Data Analysis Tools. Tools for Summarizing Data


 Clyde Ramsey
 1 years ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 Data Analysis Tools This section of the notes is meant to introduce you to many of the tools that are provided by Excel under the Tools/Data Analysis menu item. If your computer does not have that tool loaded, you need to go to Tools/AddIns and then check the box Analysis ToolPak. When you do so, you may be prompted to enter your original CD to load the tools. Tools for Summarizing Data There are two principal analysis tools for summarizing data. They are Histogram and Descriptive Statistics. Histograms We can use a spreadsheet to obtain a histogram. In the process it finds the frequency distribution and then it will draw the plot. It also has the option of finding an ogive. Below is the procedure. 1. To get to the Analysis Tools, select Tools/Data Analysis. This will bring up the list of statistical methods. 2. Select the tool entitled "Histogram." The dialog box below will then appear. All of the analysis tools in Excel provide a similar dialog box Analysis Tools  1
2 3. In the dialog box specify where the data are you want to analyze and where you want the output to go. Specify the location of the data either by typing the cell range, or by dragging the mouse over the cells containing the data. For now, skip the box asking for the bin range (see below for how to use the bin range input). If you have indicated the row that has the variable name or heading, click in the labels box. In the box asking for the output range, type or click on the cell reference where you want the output to begin. Do not mark the box next to "Pareto." If you want Excel to draw the histogram, click in the appropriate box. The Cumulative Percentage box will give you the ogive. Then click OK. The result of this procedure will be a frequency distribution. The first column will show the value which defines the right (or maximum) value of the class interval, which Excel refers to as a bin. The second column will show the number of observations in the bin, and the third column will contain the cumulative percentage of observations falling in or below the bin. Analysis Tools  2
3 Example Output: Bin Frequency Cumulative % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % More % Histogram Frequency Bin % % 80.00% 60.00% 40.00% 20.00%.00% Frequency Cumulative % Analysis Tools  3
4 The way to interpret the frequency distribution is as follows. The first frequency number is the number of data points that have values less than or equal to the first bin number. The next frequency number is the number of data points less than or equal to the second bin number, but greater than the first bin number. For example, in what is above, there is one number in the data set that is less than or equal to There are 2 numbers in the data set larger than 16.9 and less than or equal to The other numbers are interpreted similarly. The last bin always says More. The corresponding frequency number tells us how many numbers in the data set are larger than the second to last bin number. In the example above, 1 number in the data set is larger than Minor Fixes to Excel s Output There are two things about Excel s histogram output that I don t like. The first is the way it handles the first bin. It always sets the first bin value equal to the smallest number in the data set. Hence its frequency is almost always equal to 1. In almost every case, I choose to combine this bin with the next one. To do so, I add the frequency of this first bin to the frequency of the second bin, and then delete the first row of the output given by Excel. For the example above, the first two rows of my modified frequency distribution would look like this. Bin Frequency Cumulative % % % Analysis Tools  4
5 The second thing that I don t like is that the chart that Excel automatically constructs is actually a bar graph. To make it look more like a histogram, we need to have no space between the bars. To remove the space, double click on the bars of the chart, then select the Options tab, and change the Gap width to 0, then select OK. Selecting Your Own Bin Values If you don t like the bin values that Excel uses, you can create your own. Below I describe the process that I would follow to do it. As you can see, it is quite a bit longer, and my preference is to let Excel choose the bins values. 1. First determine the number of bins. Say that the number of observations you have is n. Then a rule for the number of bins is (2*n) 1/3 (i.e., the cube root of 2n). You will usually have to round this number to an integer. The usual suggestion is to round up. For the example above, there were 240 data points. Then (2*240) 1/3 = We round up to 8 to get 8 bins. 2. To find the bin width, take the range of the data (largest minus smallest), and divide by the number of bins found in step 1 above. Again you will want to round up to determine the actual bin width, but it is quite subjective as to how to round (you can go to the nearest integer, tenth, hundredth, etc.). For the example, the smallest and largest of the 240 values were 16.9 and 46. To find the interval, we use ( )/8 = The original data had two decimal places, so it is convenient to use two decimal places for the bin width. To make it an even number, I decided to use 3.65 as the bin width. Analysis Tools  5
6 3. When creating the bin boundaries, I take the smallest number and add bin width to it to obtain the starting bin value. If you don t like fractions or uneven numbers, you can round to a neighbor that fits your criteria for a good starting value. Excel will take the first number that you put in the bin range, and then find how many numbers in the data set are less than or equal to that number. Then it will take the 2nd number in the bin range, and find how many are greater than the first bin number, but less than or equal to the second bin number. For the example, say my original data are in cells A2:A241 and cell A1 contains a label. In cells C2:C8 I can enter the numbers 20.5, (which is close to ), 24.15, 27.8, 31.45, 35.1, 38.75, 42.4 (notice I only entered 7 numbers, even though there are 8 bins the 8 th bin will be created by Excel and called More ). In cell C1 I should enter some label for the bins. The most obvious choice is to just type Bin in C1. (If you check the Labels in First Row box, you must add a label to the bins as well.) Now use Data Analysis from the Tools menu. Input A1:A241 in the data input range. In the bin input range, enter C1:C8. Choose the other options as normal. Then hit OK. Below is the resulting output, including the chart (after adjusting the gap width to 0). Bin Frequency Cumulative % % % % % % % % More % Analysis Tools  6
7 Histogram Frequency More Bin % % 80.00% 60.00% 40.00% 20.00%.00% The interpretation of the frequency distribution is exactly the same as before. Analysis Tools  7
