Study Guide Chapter 12

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Study Guide Chapter 12"

Transcription

1 Study Guide Chapter Know ALL of your vocabulary words! 2. Name the following scientists with their contributions to Discovering DNA: a. Strains can be transformed (or changed) into other forms while studying bacteria that cause pneumonia. Discovered transforming factor could change bacteria into other forms of bacteria. Griffith b. Identified the specific molecule that transformed the rough strain of bacteria into a smooth strand of bacteria. Discovered that DNA is the transforming factor. Avery c. Used radioactive labeling when studying viruses and bacteria and discovered that DNA is the genetic material in a virus and not protein. Hershey and Chase d. Discovered the structure of DNA as being a double helix molecule. Watson and Crick

2 3. Compare/contrast DNA and RNA in the following table: Name Macromolecule Type Structure (single or double) Building Blocks Name of Sugar Phosphate? (Yes or No) 4 Nitrogen Bases DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid nucleic acid double nucleotides deoxyribose yes A T C G RNA ribonucleic acid nucleic acid single nucleotides ribose yes A U C G Leave Nucleus? (Yes or No) No Yes 4. What 3 organelles contain DNA? nucleus, mitochondria and chloroplast 5. Explain why the structure of DNA is referred to as a double helix molecule. Two twisted strands connected like a spiral staircase 6. Draw the basic structure of a nucleotide and label the parts (phosphate group, sugar, nitrogen base).

3 7. How and where are phosphate and sugar arranged on the DNA molecule? They alternate along the outside edges (rails) of the DNA 8. Where are the nitrogen bases found on the DNA molecule? they are paired in the middle (complementary) 9. What is meant by semiconservative replication? the old DNA separates, serves as a template, and then becomes part of the new DNA 10. Semiconservative replication is the process of copying DNA. Explain the 3 steps of this process. a. Step 1: Unwind and unzip the DNA What enzyme unwinds and unzips the DNA into two separate strands? DNA helicase What happens to the hydrogen bonds between base pairs? The bonds are broken Which molecule is responsible for keeping the DNA strands open and separate? single strand binding proteins What enzyme adds short segments of primer on each DNA strand? Primase

4 b. Step 2: Add new base pairs What is the function of the enzyme DNA polymerase? add the new nucleotides to make the new DNA (T/F) The two new strands of DNA are being produced in the same way. 1. The (leading, lagging) strand adds new nucleotides in a smooth, continuous motion. 2. The (leading, lagging) strand adds new nucleotides in small chunks called Okazaki Fragments and the motion is discontinuous. «What enzyme is responsible for adding more bases to fill in the gaps to make a continuous DNA strand? DNA ligase c. Step 3: Joining the base pairs DNA polymerase removes primer and fills in the place with nucleotides. DNA ligase joins the sections to make each strand continuous. How many new strands of DNA are produced at the end of replication? 2 (T/F) Each new strand of DNA produced is made up of ½ old DNA and ½ New DNA.

5 11. Compare and contrast DNA replication in Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes. Prokaryotes DNA is shorter; DNA is in a circular shape; DNA replicates one section at a time BOTH replicate in two directions Eukaryotes DNA is longer; DNA replicates many sections at a time 12. According to the Base Pair Rule, what nitrogen bases pair together ALWAYS: DNA Adenine and Thymine Guanine and Cytosine RNA Adenine and Uracil Guanine and Cytosine 13. Which nitrogen bases are: Purines? A and G Pyrimidines? T C and U 14. (T/F) Purines always bind to pyrimidines. 15. How many hydrogen bonds between adenine and thymine (or uracil)? 2 (double bond) 16. How many hydrogen bonds between guanine and cytosine? 3 (triple bond)

6 17. (T/F) The two sides of DNA are oriented in opposite directions called anti parallel. 18. Explain how the DNA molecule (as long as it is) fits into a very small, microscopic cell. DNA coils around histones (proteins) to form chromatin. Chromatin coils to form nucleosomes. Nucleosomes supercoil and form X-shaped chromosomes 19. Why is DNA called the code of life or the genetic code? (Hint: What does it code for that is so important?) It codes for all of the proteins an organism needs to survive 20. Why are proteins important? Which 2 cell organelles synthesize proteins? Proteins determine how an organism looks and functions. Ribosomes and the Rough ER synthesize proteins 21. A segment of DNA that contains instructions for making a protein is called a. gene 22. (T/F) A gene is a specific location on a chromosome and controls inherited trait expression when passed on for generations.

7 23. Name and describe the functions of the 3 types of RNA. mrna - messenger RNA the complementary strand to DNA. Carries the "recipe" to the ribosome rrna - ribosomal RNA forms the structure of the ribosome trna - transfer RNA transports amino acids to the ribosome 24. Explain the process of transcription. a. Occurs in the nucleus protein b. A gene for a specific is turned on and copied from DNA into. c. As DNA strand unwinds and unzips the enzyme mrna RNA polymerase regulates RNA synthesis. d. What happens to the newly synthesized mrna strand and where does it go? it detaches from the DNA and migrates out of the nucleus into the cytoplasm. e. Two DNA strands. rejoin

8 25. How is DNA different among organisms? the sequence of bases is different 26. How many amino acids are used to make proteins? there are 20 total amino acids codon base code of nitrogen bases is called a. 28. (T/F) 1 codon codes for 1 amino acid.

