# Study Guide for the Final Exam

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1 Study Guide for the Final Exam When studying, remember that the computational portion of the exam will only involve new material (covered after the second midterm), that material from Exam 1 will make up about 15% of the conceptual portion of the exam, material from Exam 2 will make up about 35% of the conceptual portion of the exam, and new material will make up about 50% of the conceptual portion. Material from Exam 1 Basic definitions o Know the definitions for: variable, sample, population, parameter, statistic, inferential & descriptive statistics, and sampling error. o Understand the relationships between samples & populations and statistics & parameters Measurement Scales & Data Types o Know the 4 different measurement scales o Know the difference between continuous and discrete variables o Know the difference between qualitative/categorical and quantitative/measurement data Basic research designs o Know the differences between basic research designs Experimental Correlational Quasi-experimental o Know the functional difference between dependent and independent variables o Know the definitions for random sampling and random assignment and the consequences of failing to sample or assign randomly Central Tendency o Understand all three measures of central tendency and know how to compute them o Be able to identify the strengths and weaknesses of each measure. o Understand how the shape of the distribution affects the different measures of central tendency o Understand how measures of central tendency are affected by extreme scores, by adding scores to a sample, or by adding constants to all scores. Dispersion or Variability o Know how to compute: Range Variance (for populations and samples) Standard deviation (for populations and samples) o As with the measures of central tendency, you should understand how the different measures of variability are affected by extreme scores, by adding scores to a sample or by linearly transforming (i.e., adding and/or multiplying by a constant) each of the scores in a sample Probability

2 o Know the definitions of independent and dependent events o Understand the difference between mutually exclusive events and independent events o Understand the difference between joint and conditional probabilities o Know how (and when) to use the multiplicative and additive laws to compute compound probabilities from simple (marginal) probabilities The Normal Distribution o Understand the role of the normal distribution in statistics and the various reasons it is used. o Understand the relationship between the standard normal distribution and any other normal distribution Know the parameters of the standard normal distribution o Be sure to remember that the distribution is symmetrical and the relationship between its three measures of central tendency o Try to remember roughly how much of the distribution falls within the central one (~68%) and two (~95%) standard deviations z-scores o Know (and understand!) the formulas for computing z-scores for x-scores drawn for arbitrary distributions and how to compute x-scores from z-scores given the parameters of a normal distribution o Remember to interpret z as units of standard deviation from the mean o Understand how to compute z given a percentage or a proportion Remember that the table used on the test always gives tail probabilities (i.e., always values smaller than 0.5) so if you want to determine the area of the body of the curve, you have to look up the tail probability and subtract it from one. Remember that computing z from a probability or percentage is the first step in determining the percentile of a distribution with arbitrary mean and standard deviation o Know how to compute The probability area in the lower or upper tail of the distribution The probability area of the normal distribution within a given interval An x or z probable interval for any percentage given a mean and standard deviation Material from Exam 2 Sampling Distributions & Hypothesis Testing Sampling distributions o Make sure you understand the concept of sampling error and how sampling errors give rise to a sampling distribution The sampling error of a statistic is the variability of a statistic from sample to sample due to chance The sampling distribution of a statistic is a description of its sampling error

3 o Know the relationship between the sampling distribution of a statistic and its standard error. You should also clearly understand the difference between the sampling distribution of a statistic and the population distribution of its underlying scores Hypothesis testing o Understand the relationship between sampling distributions and hypothesis testing. You should be able to answer the question why do we use hypothesis tests? with an answer that includes discussion of the sampling distribution or sampling error. [Really! Even if you take nothing else from this class, you should understand this.] o Understand the basic steps involved in hypothesis testing o Know the definitions of a type I error and the type I error rate (α), as well as type II errors and the type II error rate (β). o Understand the relationship between the significance level (α), the critical statistic value, and the rejection region Central Limit Theorem o Make sure you understand the implications of the central limit theorem regarding the sampling distribution of the mean: The mean of the sampling distribution of the mean is the population mean of the underlying scores As the number of scores n used to compute the sample mean increases, the standard error of the mean decreases Whatever the distribution of the parent population, the sampling distribution of the mean approaches a normal distribution as the sample size (n) increases. z-tests and t-tests: z-tests and one-sample t-tests o Make sure that you understand the relationship between the z and t statistics t-test for Repeated/Related Measures o Know the definition of a repeated-measures or related-measures research design Know the advantages and disadvantages of a repeated-measures design o Know how difference scores are computed o Remember that a related samples t-test is equivalent to a one-sample t-test computed on difference scores t-test for Two Independent Samples o Know how to compute the t-statistic for the independent samples t-test o Know the definition of pooled variance o Know the definition of the variance sum law o Know the assumptions underlying the independent samples t-test Homogeneity of variance Independence of sample scores Normality of sample scores General t-test knowledge o Know the difference between the independent-measures and repeated-measures research designs and the advantages and disadvantages of each

