# The Basics of a Hypothesis Test

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1 Overview The Basics of a Test Dr Tom Ilvento Department of Food and Resource Economics Alternative way to make inferences from a sample to the Population is via a Test A hypothesis test is based upon A point estimate from a sample Knowledge of a sampling distribution A Null hypothesis A probability level of being wrong that we are comfortable with, called! All via a rare event approach we want to see how rare it is that we drew a random sample and got our estimate if the true value was really that specified in the Null 2 Newspaper Print Problem (BLACKNESS.xls) We can use software to help us analyze the data The production department of the Springfield Herald newspaper has embarked on a quality improvement effort and the first project is the blackness of the newspaper print. Blackness is measured on a standard scale in which the target value is 1.0. A desirable level is that the average is at least.97. A random sample of 50 newspapers have been selected We want to determine if the average blackness is different from.97, use alpha =.05 3 Most often, we use software to give us basic statistical data for our analyses I want you to start your analysis with basic descriptive statistics What do you see? The distribution looks curiously bi-modal The mean is.959 Median is.985 Standard deviation is.156 CV =.156/.959*100 = % C.I. =.959 ±.044 =.915 to

2 Test for the Blackness of Newspaper Print Test If the sampling distribution for n=50 has a mean level of.970, µ or the Hypothesized value I could find out how rare an event it was to take a sample of 50 and get a mean value of.959 I can test to see how my sample compares to the hypothesized population different from Greater than or Less than Two-tailed One-Tailed Upper One-tailed Lower 5 Ho: µ=.970 Ha: µ!.970 I will check if it is different I calculate a z or t-score to see how far away it is from the hypothesized value t* = ( )/.022 t* = -.011/.022 t* = Our sample estimate is.5 standard deviations below the mean in relation to the sampling distribution. This is not so unusual. SE =.156/(50).5 = What is a Test? Here is our Strategy: Null and Alternative We are going to use a rare-event approach to make an inference from our sample to a population We define two hypotheses Null hypothesis the hypothesis that will be accepted unless we have convincing evidence to the contrary - we seek to reject the Null Alternative aka as the Research. We look to see if the data provide convincing evidence of its truth. We hope for the alternative, but we are reluctant to accept it outright. 7 The Null is based on expectations of no change, nothing happening, no difference, the same old same old In many ways it is a straw man (or person) and in contrast to the rare event In most cases we want to reject the null hypothesis The Alternative is more in line with our true expectations for the experiment or research The sample value is not equal to the hypothesized value, or It is greater than the hypothesized value, or It is less than the hypothesized value 8

3 The logic of a Test The logic of a Test We assume our sample estimate comes from a population with a parameter as stated under the null hypothesis We can compare our sample estimate to this population parameter to see how likely it is that our sample comes from a sampling distribution from this population The comparison is made via a Test Statistic To do this we calculate a Test Statistic This is a z-score (or a t-score) based on: Ho: µ = some value or P = some value The sample estimate of the standard deviation, s The Standard Error of the sampling distribution for our estimator, s/(n).5 9 z* = ( x " µ)! X z* = ( p " P) # P ( x! µ ) t* = s X 10 The components of a Test The components of a Test Ho: Ha: Assumptions Test Statistic Rejection Region Calculation: Conclusion: Ho: µ =.970 Ha: µ " tailed n= 50, # unknown, use t t* = ( )/.022! =.05,.05/2, 49 d.f., t = ± t* = -.50 t* > t.05/2, 49 df -.50 > Cannot Reject Ho: = Set up the Null Ho: µ =??? Ho: µ =.970 some use " or # with a one-tailed test Set up the Alternative It takes up one of three forms Ha:!.970 Two-tailed Ha: >.970 One-tailed, upper tail Ha: <.970 One-tailed, lower tail Ha: ".970 Two-tailed 12

