M6b: Water Surface Profiles and Hydraulic Jumps


 May Robbins
 2 years ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 Example.0 (Chin 006): Constriction in Channel M6b: Water Surface Profiles and Hdraulic Jumps Robert Pitt Universit of Alabama and Shirle Clark Penn State  Harrisburg A rectangular channel.0 m wide carries.0 m /sec of water at a depth of 0.85 m. a) If a 0 cm wide pier is placed in the middle of the channel, find the elevation of the water surface at the constriction. b) What is the minimum width of the constriction that will not cause a rise in the upstream water surface? a) Neglecting the energ losses between the constriction and the upstream section, the energ equation requires that the specific energ at the constriction be equal to the specific energ at the upstream section: g g Where Section is the upstream section and Section is the constricted section. Therefore 0.85 m and: Q.0m /sec.00m / s A ( 0.85m)(.0m) Equating the specific energies at Sections and ields: 0.90m Q ga Which simplifies to: (.0m / sec) ( m / sec )( [.0m 0.0m) ] There are three solutions to this equation: 0.m; 0.80m; 0. m The specific energ at Section is: (.00m / sec) E 0.85m 0. 90m g 9.8 ( m / sec )
2 Of the two positive depths, the correct one must correspond to the same flow condition as upstream. At the upstream section: Fr g 0.5 The upstream flow is therefore subcritical m Fr g if 0.m; Fr.9 Subcritical Supercritical (not possible) b) The minimum width of constriction that does not cause the upstream depth to change is associated with the critical flow conditions at the constriction. Under these conditions (and for a rectangular channel): / q E E Ec c g If b is the width of the constriction that causes critical flow, then: / / ( Q / b) (.0m / sec) E 0.90m g b ( 9.8m / sec ) and b0.75m. If the constricted channel is less than 0.75 m, then the flow will be choked and the upstream depth will increase. Bridge Hdraulics Yarnell tested different tpes of model piers to obtain the following equation that predicts the increase in water surface elevation ( ) due to the bridge: KFr where α b b 4 ( K 5Fr 0.6)( α 5α ) the ratio of the pier width to the span of the piers and is the increase in water surface elevation due to the bridge Prasuhn 987 Since the flow is subcritical, the downstream depth and Froude number would be known (from computation of the backwater profile from some known location downstream). K is selected based on the pier geometr, as shown on the following table.
3 Water Surface Slope Classifications (Figure., Chin 006) Prasuhn 987 Hdraulic Classification of Slopes (Table.5, Chin 006) Mild slope because n > c M : above both n and c (above both) M : between n and c (between the upper two) M : below both n and c (below both) Prasuhn 987
4 Steep slope because c > n Critical slope because c n S : above both n and c (above both) S : between n and c (between the upper two) S : below both n and c (below both) Prasuhn 987 C : above both n and c (above both) There is no C : not possible to be between n and c (the are the same) C : below both n and c (below both) Prasuhn 987 Horizontal slope because n is infinite Adverse slope because n is infinite and channel slopes upwards There is no H : not possible to be above both ( n at infinit) H : between n and c (between both) H : below both n and c (below both) Prasuhn 987 There is no A : not possible to be above both ( n at infinit) A : between n and c (between both) A : below both n and c (below both) Prasuhn 987 4
5 Computation of Water Surface Profiles Prasuhn 987 The equation describing the shape of the water surface profile in an open channel is derived from the energ equation and written in the form: α g So S f x Rearranging leads to: α g L S f S o which describes the distance between upstream and downstream sections. Example 7 (Prasuhn 987) Direct Step Method to Calculate Water Surface Profiles A discharge of 800 cfs occurs in a long rectangular channel that is 0 ft wide and has a slope of ( 5x04 ). The channel ends in an abrupt dropoff. The Manning s n is Calculate the water surface profile from the dropoff to a distance at which the depth has reached 99 percent of the normal depth. The normal and critical depths are needed to determine the tpe of curve. From the Manning equation: Q 800 ft.49ar / sec n S / / o.49 [( 0 ft) ] 5 / n ( ) ( 0.08)( 0 ft ) / / and the normal depth at is determined to be n 8.0 ft The unit width discharge and the critical depth values are: ft /sec q cfs / ft 0 ft ( 40cfs / ft) c. 68 ft. ft / sec The water surface profile will therefore be a M curve. The depth at the brink (the drop off location) will be: and the distance from brink 0.7c. 58 ft the brink to the critical depth will be: (.68 ft) ft x 4c 4 5 5