9 29. Explain the process of translation. a. Occurs in the. cytoplasm b. Interprets genetic information from mrna and builds a. protein c. What attaches to a ribosome and how is it read? mrna attaches. It is read 3 bases at a time (codons) d. What does trna carry and drop off to the ribosome? How many different types of trna molecules exist? The end of the trna molecule where 3 complementary bases attach is called the. anti-codon The other end of the trna molecule is where an amino acid attaches. e. What type of bond forms between amino acids? peptide bonds f. What happens once the stop codon is reached? amino acids synthesis ends and the protein leaves the ribosome The ability of an organism to control which genes are transcribed is called. gene regulation 31. What is a mutation? permanent change in the DNA 32. (T/F) Mutations can affect a single gene or an entire group of genes 33. If a [gamete (sex cell), body cell (somatic)] becomes mutated, the mutation will be passed to offspring 34. If a [gamete (sex cell), body cell (somatic)] becomes mutated, the mutation will not be passed to offspring. 35. A chemical change in one base pair is called point mutation. a. Name and explain the 2 types of point mutation. missense = wrong amino acid will be added nonsense = an early STOP codon - the protein will be incomplete

10 36. A change in the frame of the amino acid sequence by adding or deleting nucleotides is called frameshift mutation. a. Name and explain the 2 types of frameshift mutation. deletion = a nucleotide has been lost insertion = an additional nucleotide is added to the sequence 37. A change which causes entire codons to repeat is called duplication mutation. 38. Give 2 factors that cause mutation to occur with DNA. DNA polymerase could add the wrong nucleotide Exposure to mutagens (radiation, chemicals, etc.) 39. (T/F) Mutations can cause proteins to function improperly or not at all.

Ch. 12: DNA and RNA 12.1 DNA Chromosomes and DNA Replication

Ch. 12: DNA and RNA 12.1 DNA Chromosomes and DNA Replication Ch. 12: DNA and RNA 12.1 DNA A. To understand genetics, biologists had to learn the chemical makeup of the gene Genes are made of DNA DNA stores and transmits the genetic information from one generation

More information

I. DNA, Chromosomes, Chromatin, and Genes. II. DNA Deoxyribonucleic Acid Located in the of the cell Codes for your - discovered DNA in 1928

I. DNA, Chromosomes, Chromatin, and Genes. II. DNA Deoxyribonucleic Acid Located in the of the cell Codes for your - discovered DNA in 1928 Name: Period: Date: = passing on of characteristics from parents to offspring How?...! I. DNA, Chromosomes, Chromatin, and Genes = blueprint of life (has the instructions for making an organism) = uncoiled

More information

DNA Replication & Protein Synthesis. This isn t a baaaaaaaddd chapter!!!

DNA Replication & Protein Synthesis. This isn t a baaaaaaaddd chapter!!! DNA Replication & Protein Synthesis This isn t a baaaaaaaddd chapter!!! The Discovery of DNA s Structure Watson and Crick s discovery of DNA s structure was based on almost fifty years of research by other

More information

II. DNA Deoxyribonucleic Acid Located in the nucleus of the cell Codes for your genes

II. DNA Deoxyribonucleic Acid Located in the nucleus of the cell Codes for your genes HEREDITY = passing on of characteristics from parents to offspring How?...DNA! I. DNA, Chromosomes, Chromatin, and Genes DNA = blueprint of life (has the instructions for making an organism) Chromatin=

More information

DNA TM Review And EXAM Review. Ms. Martinez

DNA TM Review And EXAM Review. Ms. Martinez DNA TM Review And EXAM Review Ms. Martinez 1. Write out the full name for DNA molecule. Deoxyribonucleic acid 2. What are chromosomes? threadlike strands made of DNA and PROTEIN 3. What does DNA control

More information

DNA, RNA AND PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

DNA, RNA AND PROTEIN SYNTHESIS DNA, RNA AND PROTEIN SYNTHESIS Evolution of Eukaryotic Cells Eukaryotes are larger, more complex cells that contain a nucleus and membrane bound organelles. Oldest eukarytotic fossil is 1800 million years

More information

DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid)

DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid) DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid) Genetic material of cells GENES units of genetic material that CODES FOR A SPECIFIC TRAIT Called NUCLEIC ACIDS DNA is made up of repeating molecules called NUCLEOTIDES Phosphate

More information

OUTCOMES. PROTEIN SYNTHESIS IB Biology Core Topic 3.5 Transcription and Translation OVERVIEW ANIMATION CONTEXT RIBONUCLEIC ACID (RNA)

OUTCOMES. PROTEIN SYNTHESIS IB Biology Core Topic 3.5 Transcription and Translation OVERVIEW ANIMATION CONTEXT RIBONUCLEIC ACID (RNA) OUTCOMES PROTEIN SYNTHESIS IB Biology Core Topic 3.5 Transcription and Translation 3.5.1 Compare the structure of RNA and DNA. 3.5.2 Outline DNA transcription in terms of the formation of an RNA strand

More information

Biology 3 Transcription, Translation, and Mutations

Biology 3 Transcription, Translation, and Mutations Biology 3 Transcription, Translation, and Mutations Dr. Terence Lee Overview 1. DNA and RNA structure 2. DNA replication 3. Transcription makes RNA 4. Translation makes protein James Watson, Francis Crick,

More information

Chapter 10: Protein Synthesis. Biology

Chapter 10: Protein Synthesis. Biology Chapter 10: Protein Synthesis Biology Let s Review What are proteins? Chains of amino acids Some are enzymes Some are structural components of cells and tissues More Review What are ribosomes? Cell structures

More information

Complementary Base Pairs: A and T. DNA contains complementary base pairs in which adenine is always linked by two hydrogen bonds to thymine (A T).