8 Descriptive Statistics To use Excel to obtain a listing of descriptive statistics, we again use the Analysis Tools. This time, instead of selecting "Histogram," select "Descriptive Statistics." Indicate where the data are located, and select whether they are in rows or columns. If you want the data set to have a descriptive title, you can include the label in the first entry above the data, and then click the box next to "Labels." Specify where you want the output to go. I recommend always clicking on the Summary Statistics box. I also recommend checking the Confidence Level for Mean box (and filling in the confidence level) if you are interested in confidence intervals for the mean. I rarely use the other boxes. You can do descriptive statistics on several variables at once. You just need to be sure that the variables are next to each other in the spreadsheet, and then refer to all the columns in the input portion of the dialog box. Here is some example output. Height Mean 1.2 Standard Error Median 1.18 Mode 1.23 Standard Deviation 0.04 Sample Variance Kurtosis Skewness Range 0.12 Minimum 1.15 Maximum 1.27 Sum 13.2 Count 11 Confidence Level(99.0%) Analysis Tools  8
9 Box plots There is nothing built in to Excel to do box plots. I have created a template that will do up to 4 simultaneous box plots. It is also limited to data sets of no more than 500 observations. It has some faults, but it is not bad. The file is called Multiple Boxplots.xls. Below is a sample of what it produces. Automobile Public Covariance A covariance matrix can be obtained from the spreadsheet by using the Covariance Analysis Tool. Select Data Analysis, then Covariance. Identify the input area, and where you would like the output to go. Indicate whether the data are grouped by column or row, and whether labels are being used, and then select OK. Example output is shown at the top of the next page. **WARNING** This analysis tool divides the cross products by n rather than by n1. If you want true sample variances and covariances, you should multiply all of the numbers by n. n 1 Analysis Tools  9
10 Day Hour Prep Time Wait Time Travel Distance Time Day Hour Prep Time Wait Time Travel Time Distance The numbers on the diagonals are variances (except they are divided by n), and all other numbers are covariances. The matrix is symmetric, so only numbers on one side of the diagonal are shown. Correlation We can also use the spreadsheet to find the sample correlation matrix, and the procedure is identical to that of finding the covariance, except that we choose the Correlation Analysis Tool. Here is the correlation matrix for the pizza example. Day Hour Prep Time Wait Time Travel Time Distance Day Hour Prep Time Wait Time Travel Time Distance The offdiagonal terms are the sample correlation coefficients between pairs of variables. Excel does these computations correctly and no adjustments are necessary. Analysis Tools  10
11 Summarizing Qualitative Data in Tables Excel has a utility called a Pivot Table that allows us to create and analyze tabular summaries (contingency tables) of qualitative data. It can also be used with quantitative data or combinations of quantitative and qualitative data. To use the pivot table feature, data must be entered in columns and each column must have a title or header. Before invoking the procedure, be sure that the cursor is in one of the cells containing a header or data. To start the wizard, go to Data/PivotTable and PivotChart Report. In the first step, just click on Next (the default values are what we want). In the second step, verify that the data range shown contains all of the data that you want to analyze, then click on Next again. In step 3, click on the button called Layout. You will be presented with the following dialog box (except the buttons on the right will change according to the data set you are using). Analysis Tools  11
12 At this point, click on and drag the button corresponding to the variable that you want to be on the rows of your output table to the area labeled Row and the variable you want in columns to the area that says Column. Then drag either of the two buttons that you just used to the Data area. I recommend always dragging one of the qualitative variables buttons. The button should change to say Count of VARIABLE where VARIABLE is the name of the variable that you dragged to the middle. Then say OK. To complete the procedure there are a few other options you can change if you desire, but I usually just click on Finish at this point and change options later if the output is not what I desire. If you have used a quantitative variable, you will likely want to group it. To do so, right click on the variable name in the table. One item in the popup menu should say Group. Choose it, and then specify how you want the variable to be grouped. The pivot table can display several different types of summary measues. The default or normal state is to display total counts. There may be times that you want to display the numbers in the table as overall percentages, as row percentages, etc. To change the display, click any where in the table and go again to the Data/PivotTable and PivotChart Report menu item. You should be at step 3 again. Click on Layout and then double click what is in the middle of the table (it should say Count of ). Then select options. A drop down menu that says Show Data As will be in the middle of the dialog box. Use the drop down menu to say how you want to display the data. Then exit out of all of the boxes. The default way that Excel lists the categories in qualitative variables is alphabetically. You may want them listed in some kind of logical ascending order (for example, you may want to list class standing as Freshman, Sophomore, Junior and Senior). To tell Excel how you want the labels to be ordered, go to the Tools menu, select options, and then click on the tab called Custom Lists. Then you can type in the list items in the order you want them (separate them with a comma or return) in the List Entries section. Or you can import the list in the order that you want by identifying the cells where they are listed. Analysis Tools  12
13 Below is a portion of an Excel worksheet with both qualitative and quantitative variables. It shows both a portion of the original data and the the resulting pivot table. I created a custom list in Excel as Good, Very Good, Excellent. Random Sampling We can obtain a random sample from a set of data using the analysis tools. The tool is called "Sampling." Before using the tool, I suggest including a column in the data file that is a numbered label. After selecting Data Analysis, choose the Sampling tool. Next indicate the location of the numbers to be sampled from (which would be the location of the data labels), input the first cell of the output block, choose random (rather than periodic), then indicate how many samples you want to draw (i.e., the sample size). Then hit OK. With the above procedure, it is possible to obtain repeated items in the sample (e.g., the same item could be drawn twice). That is why I use the label column rather than the original data column to create the sample. That way I can tell if I have duplicates. If I do obtain a duplicate, I simply continue to draw more samples until I have a sufficient number of distinct items for the desired sample size. Analysis Tools  13