6 Example 70 (Prasuhn 987) The distances between the downstream and upstream sections are calculated to be: g x S f S o g And the friction slopes for each segment can be calculated using the Manning s equation, using average n,, and R values for each reach: S f n av av /.49R av (ft) The computations are for a distance upstream of the drop off until the depth is 0.99 (8.0 ft) 7.9 ft. The computations are carried out in the following table: A (ft) R (ft).68.9 (ft/s) /g ( /g) R av (ft) av (ft/s) S f .7x0  x (ft) XΣ x (ft) 5 Hdraulic Jumps A hdraulic jump is a stead, nonuniform phenomenon that occurs in open channels when a supercritical flow encounters a deeper subcritical flow. As the supercritical flow encounters the slower moving water, it tends to flow under it and then spread upward, creating a large edd or roller. This can dissipate a significant amount of energ and is desirable below a spillwa or sluice gate before the flow enters a natural channel, reducing erosion potential x x x x04 6,05 Figure., Chin 006 6
7 Characteristics of Hdraulic Jumps (Table 4.5, Chin 000) Prasuhn 987 The forces in the flow direction consist of the hdrostatic forces: γ b γ ρq ( ) This can be used to derive the following that can be used to predict the conjugate (required) downstream depth of a hdraulic jump: ( 8 ) Fr The following graph can also be used to predict the depths, the length of the jump, and the head loss in the jump. Prasuhn 987 7
8 Example 77 (Prasuhn 987) Hdraulic Jump Characteristics What is the downstream depth required for a jump to occur in a 0 ft wide rectangular channel, if the upstream depth is ft and the discharge is (a) 00 cfs, or (b) 640 cfs. What is the head loss in each case? For 00 cfs: Q 00 ft / sec 5 ft / sec A Fr g ( ft)( 0 ft) 5 ft / sec (. ft / sec )( ft) 0.6 The upstream flow is subcritical and a hdraulic jump will not occur. For 640 cfs: Q 640 ft /sec 6 ft /sec A Fr g ( ft)( 0 ft) 6 ft / sec 4. 7 ft (. ft / sec )( ft).99 The upstream flow is therefore supercritical, and a jump will occur. The resulting downstream depth can be calculated: ( 8Fr ) 8(.99) ft The resulting energ loss is therefore: H L H H g g Combined Water Surface Profiles Water surface profiles are the result of an obstruction to the flow or some change or changes to the channel itself, such as its slope. The transitions that ma result involve distinct profiles as illustrated in the following profiles: ( ) ( 4.7 ft ft) 4 4( ft)( 4.7 ft) H L 0. 5 ft Alwas subcritical; the required downstream control is provided b the downstream normal water depth, a friction control because it is related to the channel friction through the normal depth and the Manning equation. Prasuhn 987 8
9 The upstream subcritical flow must have a downstream control, while the downstream supercritical flow must have an upstream control. Therefore, the transition curve must pass through the critical depth at the grade break (the onl possible control for both directions). This transition is similar to the above example: the control will be the grade change following the horizontal section (the critical depth). Depending on the length of the horizontal section, the H curve can either be above or below the normal depth of the mild slope. Prasuhn 987 Prasuhn 987 The transition from a steep to a mild slope cannot be accomplished b the water profiles alone and requires a hdraulic jump. The equation describing the ratio of / can be applied at the break in the grade with taken as the upstream normal depth. The conjugate depth can be compared to the downstream normal depth. If is greater than the downstream normal depth, the jump must be downstream of the break, otherwise it is upstream of the break. This is because decreases as increases for constant channel and discharge conditions. Prasuhn 987 This is a more complicated example. A jump ma occur in either section, but since the adverse section ends with a drop off, there is the possibilit that no jump will occur. Prasuhn 987 9
10 On a mild slope, the flow will be at the normal depth until the gate is lowered into the flow. Immediatel thereafter, it will act as a control on the upstream section. As the gate is lowered below the critical depth, it will act as a control on the downstream section also, and a hdraulic jump will occur. If the gate remains above the critical depth, there will be little energ loss and the downstream depth will remain at nearl normal depth. On a steep slope, the instant the gate enters the flow, a surge will form that moves upstream some distance and become stationar. The gate acts as both a control for the upstream subcritical flow and the downstream supercritical flow. Prasuhn 987 0
Basically, it is a flow with free surface. (Free surface is a surface with atmospheric pressure)
8 OPEN CHANNEL FLOW 8. Classification & Definition Open channel flows are flows in rivers, streams, artificial channels, irrigation ditches, partiall filled pipe etc. Basicall, it is a flow with free surface.
More informationM6a: Open Channel Flow (Manning s Equation, Partially Flowing Pipes, and Specific Energy)
M6a: Open Channel Flow (, Partially Flowing Pipes, and Specific Energy) Steady NonUniform Flow in an Open Channel Robert Pitt University of Alabama and Shirley Clark Penn State  Harrisburg Continuity
More informationHydraulic Jumps and Nonuniform Open Channel Flow, Course #507. Presented by: PDH Enterprises, LLC PO Box 942 Morrisville, NC 27560 www.pdhsite.