Complementary Base Pairs: A and T. DNA contains complementary base pairs in which adenine is always linked by two hydrogen bonds to thymine (A T). Complementary Base Pairs: A and T DNA contains complementary base pairs in which adenine is always linked by two hydrogen bonds to thymine (A T). Complementary Base Pairs: G and C DNA contains complementary

More information

1. Which of the following correctly organizes genetic material from the broadest category to the most specific category?

1. Which of the following correctly organizes genetic material from the broadest category to the most specific category? DNA and Genetics 1. Which of the following correctly organizes genetic material from the broadest category to the most specific category? A. genome chromosome gene DNA molecule B. genome chromosome DNA

More information

DNA - The Double Helix

DNA - The Double Helix DNA - The Double Helix Name: Date: Recall that the nucleus is a small spherical, dense body in a cell. It is often called the "control center" because it controls all the activities of the cell including

More information

Name Date Period. 2. When a molecule of double-stranded DNA undergoes replication, it results in

Name Date Period. 2. When a molecule of double-stranded DNA undergoes replication, it results in DNA, RNA, Protein Synthesis Keystone 1. During the process shown above, the two strands of one DNA molecule are unwound. Then, DNA polymerases add complementary nucleotides to each strand which results

More information

DNA, RNA, Protein synthesis, and Mutations. Chapters 12-13.3

DNA, RNA, Protein synthesis, and Mutations. Chapters 12-13.3 DNA, RNA, Protein synthesis, and Mutations Chapters 12-13.3 1A)Identify the components of DNA and explain its role in heredity. DNA s Role in heredity: Contains the genetic information of a cell that can

More information

(DNA) 2 = = RNA - DNA

(DNA) 2 = = RNA - DNA Genetics and Cellular Function Genes and nucleic acids Protein synthesis and secretion DNA replication and the cell cycle Chromosomes and heredity Organization of the Chromatin Threadlike chromatin = chromosomes

More information

INTRODUCTION TO DNA. DNA, CHROMOSOMES AND GENES How do these terms relate to one another?

INTRODUCTION TO DNA. DNA, CHROMOSOMES AND GENES How do these terms relate to one another? INTRODUCTION TO DNA You've probably heard the term a million times. You know that DNA is something inside cells; you probably know that DNA has something to do with who we are and how we get to look the

More information

Genetics Notes C. Molecular Genetics

Genetics Notes C. Molecular Genetics Genetics Notes C Molecular Genetics Vocabulary central dogma of molecular biology Chargaff's rules messenger RNA (mrna) ribosomal RNA (rrna) transfer RNA (trna) Your DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, contains

More information

Genetic information (DNA) determines structure of proteins DNA RNA proteins cell structure 3.11 3.15 enzymes control cell chemistry ( metabolism )

Genetic information (DNA) determines structure of proteins DNA RNA proteins cell structure 3.11 3.15 enzymes control cell chemistry ( metabolism ) Biology 1406 Exam 3 Notes Structure of DNA Ch. 10 Genetic information (DNA) determines structure of proteins DNA RNA proteins cell structure 3.11 3.15 enzymes control cell chemistry ( metabolism ) Proteins

More information

From DNA to Protein. Chapter 14

From DNA to Protein. Chapter 14 From DNA to Protein Chapter 14 Impacts, Issues: Ricin and your Ribosomes Ricin is toxic because it inactivates ribosomes, the organelles which assemble amino acids into proteins, critical to life processes

More information

Unit 6 Study Guide Protein Name pg I can tell the difference between mrna, trna, and rrna.

Unit 6 Study Guide Protein Name pg I can tell the difference between mrna, trna, and rrna. Unit 6 Study Guide Protein Name pg. 1 1. I can tell the difference between mrna, trna, and rrna. Messenger RNA (mrna) acts as a copy of the instructions for making a protein. mrna carries these instructions

More information

Biology - Student Reader & Workbook Unit 3, Chapter 4: Molecular Genetics - DNA Structure and Protein Synthesis

Biology - Student Reader & Workbook Unit 3, Chapter 4: Molecular Genetics - DNA Structure and Protein Synthesis Biology - Student Reader & Workbook Unit 3, Chapter 4: Molecular Genetics - DNA Structure and Protein Synthesis UNIT 3, CHAPTER 4: MOLECULAR GENETICS: DNA STRUCTURE AND... 3 PROTEIN SYNTHESIS... 3 LESSON

