Chapter 9. Steady Flow in Open channels

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Chapter 9. Steady Flow in Open channels"

Transcription

1 Chapter 9 Steady Flow in Open channels

2 Objectives Be able to define uniform open channel flow Solve uniform open channel flow using the Manning Equation

3 9.1 Uniform Flow in Open Channel Open-channel flows are characterized by the presence of a liquid-gas interface called the free surface. Natural flows: rivers, creeks, floods, etc. Human-made systems: freshwater aqueducts, irrigation, sewers, drainage ditches, etc.

4 In an open channel, Velocity is zero on bottom and sides of channel due to noslip condition Velocity is maximum at the midplane of the free surface In most cases, velocity also varies in the streamwise direction Therefore, the flow is 3D Nevertheless, 1D approximation is made with good success for many practical problems.

5 differences between pipe flow and open channel flow The flow of water in a conduit may be either open channel flow or pipe flow. The two kinds of flow are similar in many ways but differ in one important respect. Open-channel flow must have a free surface, whereas pipe flow has none. A free surface is subject to atmospheric pressure. In Pipe flow there exist no direct atmospheric flow but hydraulic pressure only.

6

7 Open channel flow is driven by gravity rather than by pressure work as in pipes.

8 9.2 Classification of Open-Channel Flows The most common classification method is by rate of change of free-surface depth. The classes are summarized as 1. Uniform flow (constant depth and slope) 2. Varied flow a. Gradually varied (one-dimensional) b. Rapidly varied (multidimensional)

9 Classification of Open-Channel Flows Flow in open channels is also classified as being uniform or nonuniform, depending upon the depth y. Uniform flow (UF) encountered in long straight sections where head loss due to friction is balanced by elevation drop. Depth in UF is called normal depth y n

10 Classification of Open-Channel Flows Obstructions cause the flow depth to vary. Rapidly varied flow (RVF) occurs over a short distance near the obstacle. Gradually varied flow (GVF) occurs over larger distances and usually connects UF and RVF.

11

12 9.3 Properties of open channels Artificial channels These are channels made by man. They include irrigation canals, navigation canals, spillways, sewers, culverts and drainage ditches. They are usually constructed in a regular cross-section shape throughout and are thus prismatic channels (they don t widen or get narrower along the channel. Natural channels Natural channels can be very different. They are not regular nor prismatic and their materials of construction can vary widely (although they are mainly of earth this can possess many different properties.) The surface roughness will often change with time distance and even elevation.

13 Properties of open channels Geometric properties necessary for analysis Depth (y) the vertical distance from the lowest point of the channel section to the free surface. Stage (z) the vertical distance from the free surface to an arbitrary datum Area (A) the cross-sectional area of flow, normal to the direction of flow Wetted perimeter (P) the length of the wetted surface measured normal to the direction of flow. Surface width (B) width of the channel section at the free surface Hydraulic radius (R) the ratio of area to wetted perimeter (A/P) Hydraulic mean depth (Dm) the ratio of area to surface width (A/B)

14 The wetted perimeter does not include the free surface.

15 Multiple Choice Consider an open rectangular channel 3m wide laid on a 1 slope. If the water depth is 2m, the hydraulic radius is: (a) 0.43m (b) 0.60m (c) 0.86m (d) 1.00m

16 9.4 Continuity and Energy Equations 1D steady continuity equation can be expressed as 1D steady energy equation between two stations Head loss h L is expressed as 2 L V h L = f 4R 2g

17 9.5 Uniform Flow in Channels Occurs in long straight runs of constant slope The velocity is constant with V = V o Water depth is constant with y = y n Slope is constant with S o = tanα

18 Head loss in a Channel Recall: Darcy-Weisbach Equation For circular pipes: L V h = f f D 2g 2 For non-circular conduits: 2 L V h = f R = f 4R 2g A χ

19 Head loss in a Channel 2 L V h f = S L = f 0 4R 2g Solve for V: V = 4S 0 R2g f V = 8g f R 1/ 2 S 1/ 2 0

20 Chezy Formula For a given channel shape and roughness: 8g = Constant f This leads to the Chezy Formula = C Named after Antoine Chezy, who did experiments in the River Seine in 1760s V C RS = = 0 C Ri C Chezy Coefficient i the bed slope of the channel

21 Manning s Analysis Robert Manning (Irish engineer, 1880s) Found C increases with channel size: C = 1 R 1/ 6 n Manning s formula Where n = a roughness coefficient

