M6b: Water Surface Profiles and Hydraulic Jumps


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1 Example.0 (Chin 006): Constriction in Channel M6b: Water Surface Profiles and Hdraulic Jumps Robert Pitt Universit of Alabama and Shirle Clark Penn State  Harrisburg A rectangular channel.0 m wide carries.0 m /sec of water at a depth of 0.85 m. a) If a 0 cm wide pier is placed in the middle of the channel, find the elevation of the water surface at the constriction. b) What is the minimum width of the constriction that will not cause a rise in the upstream water surface? a) Neglecting the energ losses between the constriction and the upstream section, the energ equation requires that the specific energ at the constriction be equal to the specific energ at the upstream section: g g Where Section is the upstream section and Section is the constricted section. Therefore 0.85 m and: Q.0m /sec.00m / s A ( 0.85m)(.0m) Equating the specific energies at Sections and ields: 0.90m Q ga Which simplifies to: (.0m / sec) ( m / sec )( [.0m 0.0m) ] There are three solutions to this equation: 0.m; 0.80m; 0. m The specific energ at Section is: (.00m / sec) E 0.85m 0. 90m g 9.8 ( m / sec )
2 Of the two positive depths, the correct one must correspond to the same flow condition as upstream. At the upstream section: Fr g 0.5 The upstream flow is therefore subcritical m Fr g if 0.m; Fr.9 Subcritical Supercritical (not possible) b) The minimum width of constriction that does not cause the upstream depth to change is associated with the critical flow conditions at the constriction. Under these conditions (and for a rectangular channel): / q E E Ec c g If b is the width of the constriction that causes critical flow, then: / / ( Q / b) (.0m / sec) E 0.90m g b ( 9.8m / sec ) and b0.75m. If the constricted channel is less than 0.75 m, then the flow will be choked and the upstream depth will increase. Bridge Hdraulics Yarnell tested different tpes of model piers to obtain the following equation that predicts the increase in water surface elevation ( ) due to the bridge: KFr where α b b 4 ( K 5Fr 0.6)( α 5α ) the ratio of the pier width to the span of the piers and is the increase in water surface elevation due to the bridge Prasuhn 987 Since the flow is subcritical, the downstream depth and Froude number would be known (from computation of the backwater profile from some known location downstream). K is selected based on the pier geometr, as shown on the following table.
3 Water Surface Slope Classifications (Figure., Chin 006) Prasuhn 987 Hdraulic Classification of Slopes (Table.5, Chin 006) Mild slope because n > c M : above both n and c (above both) M : between n and c (between the upper two) M : below both n and c (below both) Prasuhn 987
4 Steep slope because c > n Critical slope because c n S : above both n and c (above both) S : between n and c (between the upper two) S : below both n and c (below both) Prasuhn 987 C : above both n and c (above both) There is no C : not possible to be between n and c (the are the same) C : below both n and c (below both) Prasuhn 987 Horizontal slope because n is infinite Adverse slope because n is infinite and channel slopes upwards There is no H : not possible to be above both ( n at infinit) H : between n and c (between both) H : below both n and c (below both) Prasuhn 987 There is no A : not possible to be above both ( n at infinit) A : between n and c (between both) A : below both n and c (below both) Prasuhn 987 4
5 Computation of Water Surface Profiles Prasuhn 987 The equation describing the shape of the water surface profile in an open channel is derived from the energ equation and written in the form: α g So S f x Rearranging leads to: α g L S f S o which describes the distance between upstream and downstream sections. Example 7 (Prasuhn 987) Direct Step Method to Calculate Water Surface Profiles A discharge of 800 cfs occurs in a long rectangular channel that is 0 ft wide and has a slope of ( 5x04 ). The channel ends in an abrupt dropoff. The Manning s n is Calculate the water surface profile from the dropoff to a distance at which the depth has reached 99 percent of the normal depth. The normal and critical depths are needed to determine the tpe of curve. From the Manning equation: Q 800 ft.49ar / sec n S / / o.49 [( 0 ft) ] 5 / n ( ) ( 0.08)( 0 ft ) / / and the normal depth at is determined to be n 8.0 ft The unit width discharge and the critical depth values are: ft /sec q cfs / ft 0 ft ( 40cfs / ft) c. 68 ft. ft / sec The water surface profile will therefore be a M curve. The depth at the brink (the drop off location) will be: and the distance from brink 0.7c. 58 ft the brink to the critical depth will be: (.68 ft) ft x 4c 4 5 5