More information

Transcription Activity Guide

Transcription Activity Guide Transcription Activity Guide Teacher Key Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) Introduction Central Dogma: DNA to RNA to Protein Almost all dynamic functions in a living organism depend on proteins. Proteins are molecular

More information

Genetics. Chapter 9. Chromosome. Genes Three categories. Flow of Genetics/Information The Central Dogma. DNA RNA Protein

Genetics. Chapter 9. Chromosome. Genes Three categories. Flow of Genetics/Information The Central Dogma. DNA RNA Protein Chapter 9 Topics - Genetics - Flow of Genetics/Information - Regulation - Mutation - Recombination gene transfer Genetics Genome - the sum total of genetic information in a organism Genotype - the A's,

More information

LEVEL TWO BIOLOGY: GENE EXPRESSION

LEVEL TWO BIOLOGY: GENE EXPRESSION LEVEL TWO BIOLOGY: GENE EXPRESSION Protein synthesis DNA structure and replication Polypeptide chains and amino acids Mutations Metabolic pathways Protein Synthesis: I can define a protein in terms of

More information

Structure and Function of DNA

Structure and Function of DNA Structure and Function of DNA DNA and RNA Structure DNA and RNA are nucleic acids. They consist of chemical units called nucleotides. The nucleotides are joined by a sugar-phosphate backbone. The four

More information

RNA and Protein Synthesis Biology Mr. Hines

RNA and Protein Synthesis Biology Mr. Hines RNA and Protein Synthesis 12.3 Biology Mr. Hines Now we know how DNA (genes) are copied. But how is it used to make a living organism? Most of the structures inside of a cell are made of protein - so we

More information

DNA & Protein Synthesis Exam

DNA & Protein Synthesis Exam DNA & Protein Synthesis Exam DO NOT WRITE ON EXAM EXAM # VER. B Multiple choice Directions: Answer the following questions based on the following diagram. (1pt. each) 5. The above nucleotide is purine

More information

Name Class Date. Figure 13 1. 2. Which nucleotide in Figure 13 1 indicates the nucleic acid above is RNA? a. uracil c. cytosine b. guanine d.

Name Class Date. Figure 13 1. 2. Which nucleotide in Figure 13 1 indicates the nucleic acid above is RNA? a. uracil c. cytosine b. guanine d. 13 Multiple Choice RNA and Protein Synthesis Chapter Test A Write the letter that best answers the question or completes the statement on the line provided. 1. Which of the following are found in both

More information

DNA: Molecule of Life

DNA: Molecule of Life DNA: Molecule of Life History DNA Structure Protein Synthesis Gene Regulation History of DNA H I S T O By the 1940 s, scientists knew that chromosomes consisted of both DNA and protein but did not know

More information

DNA replication. DNA RNA Protein

DNA replication. DNA RNA Protein DNA replication The central dogma of molecular biology transcription translation DNA RNA Protein replication Revers transcriptase The information stored by DNA: - protein structure - the regulation of

More information

PRACTICE TEST QUESTIONS

PRACTICE TEST QUESTIONS PART A: MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS PRACTICE TEST QUESTIONS DNA & PROTEIN SYNTHESIS B 1. One of the functions of DNA is to A. secrete vacuoles. B. make copies of itself. C. join amino acids to each other.

More information

From DNA to Protein. Proteins. Chapter 13. Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes. The Path From Genes to Proteins. All proteins consist of polypeptide chains

From DNA to Protein. Proteins. Chapter 13. Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes. The Path From Genes to Proteins. All proteins consist of polypeptide chains Proteins From DNA to Protein Chapter 13 All proteins consist of polypeptide chains A linear sequence of amino acids Each chain corresponds to the nucleotide base sequence of a gene The Path From Genes

More information

BINF6201/8201. Basics of Molecular Biology

BINF6201/8201. Basics of Molecular Biology BINF6201/8201 Basics of Molecular Biology 08-26-2016 Linear structure of nucleic acids Ø Nucleic acids are polymers of nucleotides Ø Nucleic acids Deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA) Ribonucleic acids (RNA) Phosphate

More information

Lecture 9 DNA Structure & Replication

Lecture 9 DNA Structure & Replication Lecture 9 DNA Structure & Replication What is a Gene? Mendel s work left a key question unanswered: What is a gene? The work of Sutton and Morgan established that genes reside on chromosomes But chromosomes

More information

Chapter 6: Cell Growth and Reproduction Lesson 2: Chromosomes and DNA Replication

Chapter 6: Cell Growth and Reproduction Lesson 2: Chromosomes and DNA Replication Chapter 6: Cell Growth and Reproduction Lesson 2: Chromosomes and DNA Replication Cell reproduction involves a series of steps that always begin with the processes of interphase. During interphase the

More information

Web Quest: DNA & Protein Synthesis Biology 1

Web Quest: DNA & Protein Synthesis Biology 1 Web Quest: DNA & Protein Synthesis Biology 1 Name: TO ACCESS THE WEBSITES IN THIS WEB QUEST WITHOUT HAVING TO TYPE IN ALL OF THE URLs: 1. Go to alkire.weebly.com 2. Mouse over Biology 1 3. Click on Online