Hydraulic Jumps and Nonuniform Open Channel Flow, Course #507 Presented by: PDH Enterprises, LLC PO Box 942 Morrisville, NC 27560 www.pdhsite.com Many examples of open channel flow can be approximated
More information...Eq(11.6) The energy loss in the jump is dependent on the two depths y 1 and y 2 3 = E =...Eq(11.7)
. Open Channel Flow Contd.5 Hydraulic Jump A hydraulic jump occurs when water in an open channel is flowing supercritical and is slowed by a deepening of the channel or obstruction in the channel. The
More information21. Channel flow III (8.10 8.11)
21. Channel flow III (8.10 8.11) 1. Hydraulic jump 2. Nonuniform flow section types 3. Step calculation of water surface 4. Flow measuring in channels 5. Examples E22, E24, and E25 1. Hydraulic jump Occurs
More informationAppendix 4C. Open Channel Theory
4C1 Appendix 4C Open Channel Theory 4C2 Appendix 4.C  Table of Contents 4.C.1 Open Channel Flow Theory 4C3 4.C.2 Concepts 4C3 4.C.2.1 Specific Energy 4C3 4.C.2.2 Velocity Distribution Coefficient
More informationOpen Channel Flow. M. Siavashi. School of Mechanical Engineering Iran University of Science and Technology
M. Siavashi School of Mechanical Engineering Iran University of Science and Technology W ebpage: webpages.iust.ac.ir/msiavashi Email: msiavashi@iust.ac.ir Landline: +98 21 77240391 Fall 2013 Introduction
More informationCHAPTER 9 CHANNELS APPENDIX A. Hydraulic Design Equations for Open Channel Flow
CHAPTER 9 CHANNELS APPENDIX A Hydraulic Design Equations for Open Channel Flow SEPTEMBER 2009 CHAPTER 9 APPENDIX A Hydraulic Design Equations for Open Channel Flow Introduction The Equations presented
More informationExercise (4): Open Channel Flow  Gradually Varied Flow
Exercise 4: Open Channel Flow  Gradually Varied Flow 1 A wide channel consists of three long reaches and has two gates located midway of the first and last reaches. The bed slopes for the three reaches
More informationEXAMPLES (OPENCHANNEL FLOW) AUTUMN 2015
EXAMPLES (OPENCHANNEL FLOW) AUTUMN 2015 Normal and Critical Depths Q1. If the discharge in a channel of width 5 m is 20 m 3 s 1 and Manning s n is 0.02 m 1/3 s, find: (a) the normal depth and Froude number
More informationOpen Channel Flow 2F2. A. Introduction. B. Definitions. Design Manual Chapter 2  Stormwater 2F  Open Channel Flow
Design Manual Chapter 2  Stormwater 2F  Open Channel Flow 2F2 Open Channel Flow A. Introduction The beginning of any channel design or modification is to understand the hydraulics of the stream. The
More informationLecture 22 Example Culvert Design Much of the following is based on the USBR technical publication Design of Small Canal Structures (1978)
Lecture 22 Example Culvert Design Much of the following is based on the USBR technical publication Design of Small Canal Structures (1978) I. An Example Culvert Design Design a concrete culvert using the
More information2O1 Channel Types and Structures
Iowa Stormwater Management Manual O1 O1 Channel Types and Structures A. Introduction The flow of water in an open channel is a common event in Iowa, whether in a natural channel or an artificial channel.
More informationExperiment (13): Flow channel
Introduction: An open channel is a duct in which the liquid flows with a free surface exposed to atmospheric pressure. Along the length of the duct, the pressure at the surface is therefore constant and
More informationLecture 25 Design Example for a Channel Transition. I. Introduction
Lecture 5 Design Example for a Channel Transition I. Introduction This example will be for a transition from a trapezoidal canal section to a rectangular flume section The objective of the transition design
More informationTopic 8: Open Channel Flow
3.1 Course Number: CE 365K Course Title: Hydraulic Engineering Design Course Instructor: R.J. Charbeneau Subject: Open Channel Hydraulics Topics Covered: 8. Open Channel Flow and Manning Equation 9. Energy,
More informationOPENCHANNEL FLOW. Free surface. P atm
OPENCHANNEL FLOW Openchannel flow is a flow of liquid (basically water) in a conduit with a free surface. That is a surface on which pressure is equal to local atmospheric pressure. P atm Free surface
More informationSTATE OF FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION DRAINAGE HANDBOOK OPEN CHANNEL. OFFICE OF DESIGN, DRAINAGE SECTION November 2009 TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA
STATE OF FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION DRAINAGE HANDBOOK OPEN CHANNEL OFFICE OF DESIGN, DRAINAGE SECTION TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA Table of Contents Open Channel Handbook Chapter 1 Introduction... 1
More informationLecture 24 Flumes & Channel Transitions. I. General Characteristics of Flumes. Flumes are often used:
Lecture 24 Flumes & Channel Transitions I. General Characteristics of Flumes Flumes are often used: 1. Along contours of steep slopes where minimal excavation is desired 2. On flat terrain where it is
More informationChapter 13 OPENCHANNEL FLOW
Fluid Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications, 2nd Edition Yunus A. Cengel, John M. Cimbala McGrawHill, 2010 Lecture slides by Mehmet Kanoglu Copyright The McGrawHill Companies, Inc. Permission required
More informationFloodplain Hydraulics! Hydrology and Floodplain Analysis Dr. Philip Bedient
Floodplain Hydraulics! Hydrology and Floodplain Analysis Dr. Philip Bedient Open Channel Flow 1. Uniform flow  Manning s Eqn in a prismatic channel  Q, V, y, A, P, B, S and roughness are all constant
More informationChapter 2. Derivation of the Equations of Open Channel Flow. 2.1 General Considerations
Chapter 2. Derivation of the Equations of Open Channel Flow 2.1 General Considerations Of interest is water flowing in a channel with a free surface, which is usually referred to as open channel flow.
