistant cultivars. Cultivar 'Q 1-8' on the left and the cultivar 'Mary Jane' (with lots of curl) on the right.

46 Organic Horticultural Oil Derived from petroleum, vegetable or fish oil Smothers insects and mites Works best on soft-bodied insects Low mammalian toxicity Avoid hottest part of day Avoid drought-stressed plants Use commercial products rather than homemade

47 Use dust mask with dust product Broad spectrum miticide and fungicide Low mammalian toxicity Do not use within two weeks of an oil spray Some plants sensitive to sulfur Sulfur

48 Label is the law With All Products Identify plant and pest and confirm on label for allowed uses of product Read and follow the directions! Wear proper eye protection, mask, clothing, gloves, etc.

49 IPM Resources PNW Insect Management Handbook PNW Disease Management Handbook

50 More IPM Resources Washington State University University of California

51

52

53 Organic Garden Products USDA National List of Allowed and Prohibited Substances Organic Materials Review Institute (OMRI) Washington State Department of Agriculture (WSDA)

54 Review of Presentation Organic IPM: opportunity and challenge Weed control techniques and products Insect control case study Disease control case study IPM Resources

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