22 Values of Manning n Lined Canals n Cement plaster Untreated gunite Wood, planed Wood, unplaned Concrete, trowled Concrete, wood forms, unfinished Rubble in cement Asphalt, smooth Asphalt, rough Natural Channels Gravel beds, straight Gravel beds plus large boulders Earth, straight, with some grass Earth, winding, no vegetation Earth, winding with vegetation 0.050

23 How to get n? Field studies expensive! References Estimate based on roughness height

24 9.6 Computations in uniform flow We can use Manning's formula for discharge to calculate steady uniform flow. Two calculations are usually performed to solve uniform flow problems. 1. Discharge from a given depth 2. Depth for a given discharge In steady uniform flow the flow depth is know as normal depth.

25 example 1 Discharge from depth in a trapezoidal channel A concrete lined trapezoidal channel with uniform flow has a normal depth is 2m.The base width is 5m and the side slopes are equal at 1:2 Manning's n can be taken as And the bed slope S0 = What are: a) Discharge (Q) b) Mean velocity (V) c) Reynolds number (Re)

26 Solution: Calculate the section properties the mean velocity And the Reynolds number This is very large - i.e. well into the turbulent zone - the application of the Manning's equation was therefore valid.

27 Example: Manning Formula What is the flow capacity of a finished concrete channel that drops 1.2 m in 3 km? m 3 m

28 Example solution 1 Q = AR n 2/3 S 1/ 2 0 A = ( 3m)(1.5m) + (3m)(1.5m) = 9m P = = ( 3m) + 2 (3m) + (1.5m) 9.71m n = S 1 Q = (9m Q = 14.3m / s m = = m )(0.927m) 2/3 2 (0.0004) 1/ 2 A R = = m P

29

30

31 9.7 Best Hydraulic Cross Sections Best hydraulic cross section for an open channel is the one with the minimum wetted perimeter for a specified cross section (or maximum hydraulic radius R h ) Also reflects economy of building structure with smallest perimeter

32 Best Hydraulic Cross Sections Example: Rectangular Channel Cross section area, A c = yb Perimeter, p = b + 2y Solve A c for b and substitute Taking derivative with respect to To find minimum, set derivative to zero Best rectangular channel has a depth 1/2 of the width

33 Best Hydraulic Cross Sections Same analysis can be performed for a trapezoidal channel Similarly, taking the derivative of p with respect to q, shows that the optimum angle is For this angle, the best flow depth is

34 Multiple Choice Consider an open rectangular channel 3m wide laid on a 1 slope. The most efficient water depth (best depth for a given flow and resistance ) is: (a) 1.0m (b) 1.5m (c) 2.0m (d) 2.5m

Open Channel Flow. M. Siavashi. School of Mechanical Engineering Iran University of Science and Technology

Open Channel Flow. M. Siavashi. School of Mechanical Engineering Iran University of Science and Technology M. Siavashi School of Mechanical Engineering Iran University of Science and Technology W ebpage: webpages.iust.ac.ir/msiavashi Email: msiavashi@iust.ac.ir Landline: +98 21 77240391 Fall 2013 Introduction

More information

OPEN-CHANNEL FLOW. Free surface. P atm

OPEN-CHANNEL FLOW. Free surface. P atm OPEN-CHANNEL FLOW Open-channel flow is a flow of liquid (basically water) in a conduit with a free surface. That is a surface on which pressure is equal to local atmospheric pressure. P atm Free surface

More information

Open channel flow Basic principle

Open channel flow Basic principle Open channel flow Basic principle INTRODUCTION Flow in rivers, irrigation canals, drainage ditches and aqueducts are some examples for open channel flow. These flows occur with a free surface and the pressure

More information

Chapter 13 OPEN-CHANNEL FLOW

Chapter 13 OPEN-CHANNEL FLOW Fluid Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications, 2nd Edition Yunus A. Cengel, John M. Cimbala McGraw-Hill, 2010 Lecture slides by Mehmet Kanoglu Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required

More information

Experiment (13): Flow channel

Experiment (13): Flow channel Introduction: An open channel is a duct in which the liquid flows with a free surface exposed to atmospheric pressure. Along the length of the duct, the pressure at the surface is therefore constant and

More information

What is the most obvious difference between pipe flow and open channel flow????????????? (in terms of flow conditions and energy situation)