More informationCLARK COUNTY REGIONAL FLOOD CONTROL DISTRICT HYDROLOGIC CRITERIA AND DRAINAGE DESIGN MANUAL SECTION 1100 ADDITIONAL HYDRAULIC STRUCTURES
CLARK COUNTY REGIONAL FLOOD CONTROL DISTRICT HYDROLOGIC CRITERIA AND DRAINAGE DESIGN MANUAL SECTION 1100 ADDITIONAL HYDRAULIC STRUCTURES TABLE OF CONTENTS Page 1101 INTRODUCTION 1102 1102 CHANNEL DROPS
More informationBackwater Rise and Drag Characteristics of Bridge Piers under Subcritical
European Water 36: 735, 11. 11 E.W. Publications Backwater Rise and Drag Characteristics of Bridge Piers under Subcritical Flow Conditions C.R. Suribabu *, R.M. Sabarish, R. Narasimhan and A.R. Chandhru
More informationBroad Crested Weirs. I. Introduction
Lecture 9 Broad Crested Weirs I. Introduction The broadcrested weir is an openchannel flow measurement device which combines hydraulic characteristics of both weirs and flumes Sometimes the name ramp
More informationCE415L Applied Fluid Mechanics Laboratory. Experiment: No. 5 Open Channel Flow Measurements and Grade Lines
CE415L pplied Fluid Mechanics Laborator Experiment: No. 5 Open Channel Flow Measurements and Grade Lines Learning Objective Following the completion of this experiment and the analsis of the data, ou should
More information1. Carry water under the canal 2. Carry water over the canal 3. Carry water into the canal
Lecture 21 Culvert Design & Analysis Much of the following is based on the USBR publication: Design of Small Canal Structures (1978) I. CrossDrainage Structures Crossdrainage is required when a canal
More informationCHAPTER 4 OPEN CHANNEL HYDRAULICS
CHAPTER 4 OPEN CHANNEL HYDRAULICS 4. Introduction Open channel flow refers to any flow that occupies a defined channel and has a free surface. Uniform flow has been defined as flow with straight parallel
More informationDesign Charts for OpenChannel Flow HDS 3 August 1961
Design Charts for OpenChannel Flow HDS 3 August 1961 Welcome to HDS 3Design Charts for OpenChannel Flow Table of Contents Preface DISCLAIMER: During the editing of this manual for conversion to an electronic
More informationAdvanced Hydraulics Prof. Dr. Suresh A Kartha Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati
Advanced Hydraulics Prof. Dr. Suresh A Kartha Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati Module  1 Open Channel Flow Lecture  9 Critical Flow Computations Part2 (Refer
More informationCEE 370 Fall 2015. Laboratory #3 Open Channel Flow
CEE 70 Fall 015 Laboratory # Open Channel Flow Objective: The objective of this experiment is to measure the flow of fluid through open channels using a Vnotch weir and a hydraulic jump. Introduction:
More informationCivil Engineering Hydraulics Open Channel Flow. Adult: Where s your costume? What are you supposed to be?
Civil Engineering Hydraulics Calvin: Trick or treat! Adult: Where s your costume? What are you supposed to be? Calvin: I m yet another resourceconsuming kid in an overpopulated planet, raised to an alarming
More information2.0 BASIC CONCEPTS OF OPEN CHANNEL FLOW MEASUREMENT
2.0 BASIC CONCEPTS OF OPEN CHANNEL FLOW MEASUREMENT Open channel flow is defined as flow in any channel where the liquid flows with a free surface. Open channel flow is not under pressure; gravity is the
More informationWhat is the most obvious difference between pipe flow and open channel flow????????????? (in terms of flow conditions and energy situation)
OPEN CHANNEL FLOW 1 3 Question What is the most obvious difference between pipe flow and open channel flow????????????? (in terms of flow conditions and energy situation) Typical open channel shapes Figure
More informationScattergraph Principles and Practice Practical Application of the Froude Number to Flow Monitor Data
Scattergraph Principles and Practice Practical Application of the Froude Number to Flow Monitor Data Kevin L. Enfinger, P.E. and Patrick L. Stevens, P.E. ADS Environmental Services 4940 Research Drive
More informationHYDRAULIC JUMP CHARACTERISTICS FOR DIFFERENT OPEN CHANNEL AND STILLING BASIN LAYOUTS
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technolog (IJCIET) Volume 7, Issue, MarchApril 6, pp. 9 3, Article ID: IJCIET_7 5 Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijciet/issues.asp?jtpe=ijciet&vtpe=7&itpe=
More informationCITY UTILITIES DESIGN STANDARDS MANUAL
CITY UTILITIES DESIGN STANDARDS MANUAL Book 2 (SW) SW9 June 2015 SW9.01 Purpose This Chapter provides information for the design of open channels for the conveyance of stormwater in the City of Fort Wayne.