4 The Alternative The Assumptions of the Test A one-tailed test of hypothesis is one in which the alternative hypothesis is directional, and includes either the < symbol or the > symbol. A two-tailed test of hypothesis is one in which the alternative hypothesis does not specify a particular direction; it is different. It will be written with the " symbol. We gain by specifying a one-tailed test - more knowledge is usually better in statistics Proportion Is the sample size large? Yes No If Yes, use the normal approximation to the binomial z* = ( p " P) # P If No, use the binomial distribution The Assumptions of the Test! The Test Statistic ( x! µ ) t* = s X Mean Is sigma known? Yes No Is sample size small? Yes No If Yes, use the known! for the standard error and use z If No, use the sample estimate, s, for the standard error, and use t If n is small, especially if! is unknown, we have to worry about whether the population is distributed as normal 15 Let t* equal the calculated test statistic The value for µ will come from the Null If we don t know \$ we use the sample estimate of s to calculate the standard error as (s/n.5 ) This t* represents a z-score of our sample compared to the sampling distribution of the mean, if the null hypothesis is true We want to see how far away our sample estimate is from the null hypothesis population mean t* = (.959!.970) =!.50 16

5 The Critical Value and the Rejection Region The Critical Value and the Rejection Region The rejection region is the set of possible values of the test statistic for which the null hypothesis will be rejected. So if the calculated test statistic falls within the rejection region, we reject Ho Alpha (%) is the probability level at which you are willing to be wrong when rejecting Ho. The value at the boundary of the rejection region is called the Critical Value We establish the Critical Value linked to! and the type of test (1 or 2-tailed) and compare our Test Statistic to this value 17 We look to see where t* falls in relation to the t- distribution If it lies in the Rejection Region, in one of the tails, it is possible that it came from that hypothesized distribution -- but not very likely Because it is unlikely, I am willing to reject the Null We need to set the level of alpha and the type of test (1 or 2-tailed) a priori 18 More on the Rejection Region More on the Rejection Region I want to pick an alpha value far out in the tail of the sampling distribution So if I find a difference, I can be reasonably sure that my sample is not part of the sampling distribution specified under the null hypothesis % represents the probability that my sample mean actually comes from the hypothesized sampling distribution, but I m going to say it doesn t This is called a Type I Error The probability of committing a Type I Error is the probability of rejecting Ho when Ho is true 19 For this problem, %=.05 Next I want to find a t-value that will correspond with an overall % =.05, with n-1 degrees of freedom This is a two-tailed test as specified in the alternative hypothesis Ha: µ!.970 So if % =.05, we need to split this probability level in the upper and lower tail of the sampling distribution, much like we do for a confidence interval If it were a one-tailed test, we would put all of alpha into one tail 20

6 Rejection Region Look at it in pictures So I look for a t-score that corresponds to an overall probability of.05 In the t-table this is a value relating to % =.05 for two-tails, or.025 in one tail d.f. = 49 The t-value from the table is The values of and are the critical values which marks the rejection region So our Rejection Region is: Any test statistic value < or > Our test statistic is t* = -.50 The Critical Values that mark the rejection region are and If our test statistic is in the Rejection Region, we would consider it far enough away from the Null Value To reject the Null Which makes the Alternative more plausible Otherwise, we Fail to Reject t*= My test statistic does not fall in the rejection region, therefore I cannot reject the Null 22 So what do I conclude? The components of a Test I don t have any evidence that the average blackness of the print is different from.97. It was not so unusual to draw a random sample of 50 papers and get an average of.959 given the true value is.97 So I can t conclude I have a problem from this sample.but I could be wrong!!! 23 Ho: Ha: Assumptions Test Statistic Rejection Region Calculation: Conclusion: Ho: µ =.970 Ha: µ " tailed n= 50, # unknown, use t t* = ( )/.022! =.05,.05/2, 49 d.f., t = ± t* = -.50 t* > t.05/2. 49 df -.50 > Cannot Reject Ho: =

7 Test from JMP What if this were a one-tailed test? Here is the output from JMP You would be asked to specify a Hypothesized Value, Ho An alpha level,.05 Then it gives the results of a one or two-tailed test What if we multiplied blackness by 100? 25 Let s say that the Alternative was: Ha: µ <.97 % =.05 The test statistic remains the same t* = -.50 Now, all of alpha would fall in just one tail t.05, 49 df = This shifted the Rejection Region to the right and made it easier to reject the Null t*=-.50 My test statistic does not fall in the rejection region, therefore I cannot reject the Null 26 Summary We established the basis for a Test We base it on a Rare Event Approach We ask how rare an event it was to draw a sample of size n and observe our sample estimate - mean or p If the the true value were really that specified in the Null To do this we need A Null and Alternative A Test Statistic, z* or t* A criterion for decision making - how far away is enough to reject the Null - based on! 27

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