14 The best way I know to look for a duplicate is to sort the data. The sort routine is under the DATA menu or can be found on the tool bar. To find the actual data associated with the label, we can use the function =VLOOKUP. Suppose that my labels are in cells A2:A301 and the data from which I want the random sample is in cells B2:B301. Suppose also that I started the output from the Sampling tool in C2 and drew a sample of 25 (so the sampled labels are in cells C2:C26). I will also assume that I don t have any duplicates. Then in cell D2 I would enter the function =VLOOKUP(C2,$A$2:$B$301,2). This function says look for what is in cell C2 in the first column of A2:B301. When you find the number report back what the corresponding number in the second column of A2:B301 (the 2 is what tells it to report back what is in the second column). Then I would copy cell D2 s contents down through cell D26. Inference Tools The majority of the tools in Excel are for statistical inference. I will discuss the how to use the tools for confidence intervals on one mean, hypothesis tests on one and two means, analysis of variance, and regression. Confidence Intervals I have already described the Descriptive Statistics Tool, which is what we use to do confidence intervals. The tool is useful for cases where we have the data and we do not know the population standard deviation. Then we use the first and last two numbers in the Descriptive Statistics output to create the confidence interval. The first number is the sample average. The last number, which Excel calls Confidence Level(xx%) (which I consider to be a very poor name) is the margin of error. Below I have repeated part of the printout from above. Analysis Tools  14
15 Height Mean 1.2 Standard Error M Count 11 Confidence Level(99.0%) M Hypothesis Test on One Mean: This procedure is used when you do not know the population standard deviation and you have all of the data given. Before going to the Tools menu you need to add another column which consists only of the hypothesized value µ 0, next to each value of the original data. The easiest way to do this is to enter µ 0 once, and then use the fill down command to put it in the rest of the cells. Then from the Data Analysis Tools select "ttest: Paired TwoSample for Means" in Excel. Variable 1 input will be the column where the original data are located. Variable 2 input will be the column where the hypothesized value is located. Indicate where you want the output to go, and give a level of significance (α) value. The (hypothesized) difference should always be 0 or can be left blank. Finally, if you labeled your columns and included them in the Variable 1 and Variable 2 input portions, then click the labels box. Example: Pineapple Corporation (PC) maintains that their cans have always contained an average of 12 ounces of fruit. The production group believes that the mean weight has changed. The drained weights in ounces for a sample of 15 cans of fruit from PC had a mean value of and a standard deviation of.20. Use an appropriate hypothesis test to determine if the data show evidence of a change in mean weight. Use a significance level of.01. The output is presented on the next page. Analysis Tools  15
16 ttest: Paired TwoSample for Means Weight Hypothesized Mean Mean Variance Observations Pearson Correlation #DIV/0! Pooled Variance 0 Hypothesized Mean 0 Difference df 14 t P(T<=t) onetail t Critical onetail P(T<=t) twotail t Critical twotail Conclusions: Analysis Tools  16
17 Testing Two Means (with unpaired or unmatched samples) If we want to test the relationship between two means, we have two choices: "ttest: TwoSample Assuming Equal Variance" or "ttest: TwoSample Assuming Unequal Variance." The choice obviously depends on what we believe the relationship is between the population variances of the two groups. Whatever we decide, the procedure in Excel is identical once we have chosen made our choice. Variable 1 input will be the column (or row) where the first set of data is located. Variable 2 input will be the column (or row) where the second set of data is located. Indicate where you want the output to go, and give a level of significance (α) value. The hypothesized difference will usually be 0, but not always. Finally, if you labeled your columns (or rows) and included them in the Variable 1 and Variable 2 input portions, then click the labels box. Consider the following example. A manager is interested in determining whether the productivity of workers that work during two different shifts is the same. To test her hypothesis, the manager randomly samples 8 workers from each shift and records the average time (in minutes) needed to complete a given assemblyline task, with the results given below. Shift Shift From the data, can we conclude that the two shifts have the same productivity level? It looks like the second shift completes the task in less time, but is the difference due to sampling, or because the mean times are really different. The output from the two procedures is given on the next page. Analysis Tools  17
18 ttest: TwoSample Assuming Equal Variances Shift 1 Shift 2 Mean Variance Observations 8 8 Pooled Variance Hypothesized Mean Difference 0 df 14 t Stat P(T<=t) onetail t Critical onetail P(T<=t) twotail t Critical twotail ttest: TwoSample Assuming Unequal Variances Shift 1 Shift 2 Mean Variance Observations 8 8 Hypothesized Mean Difference 0 df 12 t Stat P(T<=t) onetail t Critical onetail P(T<=t) twotail t Critical twotail Analysis Tools  18
19 Testing Two Variances To do this type of problem on the computer, go to the Data Analysis Tools, and select "Ftest TwoSample for Variances." Variable 1 input will be the column (or row) where the first set of data is located. Try to use the variable with the largest sample variance as variable 1. Variable 2 input will be the column (or row) where the second set of data is located. Give the value of α and indicate where you want the output to go. Finally, if you labeled your columns (or rows) and included them in the Variable 1 and Variable 2 input portions, then click the labels box. For this procedure, Excel only calculates onesided values. If the test is twosided (as it usually is) you have two options. First, you can divide the given value of α by 2, and input the result as the level of significance. The second option is to always use the pvalue criterion and for a twosided test, multiply the onesided pvalue by 2. For the example: FTest: TwoSample for Variances Shift 1 Shift 2 Mean Variance Observations 8 8 df 7 7 F P(F<=f) onetail F Critical onetail Analysis Tools  19