More informationOpen channel flow Basic principle
Open channel flow Basic principle INTRODUCTION Flow in rivers, irrigation canals, drainage ditches and aqueducts are some examples for open channel flow. These flows occur with a free surface and the pressure
More informationNote: first and second stops will be reversed. Bring clothing and shoes suitable for walking on rough ground.
Open Channel Page 1 Intro check on laboratory results Field Trip Note: first and second stops will be reversed Irrigation and Drainage Field Trip Bring clothing and shoes suitable for walking on rough
More informationTRAPEZOIDAL FLUME. User s Manual. Trapezodidal Flume User s Manual
TRAPEZOIDAL FLUME User s Manual i Trapezodidal Flume User s Manual TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction to the Trapezoidal Flume... 1 Development... 1 Function... 1 Design... 2 Standards... 3 Accuracy... 3
More informationWATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING SPILLWAYS
WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING SPILLWAYS Overview General Types of Spillways Straight Drop Spillways Overflow Spillways Chute Spillways Side Channel Spillways Shaft Spillways Siphon Spillways Labyrinth Spillways
More informationDESIGN MANUAL CHAPTER 7: Energy Dissipation
DESIGN MANUAL CHAPTER 7: Energy Dissipation 7.0 ENERGY DISSIPATION... 71 7.1 SYMBOLS AND DEFINITIONS... 71 7.2 DESIGN CRITERIA... 72 7.2.1 GENERAL CRITERIA... 72 7.2.2 EROSION HAZARDS... 72 7.2.3
More informationOpen Channel Flow Measurement Weirs and Flumes
Open Channel Flow Measurement Weirs and Flumes by Harlan H. Bengtson, PhD, P.E. 1. Introduction Your Course Title Here Measuring the flow rate of water in an open channel typically involves some type of
More informationChapter 10. Open Channel Flow
Updated: Sept 3 2013 Created by Dr. İsmail HALTAŞ Created: Sept 3 2013 Chapter 10 Open Channel Flow based on Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics 6th EdiAon By Munson 2009* *some of the Figures and Tables
More informationInvestigation of Effect of Changes in Dimension and Hydraulic of Stepped Spillways for Maximization Energy Dissipation
World Applied Sciences Journal 8 (): 667, 0 ISSN 88495 IDOSI Publications, 0 DOI: 0.589/idosi.wasj.0.8.0.49 Investigation of Effect of Changes in Dimension and Hydraulic of Stepped Spillways for Maximization
More informationLECTURE 9: Open channel flow: Uniform flow, best hydraulic sections, energy principles, Froude number
LECTURE 9: Open channel flow: Uniform flow, best hydraulic sections, energy principles, Froude number Open channel flow must have a free surface. Normally free water surface is subjected to atmospheric
More informationGuo, James C.Y. (2004). Design of Urban Channel Drop Structure, J. of Flood Hazards News, December,
Guo, James C.. (004). esign of Urban Channel rop Structure, J. of Flood azards News, ecember, Guo, James C.., (009) Grade Control for Urban Channel esign, submitted to Elsevier Science, J. of ydroenvironmental
More informationModule 9: Basics of Pumps and Hydraulics Instructor Guide
Module 9: Basics of Pumps and Hydraulics Instructor Guide Activities for Unit 1 Basic Hydraulics Activity 1.1: Convert 45 psi to feet of head. 45 psis x 1 ft. = 103.8 ft 0.433 psi Activity 1.2: Determine
More informationMultiple states in open channel flow
Multiple states in open channel flow A. Defina & F.M. Susin Department IMAGE, Padua University, Italy. Abstract Steady flow regimes in a free surface flow approaching an obstacle are described and extensively
More informationEVALUATION OF UNSTEADY OPEN CHANNEL FLOW CHARACTERISTICS OVER A CRUMP WEIR
EVALUATION OF UNSTEADY OPEN CHANNEL FLOW CHARACTERISTICS OVER A CRUMP WEIR Mohd Adib Mohd Razi, Dwi Tjahjanto, Wan Afnizan Wan Mohamed, Siti Norashikin Binti Husin Department of Water Resource and Environmental
More informationENERGY DISSIPATION CHAPTER 7
CHAPTER 7 ENERGY DISSIPATION 7.1 Overview... 71 7.2 Design Criteria... 71 7.2.1 General Criteria... 71 7.2.2 Erosion Hazards... 71 7.2.3 Recommended Dissipators... 71 7.3 Riprap Aprons... 72 7.3.1
More informationLecture 6. Jump as energy dissipation Control of jump.