More information

B5 B8 ANWERS DNA & ) DNA

B5 B8 ANWERS DNA & ) DNA Review sheet for test B5 B8 ANWERS DNA review 1. What bonds hold complementary bases between 2 strands of DNA together? Hydrogen bonds 2. What bonds exist between sugars and phosphates? Covalent bonds

More information

2. Why did biologists used to think that proteins are the genetic material?

2. Why did biologists used to think that proteins are the genetic material? Chapter 16: DNA: The Genetic Material 1. What must genetic material do? 2. Why did biologists used to think that proteins are the genetic material? 3. Describe Griffith s experiments with genetic transformation

More information

2. The number of different kinds of nucleotides present in any DNA molecule is A) four B) six C) two D) three

2. The number of different kinds of nucleotides present in any DNA molecule is A) four B) six C) two D) three Chem 121 Chapter 22. Nucleic Acids 1. Any given nucleotide in a nucleic acid contains A) two bases and a sugar. B) one sugar, two bases and one phosphate. C) two sugars and one phosphate. D) one sugar,

More information

Unit 9: DNA, RNA, and Proteins. Pig and elephant DNA just don t splice, but why?

Unit 9: DNA, RNA, and Proteins. Pig and elephant DNA just don t splice, but why? Unit 9: DNA, RNA, and Proteins Pig and elephant DNA just don t splice, but why? BONUS - History of DNA Structure of DNA 3.3.1 - Outline DNA nucleotide structure in terms of sugar (deoxyribose), base and

More information

DNA. Discovery of the DNA double helix

DNA. Discovery of the DNA double helix DNA Replication DNA Discovery of the DNA double helix A. 1950 s B. Rosalind Franklin - X-ray photo of DNA. C. Watson and Crick - described the DNA molecule from Franklin s X-ray. What is DNA? Question:

More information

Choose the response which best answers the question or completes the statement.

Choose the response which best answers the question or completes the statement. Choose the response which best answers the question or completes the statement. 1. The process of transformation in bacteria involves (1.) transfer of genes for making a capsule. (2.) infection with a

More information

Genetics Module B, Anchor 3

Genetics Module B, Anchor 3 Genetics Module B, Anchor 3 Key Concepts: - An individual s characteristics are determines by factors that are passed from one parental generation to the next. - During gamete formation, the alleles for

More information

Section 12 3 RNA and Protein Synthesis

Section 12 3 RNA and Protein Synthesis Name Class Date Section 12 3 RNA and Protein Synthesis (pages 300 306) Key Concepts What are the three main types of RNA? What is transcription? What is translation? The Structure of RNA (page 300) 1.

More information

Molecular Genetics. RNA, Transcription, & Protein Synthesis

Molecular Genetics. RNA, Transcription, & Protein Synthesis Molecular Genetics RNA, Transcription, & Protein Synthesis Section 1 RNA AND TRANSCRIPTION Objectives Describe the primary functions of RNA Identify how RNA differs from DNA Describe the structure and

More information

Molecular Genetics. The branch of genetics that deals with the molecules responsible for the transmission of traits from parent to offspring.

Molecular Genetics. The branch of genetics that deals with the molecules responsible for the transmission of traits from parent to offspring. Page 1 of 23 Molecular Genetics The branch of genetics that deals with the molecules responsible for the transmission of traits from parent to offspring. Discovering DNA as the material of heredity DNA

More information

Lab #5: DNA, RNA & Protein Synthesis. Heredity & Human Affairs (Biology 1605) Spring 2012

Lab #5: DNA, RNA & Protein Synthesis. Heredity & Human Affairs (Biology 1605) Spring 2012 Lab #5: DNA, RNA & Protein Synthesis Heredity & Human Affairs (Biology 1605) Spring 2012 DNA Stands for : Deoxyribonucleic Acid Double-stranded helix Made up of nucleotides Each nucleotide= 1. 5-carbon

More information

DNA Structure and Replication. Chapter Nine

DNA Structure and Replication. Chapter Nine DNA Structure and Replication Chapter Nine 2005 We know: DNAis the hereditary material DNAhas a double helix structure Made of four bases; A,T,C,G Sugar-Phosphate backbone DNAreplication is semi-conservative

More information

Biology DNA Protein Synthesis and Fingerprinting. Spring 2009

Biology DNA Protein Synthesis and Fingerprinting. Spring 2009 Biology DNA Protein Synthesis and Fingerprinting Spring 2009 Chains of amino acids 20 named types Create/build structure within organisms Function as important biochemicals Ex: hair, skin, tissues in organs,

More information

Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids

Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids Brief History 1 1869 - Miescher Isolated nuclein from soiled bandages 1902 - Garrod Studied rare genetic disorder: Alkaptonuria; concluded that specific gene is associated

More information

Unit 8 DNA Structure, Replication, and Protein Synthesis

Unit 8 DNA Structure, Replication, and Protein Synthesis Unit 8 DNA Structure, Replication, and Protein Synthesis Objective 3.01 Analyze the molecular basis of heredity including DNA replication, protein synthesis, and gene regulation 1. Which series is arranged

More information

Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA

Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA Nucleic Acids Responsible for the transfer of genetic information. Two forms of nucleic acids: Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) Mainly found in cytoplasm Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) Found