4 o Know how to compute the t-statistic for the independent samples t-test o In particular, know how computing the degrees of freedom and the standard error differs from the computation of these same terms in the related-samples test o Know how to compute effect size (Cohen s d) for each type of t-test o Know how to choose among the various t-tests and how the computation of the t- statistic differs across the different tests Estimation & Confidence Intervals: Confidence Intervals o Understand the difference between a point estimate and an interval estimate o Know how to use the t table to compute confidence intervals for the population mean This includes knowing the formula for confidence intervals given the critical t or z values o Understand the relationship between confidence intervals and hypothesis tests One-way s: Know the definition of the analysis of variance () and the differences between s and t-tests Understand the problem of multiple comparisons and its implications for the familywise or experimentwise error rates Know the form of the null hypothesis in the (i.e., the omnibus null hypothesis) and how the null and alternative hypotheses differ from those used in the Know the assumptions underlying the o Homogeneity of variance o Independence of observations across groups/treatments o Normality of sample scores Understand the logic of the o F is a ratio of two estimates of the population variance. o The estimate in the denominator is estimated as an average of the sample variances o The estimate in the numerator is estimated from the variance of the sample means o If the null hypothesis is true, both of these values should, on average, be equal and the expected ratio should equal 1.0 o However, if the null hypothesis is false, then the numerator should include some extra variation due to the treatment effect. In this case, the expected ratio should be greater than 1.0 on average. Know how to compute the degrees of freedom and F-ratio statistic for the one-way independent-measures (between-subjects) o You won t need to do this explicitly on the exam, but you should be able to answer conceptual questions regarding terms involved in the computation. Repeated-Measures (within-subjects) o Understand the difference between the repeated-measures and the oneway The primary computational difference is that you will have to compute the between-subjects variation SS subjects and subtract it from SS within to compute

5 SS error, which will appear in the MS error term in the denominator of the F ratio o Understand why we must remove the effects of between-subjects variability from the denominator of the F ratio o Know how to compute the degrees of freedom and the F ratio statistic for the repeated-measures o Know when to choose s rather than t tests (when you are comparing more than two samples) and when to choose the repeated-measures instead of the one-way (when you have scores that are related across samples) Know how to use the F table to compute critical regions for hypothesis testing Know how to construct and read summary tables for one-way s Understand how variance is partitioned in an Post hoc Tests o Understand the concept of post-hoc tests for multiple comparisons and why these are used with s New Material Factorial s Besides the stuff mentioned above in the general section, make sure that you understand the meaning of: main effects, interactions, and simple effects, and that you know how to compute F ratios (and the associated df parameters) for each of these effects. Also, make sure that you understand the difference between different factors, on the one hand, and different factor levels, on the other. Correlation & Regression Know how to compute (and interpret) the correlation coefficient r given either SS X, SS Y, and SP XY, or and cov XY. s X, s Y Understand the difference between Pearson s correlation coefficient, Spearman s rank correlation coefficient, the point-biserial coefficient, and the phi coefficient. Know how to compute and interpret the equation for a regression line. Chi-square Tests Know how to compute expected frequencies given probabilities, proportions, or percentages under the null hypothesis. Know how to compute expected frequencies in contingency tables. Know how to compute the statistic and its associated degrees of freedom for both the goodness-of-fit test and the test of independence. 2

6 Nonparametric Tests Know the advantages and disadvantages of nonparametric tests relative to parametric tests Know the definition of a nonparametric test For the four rank-randomization-based nonparametric tests that we discussed in class, make sure that you can match each test with its parametric equivalent. Useful Diagrams Decision Tree for z and t-tests

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