Lecture 6 Jump as energy dissipation Control of jump. Jump as energy dissipation The high energy loss that occurs in a hydraulic jump has led to its adoption as a part of high energy dissipater system
More informationAdvanced Hydraulics Prof. Dr. Suresh. A. Kartha Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati
Advanced Hydraulics Prof. Dr. Suresh. A. Kartha Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati Module  1 Open Channel Flow Lecture 6 Specific Energy and Critical Flow Very good
More informationPackage rivr. October 16, 2015
Type Package Package rivr October 16, 2015 Title Steady and Unsteady OpenChannel Flow Computation Version 1.1 Date 20151015 Author Michael C Koohafkan [aut, cre] Maintainer Michael C Koohafkan
More informationDesign of open channel
Design of open channel Manning s n Sides slope Seepage losses Evaporation losses Free board Data ssumptions Two unknowns b & Flow rate Q Tpe of soil Longitudinal slope S Meterlogical data (temp., wind...etc.
More informationSection 3. HYDRAULIC DESIGN A. Weirs and Orifices
Section 3. HYDRAULIC DESIGN A. Weirs and Orifices NOTE: Some of the graphs contained in this section are copied from the Los Angeles Hydraulics Manual and we wish to give them credit for their efforts.
More informationFUNDAMENTALS OF FLUID MECHANICS Chapter 10 Flow in Open Channels
FUNDAMENTALS OF FLUID MECHANICS Chapter 10 Flow in Open Channels JyhCherng Shieh Department of BioIndustrial Mechatronics Engineering National Taiwan University 1 MAIN TOPICS General Characteristics
More informationChapter 11 ENERGY DISSIPATORS SOUTH DAKOTA DRAINAGE MANUAL
Chapter 11 ENERGY DISSIPATORS SOUTH DAKOTA DRAINAGE MANUAL October 2011 Table of Contents Section Page 11.1 INTRODUCTION...111 11.1.1 Overview...111 11.1.2 Definition...111 11.1.3 HEC 14...111 11.2
More informationSection 7.2 Linear Programming: The Graphical Method
Section 7.2 Linear Programming: The Graphical Method Man problems in business, science, and economics involve finding the optimal value of a function (for instance, the maimum value of the profit function
More informationUniform Open Channel Flow and the Manning Equation. Uniform Open Channel Flow and the Manning Equation, Course #501. Presented by:
Uniform Open Channel Flow and the Manning Equation, Course #501 Presented by: PDH Enterprises, LLC PO Box 942 Morrisville, NC 27560 www.pdhsite.com This course is intended for hydrologists, civil engineers,
More informationCHAPTER 5 OPENCHANNEL FLOW
CHAPTER 5 OPENCHANNEL FLOW 1. INTRODUCTION 1 Openchannel flows are those that are not entirely included within rigid boundaries; a part of the flow is in contract with nothing at all, just empty space
More information2. CHANNELS AND THEIR GEOMETRIC PROPERTIES
Hdraulics 2. CHANNELS AND THEIR GEOMETRIC PROPERTIES 2.1 INTRODUCTION An open channel is a phsical sstem in which water flows with a free surface at the atmospheric pressure. In other words the pressure
More informationLINEAR FUNCTIONS. Form Equation Note Standard Ax + By = C A and B are not 0. A > 0
LINEAR FUNCTIONS As previousl described, a linear equation can be defined as an equation in which the highest eponent of the equation variable is one. A linear function is a function of the form f ( )
More informationChapter 7 Ditches and Channels
Chapter 7 Ditches and Channels TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER 7  DITCHES AND CHANNELS... 71 7.1 Introduction... 71 7.2 Design Policy... 72 7.2.1 Federal Policy... 72 7.2.2 Commonwealth of Virginia Policy...
More informationTHE UNIVERSITY OF TRINIDAD & TOBAGO
THE UNIVERSITY OF TRINIDAD & TOBAGO FINAL ASSESSMENT/EXAMINATIONS APRIL 2014 Course Code and Title: Programme: Date and Time: Duration: HYDRAULICS FLUD2006 BASc. Civil Engineering Wednesday 16 th April,
More informationHydraulics Engineering 6713
MEMORIAL UNIVERSITY OF NEWFOUNLAN FACULTY OF ENGINEERING AN APPLIE SCIENCE Hydraulics Engineering 67 Problems & Solutions r. Leonard Lye Professor of Civil Engineering TUTORIAL TURBULENT PIPE FLOW. In
More informationChapter 9. Steady Flow in Open channels
Chapter 9 Steady Flow in Open channels Objectives Be able to define uniform open channel flow Solve uniform open channel flow using the Manning Equation 9.1 Uniform Flow in Open Channel Openchannel flows
More informationCHAPTER IX HYDRAULICS AND DRAINAGE
CHAPTER IX HYDRAULICS AND DRAINAGE 904.1 GENERAL. Providing for the control of erosion is a necessary part of the complete design of any highway construction project. These provisions must include measures
More informationChapter 9 Hydraulic Structures
Chapter 9 Hydraulic Structures Contents 1.0 Structures in Streams... 1 2.0 Grade Control Structures... 2 2.1 Overview... 2 2.2 Simplified Design Procedures for Drop Structures... 4 2.2.1 Introduction...