What is the most obvious difference between pipe flow and open channel flow????????????? (in terms of flow conditions and energy situation) OPEN CHANNEL FLOW 1 3 Question What is the most obvious difference between pipe flow and open channel flow????????????? (in terms of flow conditions and energy situation) Typical open channel shapes Figure

More information

CHAPTER II UNIFORM FLOW AND ITS FORMULAS MODULE 1. This experiment was designed to observe the characteristics of uniform flow in

CHAPTER II UNIFORM FLOW AND ITS FORMULAS MODULE 1. This experiment was designed to observe the characteristics of uniform flow in CHAPTER II UNIFORM FLOW AND ITS FORMULAS MODULE 1 2.1 Introduction and Objective This experiment was designed to observe the characteristics of uniform flow in the teaching flume and to utilize the common

More information

LECTURE 9: Open channel flow: Uniform flow, best hydraulic sections, energy principles, Froude number

LECTURE 9: Open channel flow: Uniform flow, best hydraulic sections, energy principles, Froude number LECTURE 9: Open channel flow: Uniform flow, best hydraulic sections, energy principles, Froude number Open channel flow must have a free surface. Normally free water surface is subjected to atmospheric

More information

EXAMPLES (OPEN-CHANNEL FLOW) AUTUMN 2015

EXAMPLES (OPEN-CHANNEL FLOW) AUTUMN 2015 EXAMPLES (OPEN-CHANNEL FLOW) AUTUMN 2015 Normal and Critical Depths Q1. If the discharge in a channel of width 5 m is 20 m 3 s 1 and Manning s n is 0.02 m 1/3 s, find: (a) the normal depth and Froude number

More information

Appendix 4-C. Open Channel Theory

Appendix 4-C. Open Channel Theory 4-C-1 Appendix 4-C Open Channel Theory 4-C-2 Appendix 4.C - Table of Contents 4.C.1 Open Channel Flow Theory 4-C-3 4.C.2 Concepts 4-C-3 4.C.2.1 Specific Energy 4-C-3 4.C.2.2 Velocity Distribution Coefficient

More information

CHAPTER 9 CHANNELS APPENDIX A. Hydraulic Design Equations for Open Channel Flow

CHAPTER 9 CHANNELS APPENDIX A. Hydraulic Design Equations for Open Channel Flow CHAPTER 9 CHANNELS APPENDIX A Hydraulic Design Equations for Open Channel Flow SEPTEMBER 2009 CHAPTER 9 APPENDIX A Hydraulic Design Equations for Open Channel Flow Introduction The Equations presented

More information

M6a: Open Channel Flow (Manning s Equation, Partially Flowing Pipes, and Specific Energy)

M6a: Open Channel Flow (Manning s Equation, Partially Flowing Pipes, and Specific Energy) M6a: Open Channel Flow (, Partially Flowing Pipes, and Specific Energy) Steady Non-Uniform Flow in an Open Channel Robert Pitt University of Alabama and Shirley Clark Penn State - Harrisburg Continuity

More information

Open Channel Flow 2F-2. A. Introduction. B. Definitions. Design Manual Chapter 2 - Stormwater 2F - Open Channel Flow

Open Channel Flow 2F-2. A. Introduction. B. Definitions. Design Manual Chapter 2 - Stormwater 2F - Open Channel Flow Design Manual Chapter 2 - Stormwater 2F - Open Channel Flow 2F-2 Open Channel Flow A. Introduction The beginning of any channel design or modification is to understand the hydraulics of the stream. The

More information

2.0 BASIC CONCEPTS OF OPEN CHANNEL FLOW MEASUREMENT

2.0 BASIC CONCEPTS OF OPEN CHANNEL FLOW MEASUREMENT 2.0 BASIC CONCEPTS OF OPEN CHANNEL FLOW MEASUREMENT Open channel flow is defined as flow in any channel where the liquid flows with a free surface. Open channel flow is not under pressure; gravity is the

More information

CHAPTER 5 OPEN CHANNEL HYDROLOGY

CHAPTER 5 OPEN CHANNEL HYDROLOGY 5.4 Uniform Flow Calculations 5.4.1 Design Charts CHAPTER 5 OPEN CHANNEL HYDROLOGY Following is a discussion of the equations that can be used for the design and analysis of open channel flow. The Federal

More information

Lecture 24 Flumes & Channel Transitions. I. General Characteristics of Flumes. Flumes are often used:

Lecture 24 Flumes & Channel Transitions. I. General Characteristics of Flumes. Flumes are often used: Lecture 24 Flumes & Channel Transitions I. General Characteristics of Flumes Flumes are often used: 1. Along contours of steep slopes where minimal excavation is desired 2. On flat terrain where it is

More information

Topic 8: Open Channel Flow

Topic 8: Open Channel Flow 3.1 Course Number: CE 365K Course Title: Hydraulic Engineering Design Course Instructor: R.J. Charbeneau Subject: Open Channel Hydraulics Topics Covered: 8. Open Channel Flow and Manning Equation 9. Energy,

More information

CIVE2400 Fluid Mechanics Section 2: Open Channel Hydraulics

CIVE2400 Fluid Mechanics Section 2: Open Channel Hydraulics CIVE400 Fluid Mechanics Section : Open Channel Hydraulics. Open Channel Hydraulics.... Definition and differences between pipe flow and open channel flow.... Types of flow.... Properties of open channels...

More information

Design Charts for Open-Channel Flow HDS 3 August 1961

Design Charts for Open-Channel Flow HDS 3 August 1961 Design Charts for Open-Channel Flow HDS 3 August 1961 Welcome to HDS 3-Design Charts for Open-Channel Flow Table of Contents Preface DISCLAIMER: During the editing of this manual for conversion to an electronic

More information

STATE OF FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION DRAINAGE HANDBOOK OPEN CHANNEL. OFFICE OF DESIGN, DRAINAGE SECTION November 2009 TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA

STATE OF FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION DRAINAGE HANDBOOK OPEN CHANNEL. OFFICE OF DESIGN, DRAINAGE SECTION November 2009 TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA STATE OF FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION DRAINAGE HANDBOOK OPEN CHANNEL OFFICE OF DESIGN, DRAINAGE SECTION TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA Table of Contents Open Channel Handbook Chapter 1 Introduction... 1

More information

There are a number of criteria to consider when designing canals Below is a list of main criteria, not necessarily in order of importance:

There are a number of criteria to consider when designing canals Below is a list of main criteria, not necessarily in order of importance: Lecture 15 Canal Design Basics I. Canal Design Factors There are a number of criteria to consider when designing canals Below is a list of main criteria, not necessarily in order of importance: 1. Flow

More information

Chapter 10. Open- Channel Flow

Chapter 10. Open- Channel Flow Updated: Sept 3 2013 Created by Dr. İsmail HALTAŞ Created: Sept 3 2013 Chapter 10 Open- Channel Flow based on Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics 6th EdiAon By Munson 2009* *some of the Figures and Tables

More information

CITY UTILITIES DESIGN STANDARDS MANUAL

CITY UTILITIES DESIGN STANDARDS MANUAL CITY UTILITIES DESIGN STANDARDS MANUAL Book 2 (SW) SW9 June 2015 SW9.01 Purpose This Chapter provides information for the design of open channels for the conveyance of stormwater in the City of Fort Wayne.

More information

Travel Time. Computation of travel time and time of concentration. Factors affecting time of concentration. Surface roughness

Travel Time. Computation of travel time and time of concentration. Factors affecting time of concentration. Surface roughness 3 Chapter 3 of Concentration and Travel Time Time of Concentration and Travel Time Travel time ( T t ) is the time it takes water to travel from one location to another in a watershed. T t is a component

More information

CEE 370 Fall 2015. Laboratory #3 Open Channel Flow

CEE 370 Fall 2015. Laboratory #3 Open Channel Flow CEE 70 Fall 015 Laboratory # Open Channel Flow Objective: The objective of this experiment is to measure the flow of fluid through open channels using a V-notch weir and a hydraulic jump. Introduction:

More information

Exercise (4): Open Channel Flow - Gradually Varied Flow

Exercise (4): Open Channel Flow - Gradually Varied Flow Exercise 4: Open Channel Flow - Gradually Varied Flow 1 A wide channel consists of three long reaches and has two gates located midway of the first and last reaches. The bed slopes for the three reaches

More information

CHAPTER 4 OPEN CHANNEL HYDRAULICS

CHAPTER 4 OPEN CHANNEL HYDRAULICS CHAPTER 4 OPEN CHANNEL HYDRAULICS 4. Introduction Open channel flow refers to any flow that occupies a defined channel and has a free surface. Uniform flow has been defined as flow with straight parallel

More information

Open Channel Flow in Aquaculture

Open Channel Flow in Aquaculture SRAC Publication No. 74 Southern Regional Aquaculture Center March 1995 PR VI Open Channel Flow in Aquaculture J. David Bankston, Jr. 1 and Fred Eugene Baker Open channel flow of water has been used in

More information

Note: first and second stops will be reversed. Bring clothing and shoes suitable for walking on rough ground.