More information

DNA AND IT S ROLE IN HEREDITY

DNA AND IT S ROLE IN HEREDITY DNA AND IT S ROLE IN HEREDITY Lesson overview and objectives - DNA/RNA structural properties What are DNA and RNA made of What are the structural differences between DNA and RNA What is the structure of

More information

Structure of DNA Remember: genes control certain traits, genes are sections of DNA

Structure of DNA Remember: genes control certain traits, genes are sections of DNA tructure of DNA Remember: genes control certain traits, genes are sections of DNA I. tructure of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) A. Made of nucleotides 1. nucleotides have 3 main parts a. sugar (deoxyribose)

More information

DNA and the HUMAN GENOME

DNA and the HUMAN GENOME DNA and the HUMAN GENOME What is a genome? The complete set of genetic instructions (DNA sequence) of a species Genes Genes are segments of chromosomes that determine your traits Genes and chromosomes

More information

2.1 Nucleic acids the molecules of life

2.1 Nucleic acids the molecules of life 1 2.1 Nucleic acids the molecules of life Nucleic acids information molecules of the cells form new cells stored in chromosomes in nucleus of the cell in the form of a code in DNA / parts of the code are

More information

DNA, genes and chromosomes

DNA, genes and chromosomes DNA, genes and chromosomes Learning objectives By the end of this learning material you would have learnt about the components of a DNA and the process of DNA replication, gene types and sequencing and

More information

Cells. DNA and Heredity

Cells. DNA and Heredity Cells DNA and Heredity ! Nucleic acids DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and RNA (ribonucleic acid) Determines how cell function " change the DNA and you change the nature of the organism Changes of DNA allows

More information

DNA to Protein BIOLOGY INSTRUCTIONAL TASKS

DNA to Protein BIOLOGY INSTRUCTIONAL TASKS BIOLOGY INSTRUCTIONAL TASKS DNA to Protein Grade-Level Expectations The exercises in these instructional tasks address content related to the following science grade-level expectations: Contents LS-H-B1

More information

Cell Cycle, DNA Replication, Transcription & Translation Worksheet:

Cell Cycle, DNA Replication, Transcription & Translation Worksheet: Name Key Date Block Cell Cycle, DNA Replication, Transcription & Translation Worksheet: Chapter 10: The Cell Cycle 1. The process by which a cell spits into two daughter cells is called Mitosis 2. DNA

More information

This activity will help you to learn how a gene provides the instructions for making a protein.

This activity will help you to learn how a gene provides the instructions for making a protein. NAME: PERIOD: From Gene to Protein Transcription and Translation By Dr. Ingrid Waldron and Jennifer Doherty, Department of Biology, University of Pennsylvania, Copyright, 2009 i This activity will help

More information

INTRODUCTION TO DNA Replication

INTRODUCTION TO DNA Replication INTRODUCTION TO DNA Replication - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Chapter 13 covers a descriptive explanation of Deoxyribose nucleic Acid

More information

Figure During transcription, RNA nucleotides base-pair one by one with DNA

Figure During transcription, RNA nucleotides base-pair one by one with DNA Objectives Describe the process of DNA transcription. Explain how an RNA message is edited. Describe how RNA is translated to a protein. Summarize protein synthesis. Key Terms messenger RNA (mrna) RNA

More information

Ingenious Genes Curriculum Links for AQA AS (7401) and A-Level Biology (7402)

Ingenious Genes Curriculum Links for AQA AS (7401) and A-Level Biology (7402) Ingenious Genes Curriculum Links for AQA AS (7401) and A-Level Biology (7402) 3.1.1 Monomers and Polymers 3.1.4 Proteins 3.1.5 Nucleic acids are important information-carrying molecules 3.2.1 Cell structure

More information

Multiple Choice Review- Genes

Multiple Choice Review- Genes Multiple Choice Review- Genes 1. Deoxyribonucleic acid nucleotides are composed of a. Ribose sugar, a phosphate group and one of four bases (adenine, cytosine, thymine and guanine) b. Ribose sugar, a phosphate

More information

It took a while for biologists to figure out that genetic information was carried on DNA.

It took a while for biologists to figure out that genetic information was carried on DNA. DNA Finally, we want to understand how all of the things we've talked about (genes, alleles, meiosis, etc.) come together at the molecular level. Ultimately, what is an allele? What is a gene? How does

More information

Transcription and Translation of DNA

Transcription and Translation of DNA Transcription and Translation of DNA Genotype our genetic constitution ( makeup) is determined (controlled) by the sequence of bases in its genes Phenotype determined by the proteins synthesised when genes

More information

a. transcription b. duplication c. transformation d. replication a. viruses b. enzymes c. coils of DNA d. form of bacteria

a. transcription b. duplication c. transformation d. replication a. viruses b. enzymes c. coils of DNA d. form of bacteria PRTIE TEST HPTER 12 KEY Name Period ate Seat 1. The process by which one strain of bacterium is apparently changed into another strain is called a. transcription b. duplication c. transformation d. replication

More information

Exercise 7: DNA and Protein Synthesis

Exercise 7: DNA and Protein Synthesis Exercise 7: DNA and Protein Synthesis Introduction DNA is the code of life, and it is the blueprint for all living things. DNA is contained in all cells, and it is replicated every time a cell divides.