More informationCHAPTER 860 OPEN CHANNELS
HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL 8601 CHAPTER 860 OPEN CHANNELS Topic 861  General Index 861.1  Introduction An open channel is a conveyance in which water flows with a free surface. Although closed conduits such
More informationSharpCrested Weirs for Open Channel Flow Measurement, Course #506. Presented by:
SharpCrested Weirs for Open Channel Flow Measurement, Course #506 Presented by: PDH Enterprises, LLC PO Box 942 Morrisville, NC 27560 www.pdhsite.com A weir is basically an obstruction in an open channel
More informationSECTION 2.2. Distance and Midpoint Formulas; Circles
SECTION. Objectives. Find the distance between two points.. Find the midpoint of a line segment.. Write the standard form of a circle s equation.. Give the center and radius of a circle whose equation
More information5.1 Introduction to Rational Expressions. Technique: 1. Reduce: 2. Simplify: 6. Simplify:
5.1 Introduction to Rational Expressions The Technique: 1. Reduce: 2. Simplify: When simplifying rational expressions, you are actually dividing both the numerator and the denominaror by common factors.
More informationEmergency Spillways (Sediment basins)
Emergency Spillways (Sediment basins) DRAINAGE CONTROL TECHNIQUE Low Gradient Velocity Control ShortTerm Steep Gradient Channel Lining MediumLong Term Outlet Control Soil Treatment Permanent [1] [1]
More informationMEASUREMENT OF VELOCITY FIELD IN THE AERATED REGION OF A HYDRAULIC JUMP USING BUBBLE IMAGE VELOCIMETRY
MEASUREMENT OF VELOCITY FIELD IN THE AERATED REGION OF A HYDRAULIC JUMP USING BUBBLE IMAGE VELOCIMETRY Chang Lin, ShihChun Hsieh, WeiJung Lin, KuangAn Chang Department of Civil Engineering, National
More informationCIVE2400 Fluid Mechanics Section 2: Open Channel Hydraulics
CIVE400 Fluid Mechanics Section : Open Channel Hydraulics. Open Channel Hydraulics.... Definition and differences between pipe flow and open channel flow.... Types of flow.... Properties of open channels...
More informationTwodimensional velocityfield measurement on a sharp openchannel rightangle junction by LDV
Twodimensional velocityfield measurement on a sharp openchannel rightangle junction by LDV M. Shaban Eissa, J. Ignacio Garcia, E. Calvo, J. Antonio Garcia & L.A. Aisa Fluid Mechanics Area, Centro Politkcnico
More informationHECRAS River Analysis System
Table of Contents US Army Corps of Engineers Hydrologic Engineering Center HECRAS River Analysis System Hydraulic Reference Manual Version 4.1 January 010 Approved for Public Release. Distribution Unlimited
More informationPerforming a Steady Flow Analysis
C H A P T E R 7 Performing a Steady Flow Analysis This chapter discusses how to calculate steady flow water surface profiles. The chapter is divided into two parts. The first part discusses how to enter
More informationInterference A simplified explanation of single, double and multislit interference
Interference A simplified explanation of single, double and multislit interference The tpe of interference we will be looking at is the interference of coherent light. Think of the light beams in the
More informationEnergy dissipation downstream of dams established in alluvial beds
Energy dissipation downstream of dams established in alluvial beds A. Sá Lopes, M.F. Proença & R. Maia Departamento de Engenharia Civil, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto
More informationReduction of Local Scour at Single TShape Spur Dike with Wing Shape in a 180 Degree Flume Bend
World Applied Sciences Journal 8 (9): 11221128, 2010 ISSN 18184952 IDOSI Publications, 2010 Reduction of Local Scour at Single TShape Spur Dike with Wing Shape in a 180 Degree Flume Bend 1 2 3 Alireza
More informationHydraulic Jump and Energy Dissipation with Sluice Gate
Water 2015, 7, 51155133; doi:10.3390/w7095115 Article OPEN ACCESS water ISSN 20734441 www.mdpi.com/journal/water Hydraulic Jump and Energy Dissipation with Sluice Gate Youngkyu Kim 1, Gyewoon Choi 2,
More informationCHAPTER 3 STORM DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
CHAPTER 3 STORM DRAINAGE SYSTEMS 3.7 Storm Drains 3.7.1 Introduction After the tentative locations of inlets, drain pipes, and outfalls with tailwaters have been determined and the inlets sized, the next
More informationCVE 372 HYDROMECHANICS EXERCISE PROBLEMS OPEN CHANNEL FLOWS
CVE 72 HYDROMECHANICS EXERCISE PROBLEMS OPEN CHANNEL FLOWS ) A rectagular irrigatio chael of base width m, is to covey 0.2 m /s discharge at a depth of 0.5 m uder uiform flow coditios. The slope of the