20 ANOVA: Excel can do one and twoway analysis of variance. I only describe the single factor case below. If you are interested in twoway ANOVA, Excel s help should guide you through it. It should also be very similar to what is described below. After selecting Data Analysis, choose the option called, "Anova: Single Factor" in Excel. Next specify the input block, which will contain the data from all groups. Each group should be in its own column or row. If the groups have differing numbers of samples, be sure to highlight to include all samples. Excel will handle the blank spaces without a problem. Indicate where to send the output, and then input a value of α. Check the box indicating whether the groups are entered in columns or rows, and check the label box if you have included labels in your input block. Then start the procedure. Example Three different automatic milling machines at Castmetal, Inc. were set up to mill the same type of part. Observations were taken at random times to find out how many parts were being produced per hour by each machine. Only four observations were taken on machine 3 since the inspector became ill and had to go home before he could complete his work. These data were entered into Excel in cells A1:C5. Can we conclude that the mean hourly output for the three machines is different? Machine 1 Machine 2 Machine Analysis Tools  20
21 Below is the dialog box and output for the example. Anova: SingleFactor Summary Groups Count Sum Average Variance Machine Machine Machine ANOVA Source of Variation SS df MS F Pvalue F crit Between Groups Within Groups Total Conclusions: Analysis Tools  21
22 Regression: Doing regression in Excel is very similar to using the other analysis tools. With regression, however, having the data in the right form is more important. First, all data should be entered in columns. Second, all independent variables should be next to each other (i.e., in a contiguous set of cells). Once the data are entered correctly, select "Regression" from the Tools/ Data Analysis menu item in Excel. You will be presented with the dialogue box shown below. In the Input Y Range, enter the cell range referring to the column containing the dependent variable. In the Input X Range, enter the range of cells containing all independent variables. This is why the X variables need to be next to each other. If your range of cells included a row of labels, click the label box. Analysis Tools  22
23 I never click the Constant is Zero box. In some physical systems it only makes sense for the intercept to be 0, so we can force it do so. In our examples that will never be the case. If you want a confidence interval for the β values other than a 95% confidence interval, click in the Confidence Level box and enter a different confidence level. Next, indicate where you want the output to go. Finally, click on the box next to Residuals. I leave all other boxes blank, because I don t like the way that Excel does the rest of the residual analysis or the normal probability plot. Then hit enter. Below is some sample output. Regression Statistics Multiple R R Square Adjusted R Square Standard Error Observations 240 Analysis of Variance df Sum of Squares Mean Square F Significance F Regression E107 Residual Total Coefficients Standard Error t Statistic Pvalue Lower 95% Upper 95% Intercept E Day Hour Distance E Analysis Tools  23
Drawing a histogram using Excel
Drawing a histogram using Excel STEP 1: Examine the data to decide how many class intervals you need and what the class boundaries should be. (In an assignment you may be told what class boundaries to
More informationBill Burton Albert Einstein College of Medicine william.burton@einstein.yu.edu April 28, 2014 EERS: Managing the Tension Between Rigor and Resources 1
Bill Burton Albert Einstein College of Medicine william.burton@einstein.yu.edu April 28, 2014 EERS: Managing the Tension Between Rigor and Resources 1 Calculate counts, means, and standard deviations Produce
More informationAppendix 2.1 Tabular and Graphical Methods Using Excel
Appendix 2.1 Tabular and Graphical Methods Using Excel 1 Appendix 2.1 Tabular and Graphical Methods Using Excel The instructions in this section begin by describing the entry of data into an Excel spreadsheet.
More informationWhen to use Excel. When NOT to use Excel 9/24/2014
Analyzing Quantitative Assessment Data with Excel October 2, 2014 Jeremy Penn, Ph.D. Director When to use Excel You want to quickly summarize or analyze your assessment data You want to create basic visual
More informationBowerman, O'Connell, Aitken Schermer, & Adcock, Business Statistics in Practice, Canadian edition
Bowerman, O'Connell, Aitken Schermer, & Adcock, Business Statistics in Practice, Canadian edition Online Learning Centre Technology StepbyStep  Excel Microsoft Excel is a spreadsheet software application
More informationEXCEL Analysis TookPak [Statistical Analysis] 1. First of all, check to make sure that the Analysis ToolPak is installed. Here is how you do it:
EXCEL Analysis TookPak [Statistical Analysis] 1 First of all, check to make sure that the Analysis ToolPak is installed. Here is how you do it: a. From the Tools menu, choose AddIns b. Make sure Analysis
More informationIntroduction to Statistical Computing in Microsoft Excel By Hector D. Flores; hflores@rice.edu, and Dr. J.A. Dobelman
Introduction to Statistical Computing in Microsoft Excel By Hector D. Flores; hflores@rice.edu, and Dr. J.A. Dobelman Statistics lab will be mainly focused on applying what you have learned in class with
More informationCD Appendix A3 Excel Troubleshooting and Detailed. Instructions for Office 1997, 2000, XP, and 2003
CD Appendix A3 Excel Troubleshooting and Detailed Instructions for Office 1997, 2000, XP, and 2003 Before using this appendix please read CD Appendixes A1. If problems persist use this appendix to get
More informationAn introduction to using Microsoft Excel for quantitative data analysis
Contents An introduction to using Microsoft Excel for quantitative data analysis 1 Introduction... 1 2 Why use Excel?... 2 3 Quantitative data analysis tools in Excel... 3 4 Entering your data... 6 5 Preparing
More informationAdvanced Excel for Institutional Researchers
Advanced Excel for Institutional Researchers Presented by: Sandra Archer Helen Fu University Analysis and Planning Support University of Central Florida September 2225, 2012 Agenda Sunday, September 23,
More informationLAB 4 INSTRUCTIONS CONFIDENCE INTERVALS AND HYPOTHESIS TESTING
LAB 4 INSTRUCTIONS CONFIDENCE INTERVALS AND HYPOTHESIS TESTING In this lab you will explore the concept of a confidence interval and hypothesis testing through a simulation problem in engineering setting.
More informationData exploration with Microsoft Excel: univariate analysis
Data exploration with Microsoft Excel: univariate analysis Contents 1 Introduction... 1 2 Exploring a variable s frequency distribution... 2 3 Calculating measures of central tendency... 16 4 Calculating
More informationSECTION 21: OVERVIEW SECTION 22: FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTIONS
SECTION 21: OVERVIEW Chapter 2 Describing, Exploring and Comparing Data 19 In this chapter, we will use the capabilities of Excel to help us look more carefully at sets of data. We can do this by reorganizing
More informationStatistical Functions in Excel
Statistical Functions in Excel There are many statistical functions in Excel. Moreover, there are other functions that are not specified as statistical functions that are helpful in some statistical analyses.