More information

Chapter 4 Genetics And. Cellular Function 4-1. Copyright (c) The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Chapter 4 Genetics And. Cellular Function 4-1. Copyright (c) The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Chapter 4 Genetics And Cellular Function Copyright (c) The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 4-1 Genetics and Cellular Function Genes and nucleic acids Protein

More information

Academic Nucleic Acids and Protein Synthesis Test

Academic Nucleic Acids and Protein Synthesis Test Academic Nucleic Acids and Protein Synthesis Test Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Each organism has a unique combination

More information

DNA Proccesses. Name: Class: Date: Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

DNA Proccesses. Name: Class: Date: Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Name: Class: Date: DNA Proccesses Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Mutations within a DNA sequence are a. natural processes that produce

More information

16 Protein Synthesis: Transcription and Translation

16 Protein Synthesis: Transcription and Translation 16 Protein Synthesis: Transcription and Translation Ge n e s c a r r y t h e information that, along with environmental factors, determines an organism s traits. How does this work? Although the complete

More information

Tuesday 11/13. Agenda 1.Warm Up (Stamp HW) 2.Protein Synthesis Notes 3.HW Time (Transcription/ Translation Worksheet)

Tuesday 11/13. Agenda 1.Warm Up (Stamp HW) 2.Protein Synthesis Notes 3.HW Time (Transcription/ Translation Worksheet) Tuesday 11/13 Warm Up 1.What are the three parts of a nucleotide? How do two nucleotides link together 2.What binds the two strands of DNA together? Be Specific 3.What are the three main enzymes of DNA

More information

Unit 6 ~ Learning Guide

Unit 6 ~ Learning Guide Unit 6 ~ Learning Guide Name: INSTRUCTIONS Complete the following notes and questions as you work through the related lessons. You are required to have this package completed BEFORE you write your unit

More information

12.1 Identifying the Substance of Genes

12.1 Identifying the Substance of Genes 12.1 Identifying the Substance of Genes Lesson Objectives Summarize the process of bacterial transformation. Describe the role of bacteriophages in identifying genetic material. Identify the role of DNA

More information

2. Describe (draw) the structure of a chromosome. Identify: DNA, proteins + a gene.

2. Describe (draw) the structure of a chromosome. Identify: DNA, proteins + a gene. Biology 12 DNA Functions Practice Exam - KEY A. DNA Structure 1. DNA is often called the "code of life". Actually it contains the code for a) the sequence of amino acids in a protein b) the sequence of

More information

UNIT SIX: MOLECULAR GENETICS AND BIOTECHNOLOGY

UNIT SIX: MOLECULAR GENETICS AND BIOTECHNOLOGY UNIT SIX: MOLECULAR GENETICS AND BIOTECHNOLOGY MAIN IDEA: THE DISCOVERY THAT DNA IS THE GENETIC CODE INVOLVED MANY EXPERIMENTS OBJECTIVE 1: EXPLAIN THE IMPORTANCE OF DNA, ANALYZE ITS STRUCTURE, AND DESCRIBE

More information

Ch 16 and Introduction of Ch 17. This PowerPoint is posted. Replication Transcription Translation Protein!

Ch 16 and Introduction of Ch 17. This PowerPoint is posted. Replication Transcription Translation Protein! Ch 16 and Introduction of Ch 17 This PowerPoint is posted. Replication Transcription Translation Protein! In the start of things lin the 1950 s scientists knew that chromosomes carry hereditary material

More information

7 Nucleic acids. Chapter summary a reminder of the issues to be revised

7 Nucleic acids. Chapter summary a reminder of the issues to be revised 7 Nucleic acids Chapter summary a reminder of the issues to be revised 1 DNA, an extremely long, thread-like macromolecule, consists of two anti-parallel polynucleotide strands, paired together and held

More information

1. In the experiments of Griffith, the conversion of nonlethal R-strain bacteria to lethal S- strain bacteria:

1. In the experiments of Griffith, the conversion of nonlethal R-strain bacteria to lethal S- strain bacteria: Name Chapter 12: DNA: The Carrier of Genetic Information Mrs. Laux AP Biology Take home test #10 on Chaps. 12 and 13 DUE: MONDAY, DECEMBER 14, 2009 MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 1. In the experiments of Griffith,

More information

1 What Does DNA Look Like?

1 What Does DNA Look Like? CHATER 4 1 What Does DNA Look Like? ECTION Genes and DNA BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What units make up DNA? What does DNA look like? How

More information

Think Visually Using the information in this chapter, complete the following concept map about DNA replication: DNA Replication.