More informationFlow Through an Abrupt Constriction. 2D Hydrodynamic Model Performance and Influence of Spatial Resolution
Flow Through an Abrupt Constriction 2D Hydrodynamic Model Performance and Influence of Spatial Resolution Cathie Louise Barton BE (Civil) School of Environmental Engineering Faculty of Environmental Sciences
More informationCoastal and Hydraulics Laboratory
ERDC/CHL TR065 Urban Flood Damage Reduction and Channel Restoration Demonstration Program for Arid and SemiArid Regions Hydraulic Design of Channels Conveying Supercritical Flow Richard L. Stockstill
More informationCHAPTER 9. Outlet Protection
CHAPTER 9 Outlet Protection General Considerations Not an ABACT, but should be used in all watersheds to prevent erosion due to concentrated discharges For channel or swale, use guidance for pipe with
More informationADVANCED STEADY FLOW ANALYSIS WITH HECRAS. Objectives
ADVANCED STEADY FLOW ANALYSIS WITH HECRAS Objectives This course is intended to provide participants with the knowledge to effectively utilize the HEC RAS software to analyze difficult hydraulic conditions
More informationExercise (1): Open Channel Flow Uniform Flow
Exercise (1): Open Channel Flow Uniform Flow 1) Derive expressions for the flow area A, wetted perimeter P, hydraulic radius R, top water surface width B, and hydraulic depth D for the following channel
More informationCHAPTER 9 CULVERTS TABLE OF CONTENTS. CDOT Drainage Design Manual
CHAPTER 9 CULVERTS TABLE OF CONTENTS 9.1 INTRODUCTION...4 9.1.1 Definition...4 9.1.2 Purpose of Use...5 9.1.3 Concepts and Definitions...5 9.1.4 Symbols...8 9.1.5 Classification...10 9.1.6 Geometry...10
More informationHydraulics Prof. A. K. Sarma Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati. Module No. # 02 Uniform Flow Lecture No.
Hydraulics Prof. A. K. Sarma Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati Module No. # 02 Uniform Flow Lecture No. # 04 Computation of Uniform Flow (Part 02) Welcome to this
More informationHECRAS. River Analysis System. Applications Guide. Version 4.1 January 2010. US Army Corps of Engineers Hydrologic Engineering Center CPD70
US Army Corps of Engineers Hydrologic Engineering Center HECRAS HECRAS River Analysis System Applications Guide Version 4.1 January 2010 Approved for Public Release. Distribution Unlimited CPD70 REPORT
More informationChapter 5. Flow measurement
Structures for water control and distribution 29 Chapter 5 When the water available from a particular source is limited and must be used very carefully, it is useful, and even necessary, to measure the
More informationEarth Systems Science Laboratory 5 Using and Interpreting Topographic Maps
Earth Systems Science Laboratory 5 Using and Interpreting Topographic Maps This semester, you will be studying the valley of the Florida River, east of Durango. The Florida River is a source of water for
More informationMathematics. Total marks 100. Section I Pages marks Attempt Questions 1 10 Allow about 15 minutes for this section
04 HIGHER SCHOOL CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION Mathematics General Instructions Reading time 5 minutes Working time hours Write using black or blue pen Black pen is preferred Boardapproved calculators ma be
More informationSPE CoiledTubing Stretch and StuckPoint Calculations K. R. Newman
SPE 54458 CoiledTubing Stretch and StuckPoint Calculations K. R. Newman Copright 1999, Societ of Petroleum Engineers Inc. This paper was prepared for presentation at the 1999 SPE/ICoTA Coiled Tubing
More informationProceeding of International Seminar on Application of Science Matehmatics 2011 (ISASM2011) PWTC, KL, Nov, 13, 2011
Proceeding of International Seminar on Application of Science Matehmatics 2011 (ISASM2011) PWTC, KL, Nov, 13, 2011 INFLUENCE OF BED ROUGHNESS IN OPEN CHANNEL Zarina Md Ali 1 and Nor Ashikin Saib 2 1 Department
More informationModule 3. Irrigation Engineering Principles. Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur
Module 3 Irrigation Engineering Principles Lesson 9 Regulating Structures for Canal Flows Instructional objectives On completion of this lesson, the student shall be able to learn: 1. The necessity of
More informationAdvanced Hydraulics Prof. Dr. Suresh. A. Kartha Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati
Advanced Hydraulics Prof. Dr. Suresh. A. Kartha Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati Module  6 Turbines Lecture  4 Turbines, Cavitation Very good afternoon to everyone,
More information