More informationUse Excel to Analyse Data. Use Excel to Analyse Data
Introduction This workbook accompanies the computer skills training workshop. The trainer will demonstrate each skill and refer you to the relevant page at the appropriate time. This workbook can also
More informationEXCEL Tutorial: How to use EXCEL for Graphs and Calculations.
EXCEL Tutorial: How to use EXCEL for Graphs and Calculations. Excel is powerful tool and can make your life easier if you are proficient in using it. You will need to use Excel to complete most of your
More informationData exploration with Microsoft Excel: analysing more than one variable
Data exploration with Microsoft Excel: analysing more than one variable Contents 1 Introduction... 1 2 Comparing different groups or different variables... 2 3 Exploring the association between categorical
More informationData Analysis. Using Excel. Jeffrey L. Rummel. BBA Seminar. Data in Excel. Excel Calculations of Descriptive Statistics. Single Variable Graphs
Using Excel Jeffrey L. Rummel Emory University Goizueta Business School BBA Seminar Jeffrey L. Rummel BBA Seminar 1 / 54 Excel Calculations of Descriptive Statistics Single Variable Graphs Relationships
More informationUsing Microsoft Excel to Analyze Data from the Disk Diffusion Assay
Using Microsoft Excel to Analyze Data from the Disk Diffusion Assay Entering and Formatting Data Open Excel. Set up the spreadsheet page (Sheet 1) so that anyone who reads it will understand the page (Figure
More informationHow to Use a Data Spreadsheet: Excel
How to Use a Data Spreadsheet: Excel One does not necessarily have special statistical software to perform statistical analyses. Microsoft Office Excel can be used to run statistical procedures. Although
More informationAssignment objectives:
Assignment objectives: Regression Pivot table Exercise #1 Simple Linear Regression Often the relationship between two variables, Y and X, can be adequately represented by a simple linear equation of the
More informationTIPS FOR DOING STATISTICS IN EXCEL
TIPS FOR DOING STATISTICS IN EXCEL Before you begin, make sure that you have the DATA ANALYSIS pack running on your machine. It comes with Excel. Here s how to check if you have it, and what to do if you
More informationKSTAT MINIMANUAL. Decision Sciences 434 Kellogg Graduate School of Management
KSTAT MINIMANUAL Decision Sciences 434 Kellogg Graduate School of Management Kstat is a set of macros added to Excel and it will enable you to do the statistics required for this course very easily. To
More informationUsing Excel in Research. Hui Bian Office for Faculty Excellence
Using Excel in Research Hui Bian Office for Faculty Excellence Data entry in Excel Directly type information into the cells Enter data using Form Command: File > Options 2 Data entry in Excel Tool bar:
More informationUsing Excel for Statistics Tips and Warnings
Using Excel for Statistics Tips and Warnings November 2000 University of Reading Statistical Services Centre Biometrics Advisory and Support Service to DFID Contents 1. Introduction 3 1.1 Data Entry and
More informationUsing Excel s Analysis ToolPak AddIn
Using Excel s Analysis ToolPak AddIn S. Christian Albright, September 2013 Introduction This document illustrates the use of Excel s Analysis ToolPak addin for data analysis. The document is aimed at
More informationt Tests in Excel The Excel Statistical Master By Mark Harmon Copyright 2011 Mark Harmon
ttests in Excel By Mark Harmon Copyright 2011 Mark Harmon No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed without the express permission of the author. mark@excelmasterseries.com www.excelmasterseries.com
More informationGuide to Microsoft Excel for calculations, statistics, and plotting data
Page 1/47 Guide to Microsoft Excel for calculations, statistics, and plotting data Topic Page A. Writing equations and text 2 1. Writing equations with mathematical operations 2 2. Writing equations with
More informationTechnology StepbyStep Using StatCrunch
Technology StepbyStep Using StatCrunch Section 1.3 Simple Random Sampling 1. Select Data, highlight Simulate Data, then highlight Discrete Uniform. 2. Fill in the following window with the appropriate
More informationMinitab Guide. This packet contains: A Friendly Guide to Minitab. Minitab StepByStep
Minitab Guide This packet contains: A Friendly Guide to Minitab An introduction to Minitab; including basic Minitab functions, how to create sets of data, and how to create and edit graphs of different
More informationDirections for using SPSS
Directions for using SPSS Table of Contents Connecting and Working with Files 1. Accessing SPSS... 2 2. Transferring Files to N:\drive or your computer... 3 3. Importing Data from Another File Format...
More informationUsing Microsoft Excel to Analyze Data
Entering and Formatting Data Using Microsoft Excel to Analyze Data Open Excel. Set up the spreadsheet page (Sheet 1) so that anyone who reads it will understand the page. For the comparison of pipets:
More informationTable of Contents TASK 1: DATA ANALYSIS TOOLPAK... 2 TASK 2: HISTOGRAMS... 5 TASK 3: ENTER MIDPOINT FORMULAS... 11
Table of Contents TASK 1: DATA ANALYSIS TOOLPAK... 2 TASK 2: HISTOGRAMS... 5 TASK 3: ENTER MIDPOINT FORMULAS... 11 TASK 4: ADD TOTAL LABEL AND FORMULA FOR FREQUENCY... 12 TASK 5: MODIFICATIONS TO THE HISTOGRAM...
More informationMBA 611 STATISTICS AND QUANTITATIVE METHODS
MBA 611 STATISTICS AND QUANTITATIVE METHODS Part I. Review of Basic Statistics (Chapters 111) A. Introduction (Chapter 1) Uncertainty: Decisions are often based on incomplete information from uncertain
More informationBelow is a very brief tutorial on the basic capabilities of Excel. Refer to the Excel help files for more information.