6 Example 70 (Prasuhn 987) The distances between the downstream and upstream sections are calculated to be: g x S f S o g And the friction slopes for each segment can be calculated using the Manning s equation, using average n,, and R values for each reach: S f n av av /.49R av (ft) The computations are for a distance upstream of the drop off until the depth is 0.99 (8.0 ft) 7.9 ft. The computations are carried out in the following table: A (ft) R (ft).68.9 (ft/s) /g ( /g) R av (ft) av (ft/s) S f .7x0  x (ft) XΣ x (ft) 5 Hdraulic Jumps A hdraulic jump is a stead, nonuniform phenomenon that occurs in open channels when a supercritical flow encounters a deeper subcritical flow. As the supercritical flow encounters the slower moving water, it tends to flow under it and then spread upward, creating a large edd or roller. This can dissipate a significant amount of energ and is desirable below a spillwa or sluice gate before the flow enters a natural channel, reducing erosion potential x x x x04 6,05 Figure., Chin 006 6
7 Characteristics of Hdraulic Jumps (Table 4.5, Chin 000) Prasuhn 987 The forces in the flow direction consist of the hdrostatic forces: γ b γ ρq ( ) This can be used to derive the following that can be used to predict the conjugate (required) downstream depth of a hdraulic jump: ( 8 ) Fr The following graph can also be used to predict the depths, the length of the jump, and the head loss in the jump. Prasuhn 987 7
8 Example 77 (Prasuhn 987) Hdraulic Jump Characteristics What is the downstream depth required for a jump to occur in a 0 ft wide rectangular channel, if the upstream depth is ft and the discharge is (a) 00 cfs, or (b) 640 cfs. What is the head loss in each case? For 00 cfs: Q 00 ft / sec 5 ft / sec A Fr g ( ft)( 0 ft) 5 ft / sec (. ft / sec )( ft) 0.6 The upstream flow is subcritical and a hdraulic jump will not occur. For 640 cfs: Q 640 ft /sec 6 ft /sec A Fr g ( ft)( 0 ft) 6 ft / sec 4. 7 ft (. ft / sec )( ft).99 The upstream flow is therefore supercritical, and a jump will occur. The resulting downstream depth can be calculated: ( 8Fr ) 8(.99) ft The resulting energ loss is therefore: H L H H g g Combined Water Surface Profiles Water surface profiles are the result of an obstruction to the flow or some change or changes to the channel itself, such as its slope. The transitions that ma result involve distinct profiles as illustrated in the following profiles: ( ) ( 4.7 ft ft) 4 4( ft)( 4.7 ft) H L 0. 5 ft Alwas subcritical; the required downstream control is provided b the downstream normal water depth, a friction control because it is related to the channel friction through the normal depth and the Manning equation. Prasuhn 987 8
9 The upstream subcritical flow must have a downstream control, while the downstream supercritical flow must have an upstream control. Therefore, the transition curve must pass through the critical depth at the grade break (the onl possible control for both directions). This transition is similar to the above example: the control will be the grade change following the horizontal section (the critical depth). Depending on the length of the horizontal section, the H curve can either be above or below the normal depth of the mild slope. Prasuhn 987 Prasuhn 987 The transition from a steep to a mild slope cannot be accomplished b the water profiles alone and requires a hdraulic jump. The equation describing the ratio of / can be applied at the break in the grade with taken as the upstream normal depth. The conjugate depth can be compared to the downstream normal depth. If is greater than the downstream normal depth, the jump must be downstream of the break, otherwise it is upstream of the break. This is because decreases as increases for constant channel and discharge conditions. Prasuhn 987 This is a more complicated example. A jump ma occur in either section, but since the adverse section ends with a drop off, there is the possibilit that no jump will occur. Prasuhn 987 9
10 On a mild slope, the flow will be at the normal depth until the gate is lowered into the flow. Immediatel thereafter, it will act as a control on the upstream section. As the gate is lowered below the critical depth, it will act as a control on the downstream section also, and a hdraulic jump will occur. If the gate remains above the critical depth, there will be little energ loss and the downstream depth will remain at nearl normal depth. On a steep slope, the instant the gate enters the flow, a surge will form that moves upstream some distance and become stationar. The gate acts as both a control for the upstream subcritical flow and the downstream supercritical flow. Prasuhn 987 0
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