Think Visually Using the information in this chapter, complete the following concept map about DNA replication: DNA Replication. 12 Study Guide Information and Heredity, Cellular Basis of Life DNA is a double-stranded protein molecule made up of nucleotide base pairs. DNA stores, copies, and transmits the genetic information in

More information

MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OVERVIEW NUCLEIC ACIDS: THE BASICS

MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OVERVIEW NUCLEIC ACIDS: THE BASICS MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OVERVIEW NUCLEIC ACIDS: THE BASICS Richard L. Hodinka, Ph.D. University of South Carolina School of Medicine Greenville Greenville Health System, Greenville, SC hodinka@greenvillemed.sc.edu

More information

Section 1 Workbook (unit 2) ANSWERS

Section 1 Workbook (unit 2) ANSWERS Section 1 Workbook (unit 2) ANSWERS Complete the following table: nucleotide DNA RN Name: B5. Describe DNA replication 1) Label each base given in the diagram below and describe the 4 primary characteristics

More information

Chapter 10 Molecular Biology of the Gene

Chapter 10 Molecular Biology of the Gene Chapter 10 Molecular Biology of the Gene PowerPoint Lectures for Biology: Concepts & Connections, Sixth Edition Campbell, Reece, Taylor, Simon, and Dickey Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Lecture

More information

Transcription Animations

Transcription Animations Transcription Animations Name: Lew Ports Biology Place http://www.lewport.wnyric.org/jwanamaker/animations/protein%20synthesis%20-%20long.html Protein is the making of proteins from the information found

More information

Biol 101 Exam 5: Molecular Genetics Fall 2008

Biol 101 Exam 5: Molecular Genetics Fall 2008 MULTIPLE CHOICE. This exam has 60 questions. All answers go on the SCANTRON provided. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) The genetic material of all

More information

RNA and Protein Synthesis

RNA and Protein Synthesis RNA and Protein Synthesis Answer Key Vocabulary: amino acid, anticodon, codon, gene, messenger RNA, nucleotide, ribosome, RNA, RNA polymerase, transcription, transfer RNA, translation Prior Knowledge Questions

More information

Nucleic Acids and DNA Replication. I. Biological Background

Nucleic Acids and DNA Replication. I. Biological Background Lecture 14: Nucleic Acids and DNA Replication I. Biological Background A. Types of nucleic acids: 1. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) a. Makes up genes that indirectly direct protein synthesis b. Contain information

More information

Chapter 6: DNA: Hereditary Molecules of Life pg : DNA Replication and Repair pg

Chapter 6: DNA: Hereditary Molecules of Life pg : DNA Replication and Repair pg UNIT 3: Molecular Genetics Chapter 6: DNA: Hereditary Molecules of Life pg. 268-6.4: DNA Replication and Repair pg. 282-290 The DNA molecule is capable of replicating on its own. This is important for

More information

NUCLEIC ACIDS. An INTRODUCTION. Two classes of Nucleic Acids

NUCLEIC ACIDS. An INTRODUCTION. Two classes of Nucleic Acids NUCLEIC ACIDS An INTRODUCTION Two classes of Nucleic Acids Deoxynucleic Acids (DNA) Hereditary molecule of all cellular life Stores genetic information (encodes) Transmits genetic information Information

More information

Chapter 11: Molecular Structure of DNA and RNA

Chapter 11: Molecular Structure of DNA and RNA Chapter 11: Molecular Structure of DNA and RNA Student Learning Objectives Upon completion of this chapter you should be able to: 1. Understand the major experiments that led to the discovery of DNA as

More information

Protein Synthesis. Page 41 Page 44 Page 47 Page 42 Page 45 Page 48 Page 43 Page 46 Page 49. Page 41. DNA RNA Protein. Vocabulary

Protein Synthesis. Page 41 Page 44 Page 47 Page 42 Page 45 Page 48 Page 43 Page 46 Page 49. Page 41. DNA RNA Protein. Vocabulary Protein Synthesis Vocabulary Transcription Translation Translocation Chromosomal mutation Deoxyribonucleic acid Frame shift mutation Gene expression Mutation Point mutation Page 41 Page 41 Page 44 Page

More information

The Genetic Code There are 20 amino acids, but there are only four nucleotide bases in DNA. How many nucleotides correspond to an amino acid?

The Genetic Code There are 20 amino acids, but there are only four nucleotide bases in DNA. How many nucleotides correspond to an amino acid? CH 17 Transcription & Translation Basic Principles of Transcription & Translation RNA is the bridge between genes and the proteins for which they code. Transcription is the synthesis of RNA under the direction

More information

Lesson Overview. Fermentation. Lesson Overview 13.1 RNA

Lesson Overview. Fermentation. Lesson Overview 13.1 RNA Lesson Overview 13.1 RNA Similarities between DNA & RNA They are both nucleic acids They both have: a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, a nitrogenous base. Comparing RNA and DNA There are three important

More information

Engage: Hox Gene Activity

Engage: Hox Gene Activity Engage: Hox ene ctivity The Hox (homeobox) gene is a major regulatory gene in animal development. It controls the basic body form of the organism. It tells where things should go; for example, an organism

More information

13.2 Ribosomes & Protein Synthesis

13.2 Ribosomes & Protein Synthesis 13.2 Ribosomes & Protein Synthesis Introduction: *A specific sequence of bases in DNA carries the directions for forming a polypeptide, a chain of amino acids (there are 20 different types of amino acid).

More information

Transcription & Translation. Part of Protein Synthesis

Transcription & Translation. Part of Protein Synthesis Transcription & Translation Part of Protein Synthesis Three processes Initiation Transcription Elongation Termination Initiation The RNA polymerase binds to the DNA molecule upstream of the gene at the

More information