Excel Tutorial Below is a very brief tutorial on the basic capabilities of Excel. Refer to the Excel help files for more information. Working with Data Entering and Formatting Data Before entering data
More informationHypothesis Testing hypothesis testing approach formulation of the test statistic
Hypothesis Testing For the next few lectures, we re going to look at various test statistics that are formulated to allow us to test hypotheses in a variety of contexts: In all cases, the hypothesis testing
More informationTo create a histogram, you must organize the data in two columns on the worksheet. These columns must contain the following data:
You can analyze your data and display it in a histogram (a column chart that displays frequency data) by using the Histogram tool of the Analysis ToolPak. This data analysis addin is available when you
More informationFigure 1. An embedded chart on a worksheet.
8. Excel Charts and Analysis ToolPak Charts, also known as graphs, have been an integral part of spreadsheets since the early days of Lotus 123. Charting features have improved significantly over the
More information1. What is the critical value for this 95% confidence interval? CV = z.025 = invnorm(0.025) = 1.96
1 Final Review 2 Review 2.1 CI 1propZint Scenario 1 A TV manufacturer claims in its warranty brochure that in the past not more than 10 percent of its TV sets needed any repair during the first two years
More informationSPSS for Exploratory Data Analysis Data used in this guide: studentp.sav (http://people.ysu.edu/~gchang/stat/studentp.sav)
Data used in this guide: studentp.sav (http://people.ysu.edu/~gchang/stat/studentp.sav) Organize and Display One Quantitative Variable (Descriptive Statistics, Boxplot & Histogram) 1. Move the mouse pointer
More informationNCSS Statistical Software Principal Components Regression. In ordinary least squares, the regression coefficients are estimated using the formula ( )
Chapter 340 Principal Components Regression Introduction is a technique for analyzing multiple regression data that suffer from multicollinearity. When multicollinearity occurs, least squares estimates
More informationNCSS Statistical Software
Chapter 06 Introduction This procedure provides several reports for the comparison of two distributions, including confidence intervals for the difference in means, twosample ttests, the ztest, the
More informationOneWay ANOVA using SPSS 11.0. SPSS ANOVA procedures found in the Compare Means analyses. Specifically, we demonstrate
1 OneWay ANOVA using SPSS 11.0 This section covers steps for testing the difference between three or more group means using the SPSS ANOVA procedures found in the Compare Means analyses. Specifically,
More informationNCSS Statistical Software
Chapter 06 Introduction This procedure provides several reports for the comparison of two distributions, including confidence intervals for the difference in means, twosample ttests, the ztest, the
More informationStatistics Review PSY379
Statistics Review PSY379 Basic concepts Measurement scales Populations vs. samples Continuous vs. discrete variable Independent vs. dependent variable Descriptive vs. inferential stats Common analyses
More informationSTATISTICAL ANALYSIS WITH EXCEL COURSE OUTLINE
STATISTICAL ANALYSIS WITH EXCEL COURSE OUTLINE Perhaps Microsoft has taken pains to hide some of the most powerful tools in Excel. These addins tools work on top of Excel, extending its power and abilities
More informationADDINS: ENHANCING EXCEL
CHAPTER 9 ADDINS: ENHANCING EXCEL This chapter discusses the following topics: WHAT CAN AN ADDIN DO? WHY USE AN ADDIN (AND NOT JUST EXCEL MACROS/PROGRAMS)? ADD INS INSTALLED WITH EXCEL OTHER ADDINS
More informationSimple Linear Regression in SPSS STAT 314
Simple Linear Regression in SPSS STAT 314 1. Ten Corvettes between 1 and 6 years old were randomly selected from last year s sales records in Virginia Beach, Virginia. The following data were obtained,
More informationEngineering Problem Solving and Excel. EGN 1006 Introduction to Engineering
Engineering Problem Solving and Excel EGN 1006 Introduction to Engineering Mathematical Solution Procedures Commonly Used in Engineering Analysis Data Analysis Techniques (Statistics) Curve Fitting techniques
More informationUsing SPSS, Chapter 2: Descriptive Statistics
1 Using SPSS, Chapter 2: Descriptive Statistics Chapters 2.1 & 2.2 Descriptive Statistics 2 Mean, Standard Deviation, Variance, Range, Minimum, Maximum 2 Mean, Median, Mode, Standard Deviation, Variance,
More informationFunctions & Data Analysis Tools
Functions & Data Analysis Tools Academic Computing Services www.ku.edu/acs Abstract: This workshop focuses on the functions and data analysis tools of Microsoft Excel. Topics included are the function
More informationFor example, enter the following data in three COLUMNS in a new View window.
Statistics with Statview  18 Paired ttest A paired ttest compares two groups of measurements when the data in the two groups are in some way paired between the groups (e.g., before and after on the
More informationBasic Pivot Tables. To begin your pivot table, choose Data, Pivot Table and Pivot Chart Report. 1 of 18
Basic Pivot Tables Pivot tables summarize data in a quick and easy way. In your job, you could use pivot tables to summarize actual expenses by fund type by object or total amounts. Make sure you do not
More informationUsing Excel for Analyzing Survey Questionnaires Jennifer Leahy
University of WisconsinExtension Cooperative Extension Madison, Wisconsin PD &E Program Development & Evaluation Using Excel for Analyzing Survey Questionnaires Jennifer Leahy G365814 Introduction You
More informationUsing Microsoft Excel
Using Microsoft Excel Key skill [Where it is introduced] To open MS Excel. To open an existing spreadsheet. How to do it! Start > All Programs > Microsost Office > Microsoft Office Excel 2003 File > Open
More informationMicrosoft Excel. Qi Wei
Microsoft Excel Qi Wei Excel (Microsoft Office Excel) is a spreadsheet application written and distributed by Microsoft for Microsoft Windows and Mac OS X. It features calculation, graphing tools, pivot
More informationOverview What is a PivotTable? Benefits
Overview What is a PivotTable? Benefits Create a PivotTable Select Row & Column labels & Values Filtering & Sorting Calculations Data Details Refresh Data Design options Create a PivotChart Slicers Charts
More informationA Guide for a Selection of SPSS Functions
A Guide for a Selection of SPSS Functions IBM SPSS Statistics 19 Compiled by Beth Gaedy, Math Specialist, Viterbo University  2012 Using documents prepared by Drs. Sheldon Lee, Marcus Saegrove, Jennifer
More informationStatistical Analysis Using Gnumeric
Statistical Analysis Using Gnumeric There are many software packages that will analyse data. For casual analysis, a spreadsheet may be an appropriate tool. Popular spreadsheets include Microsoft Excel,
More informationRegression stepbystep using Microsoft Excel
Step 1: Regression stepbystep using Microsoft Excel Notes prepared by Pamela Peterson Drake, James Madison University Type the data into the spreadsheet The example used throughout this How to is a regression
More informationSPSS Manual for Introductory Applied Statistics: A Variable Approach
SPSS Manual for Introductory Applied Statistics: A Variable Approach John Gabrosek Department of Statistics Grand Valley State University Allendale, MI USA August 2013 2 Copyright 2013 John Gabrosek. All
More informationA Guide to Using Excel in Physics Lab
A Guide to Using Excel in Physics Lab Excel has the potential to be a very useful program that will save you lots of time. Excel is especially useful for making repetitious calculations on large data sets.
More informationThere are six different windows that can be opened when using SPSS. The following will give a description of each of them.
SPSS Basics Tutorial 1: SPSS Windows There are six different windows that can be opened when using SPSS. The following will give a description of each of them. The Data Editor The Data Editor is a spreadsheet
More informationExcel 2010: Create your first spreadsheet
Excel 2010: Create your first spreadsheet Goals: After completing this course you will be able to: Create a new spreadsheet. Add, subtract, multiply, and divide in a spreadsheet. Enter and format column
More informationPearson's Correlation Tests
Chapter 800 Pearson's Correlation Tests Introduction The correlation coefficient, ρ (rho), is a popular statistic for describing the strength of the relationship between two variables. The correlation
More informationUsing Excel for Statistical Analysis
2010 Using Excel for Statistical Analysis Microsoft Excel is spreadsheet software that is used to store information in columns and rows, which can then be organized and/or processed. Excel is a powerful
More informationUsing Microsoft Excel for Probability and Statistics
Introduction Using Microsoft Excel for Probability and Despite having been set up with the business user in mind, Microsoft Excel is rather poor at handling precisely those aspects of statistics which
More informationAnalysis of Variance. MINITAB User s Guide 2 31
3 Analysis of Variance Analysis of Variance Overview, 32 OneWay Analysis of Variance, 35 TwoWay Analysis of Variance, 311 Analysis of Means, 313 Overview of Balanced ANOVA and GLM, 318 Balanced
More informationMinitab Tutorials for Design and Analysis of Experiments. Table of Contents
Table of Contents Introduction to Minitab...2 Example 1 OneWay ANOVA...3 Determining Sample Size in Oneway ANOVA...8 Example 2 Twofactor Factorial Design...9 Example 3: Randomized Complete Block Design...14
More informationAn introduction to IBM SPSS Statistics
An introduction to IBM SPSS Statistics Contents 1 Introduction... 1 2 Entering your data... 2 3 Preparing your data for analysis... 10 4 Exploring your data: univariate analysis... 14 5 Generating descriptive
More informationExcel Guide for Finite Mathematics and Applied Calculus
Excel Guide for Finite Mathematics and Applied Calculus Revathi Narasimhan Kean University A technology guide to accompany Mathematical Applications, 6 th Edition Applied Calculus, 2 nd Edition Calculus:
More informationAn SPSS companion book. Basic Practice of Statistics
An SPSS companion book to Basic Practice of Statistics SPSS is owned by IBM. 6 th Edition. Basic Practice of Statistics 6 th Edition by David S. Moore, William I. Notz, Michael A. Flinger. Published by
More informationChapter 7 Appendix. Inference for Distributions with Excel, JMP, Minitab, SPSS, CrunchIt!, R, and TI83/84 Calculators
Chapter 7 Appendix Inference for Distributions with Excel, JMP, Minitab, SPSS, CrunchIt!, R, and TI83/84 Calculators Inference for the Mean of a Population Excel t Confidence Interval for Mean Confidence
More informationActivity 3.7 Statistical Analysis with Excel
Activity 3.7 Statistical Analysis with Excel Introduction Engineers use various tools to make their jobs easier. Spreadsheets can greatly improve the accuracy and efficiency of repetitive and common calculations;
More informationMicrosoft Access Basics
Microsoft Access Basics 2006 ipic Development Group, LLC Authored by James D Ballotti Microsoft, Access, Excel, Word, and Office are registered trademarks of the Microsoft Corporation Version 1  Revision
More informationEXCEL PIVOT TABLE David Geffen School of Medicine, UCLA Dean s Office Oct 2002
EXCEL PIVOT TABLE David Geffen School of Medicine, UCLA Dean s Office Oct 2002 Table of Contents Part I Creating a Pivot Table Excel Database......3 What is a Pivot Table...... 3 Creating Pivot Tables
More informationStep 3: Go to Column C. Use the function AVERAGE to calculate the mean values of n = 5. Column C is the column of the means.
EXAMPLES  SAMPLING DISTRIBUTION EXCEL INSTRUCTIONS This exercise illustrates the process of the sampling distribution as stated in the Central Limit Theorem. Enter the actual data in Column A in MICROSOFT
More informationTIInspire manual 1. Instructions. TiInspire for statistics. General Introduction
TIInspire manual 1 General Introduction Instructions TiInspire for statistics TIInspire manual 2 TIInspire manual 3 Press the On, Off button to go to Home page TIInspire manual 4 Use the to navigate
More informationBasic Excel Handbook
2 5 2 7 1 1 0 4 3 9 8 1 Basic Excel Handbook Version 3.6 May 6, 2008 Contents Contents... 1 Part I: Background Information...3 About This Handbook... 4 Excel Terminology... 5 Excel Terminology (cont.)...
More informationChapter 23. Inferences for Regression
Chapter 23. Inferences for Regression Topics covered in this chapter: Simple Linear Regression Simple Linear Regression Example 23.1: Crying and IQ The Problem: Infants who cry easily may be more easily
More informationGetting started manual
Getting started manual XLSTAT Getting started manual Addinsoft 1 Table of Contents Install XLSTAT and register a license key... 4 Install XLSTAT on Windows... 4 Verify that your Microsoft Excel is uptodate...
More informationbusiness statistics using Excel OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS Glyn Davis & Branko Pecar
business statistics using Excel Glyn Davis & Branko Pecar OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS Detailed contents Introduction to Microsoft Excel 2003 Overview Learning Objectives 1.1 Introduction to Microsoft Excel
More informationIBM SPSS Statistics for Beginners for Windows
ISS, NEWCASTLE UNIVERSITY IBM SPSS Statistics for Beginners for Windows A Training Manual for Beginners Dr. S. T. Kometa A Training Manual for Beginners Contents 1 Aims and Objectives... 3 1.1 Learning
More informationUsing Excel for Data Manipulation and Statistical Analysis: Howto s and Cautions
2010 Using Excel for Data Manipulation and Statistical Analysis: Howto s and Cautions This document describes how to perform some basic statistical procedures in Microsoft Excel. Microsoft Excel is spreadsheet
More informationPointBiserial and Biserial Correlations
Chapter 302 PointBiserial and Biserial Correlations Introduction This procedure calculates estimates, confidence intervals, and hypothesis tests for both the pointbiserial and the biserial correlations.
More informationIntroduction to Data Tables. Data Table Exercises
Tools for Excel Modeling Introduction to Data Tables and Data Table Exercises EXCEL REVIEW 20002001 Data Tables are among the most useful of Excel s tools for analyzing data in spreadsheet models. Some
More informationDoing Multiple Regression with SPSS. In this case, we are interested in the Analyze options so we choose that menu. If gives us a number of choices:
Doing Multiple Regression with SPSS Multiple Regression for Data Already in Data Editor Next we want to specify a multiple regression analysis for these data. The menu bar for SPSS offers several options:
More informationOneWay Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) Example Problem
OneWay Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) Example Problem Introduction Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is a hypothesistesting technique used to test the equality of two or more population (or treatment) means
More informationSpreadsheets and Laboratory Data Analysis: Excel 2003 Version (Excel 2007 is only slightly different)
Spreadsheets and Laboratory Data Analysis: Excel 2003 Version (Excel 2007 is only slightly different) Spreadsheets are computer programs that allow the user to enter and manipulate numbers. They are capable
More informationRecall this chart that showed how most of our course would be organized:
Chapter 4 OneWay ANOVA Recall this chart that showed how most of our course would be organized: Explanatory Variable(s) Response Variable Methods Categorical Categorical Contingency Tables Categorical
More informationINTRODUCTION TO EXCEL
INTRODUCTION TO EXCEL 1 INTRODUCTION Anyone who has used a computer for more than just playing games will be aware of spreadsheets A spreadsheet is a versatile computer program (package) that enables you
More informationRegression III: Dummy Variable Regression
Regression III: Dummy Variable Regression Tom Ilvento FREC 408 Linear Regression Assumptions about the error term Mean of Probability Distribution of the Error term is zero Probability Distribution of
More informationGuide for SPSS for Windows
Guide for SPSS for Windows Index Table Open an existing data file Open a new data sheet Enter or change data value Name a variable Label variables and data values Enter a categorical data Delete a record
More information1. Go to your programs menu and click on Microsoft Excel.
Elementary Statistics Computer Assignment 1 Using Microsoft EXCEL 2003, follow the steps below. For Microsoft EXCEL 2007 instructions, go to the next page. For Microsoft 2010 and 2007 instructions with
More informationUsing Microsoft Excel to Plot and Analyze Kinetic Data
Entering and Formatting Data Using Microsoft Excel to Plot and Analyze Kinetic Data Open Excel. Set up the spreadsheet page (Sheet 1) so that anyone who reads it will understand the page (Figure 1). Type
More informationEXCEL EXERCISE AND ACCELERATION DUE TO GRAVITY
EXCEL EXERCISE AND ACCELERATION DUE TO GRAVITY Objective: To learn how to use the Excel spreadsheet to record your data, calculate values and make graphs. To analyze the data from the Acceleration Due
More informationThe scatterplot indicates a positive linear relationship between waist size and body fat percentage:
STAT E150 Statistical Methods Multiple Regression Three percent of a man's body is essential fat, which is necessary for a healthy body. However, too much body fat can be dangerous. For men between the
More informationJanuary 26, 2009 The Faculty Center for Teaching and Learning
THE BASICS OF DATA MANAGEMENT AND ANALYSIS A USER GUIDE January 26, 2009 The Faculty Center for Teaching and Learning THE BASICS OF DATA MANAGEMENT AND ANALYSIS Table of Contents Table of Contents... i
More informationTwoSample TTests Assuming Equal Variance (Enter Means)
Chapter 4 TwoSample TTests Assuming Equal Variance (Enter Means) Introduction This procedure provides sample size and power calculations for one or twosided twosample ttests when the variances of
More informationMS Excel. Handout: Level 2. elearning Department. Copyright 2016 CMS elearning Department. All Rights Reserved. Page 1 of 11
MS Excel Handout: Level 2 elearning Department 2016 Page 1 of 11 Contents Excel Environment:... 3 To create a new blank workbook:...3 To insert text:...4 Cell addresses:...4 To save the workbook:... 5
More information