Note: first and second stops will be reversed. Bring clothing and shoes suitable for walking on rough ground. Open Channel Page 1 Intro check on laboratory results Field Trip Note: first and second stops will be reversed Irrigation and Drainage Field Trip Bring clothing and shoes suitable for walking on rough

More information

Basic Hydrology. Time of Concentration Methodology

Basic Hydrology. Time of Concentration Methodology Basic Hydrology Time of Concentration Methodology By: Paul Schiariti, P.E., CPESC Mercer County Soil Conservation District What is the Time of Concentration? The time it takes for runoff to travel from

More information

1. Carry water under the canal 2. Carry water over the canal 3. Carry water into the canal

1. Carry water under the canal 2. Carry water over the canal 3. Carry water into the canal Lecture 21 Culvert Design & Analysis Much of the following is based on the USBR publication: Design of Small Canal Structures (1978) I. Cross-Drainage Structures Cross-drainage is required when a canal

More information

Floodplain Hydraulics! Hydrology and Floodplain Analysis Dr. Philip Bedient

Floodplain Hydraulics! Hydrology and Floodplain Analysis Dr. Philip Bedient Floodplain Hydraulics! Hydrology and Floodplain Analysis Dr. Philip Bedient Open Channel Flow 1. Uniform flow - Manning s Eqn in a prismatic channel - Q, V, y, A, P, B, S and roughness are all constant

More information

Calculating resistance to flow in open channels

Calculating resistance to flow in open channels Alternative Hydraulics Paper 2, 5 April 2010 Calculating resistance to flow in open channels http://johndfenton.com/alternative-hydraulics.html johndfenton@gmail.com Abstract The Darcy-Weisbach formulation

More information

1 Fundamentals of. open-channel flow 1.1 GEOMETRIC ELEMENTS OF OPEN CHANNELS

1 Fundamentals of. open-channel flow 1.1 GEOMETRIC ELEMENTS OF OPEN CHANNELS 1 Fundamentals of open-channel flow Open channels are natural or manmade conveyance structures that normally have an open top, and they include rivers, streams and estuaries. n important characteristic

More information

Proceeding of International Seminar on Application of Science Matehmatics 2011 (ISASM2011) PWTC, KL, Nov, 1-3, 2011

Proceeding of International Seminar on Application of Science Matehmatics 2011 (ISASM2011) PWTC, KL, Nov, 1-3, 2011 Proceeding of International Seminar on Application of Science Matehmatics 2011 (ISASM2011) PWTC, KL, Nov, 1-3, 2011 INFLUENCE OF BED ROUGHNESS IN OPEN CHANNEL Zarina Md Ali 1 and Nor Ashikin Saib 2 1 Department

More information

Chapter 2. Derivation of the Equations of Open Channel Flow. 2.1 General Considerations

Chapter 2. Derivation of the Equations of Open Channel Flow. 2.1 General Considerations Chapter 2. Derivation of the Equations of Open Channel Flow 2.1 General Considerations Of interest is water flowing in a channel with a free surface, which is usually referred to as open channel flow.

More information

Hydraulics Prof. A. K. Sarma Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati. Module No. # 02 Uniform Flow Lecture No.

Hydraulics Prof. A. K. Sarma Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati. Module No. # 02 Uniform Flow Lecture No. Hydraulics Prof. A. K. Sarma Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati Module No. # 02 Uniform Flow Lecture No. # 04 Computation of Uniform Flow (Part 02) Welcome to this

More information

2O-1 Channel Types and Structures

2O-1 Channel Types and Structures Iowa Stormwater Management Manual O-1 O-1 Channel Types and Structures A. Introduction The flow of water in an open channel is a common event in Iowa, whether in a natural channel or an artificial channel.

More information

CHAPTER 3 STORM DRAINAGE SYSTEMS

CHAPTER 3 STORM DRAINAGE SYSTEMS CHAPTER 3 STORM DRAINAGE SYSTEMS 3.7 Storm Drains 3.7.1 Introduction After the tentative locations of inlets, drain pipes, and outfalls with tail-waters have been determined and the inlets sized, the next

More information

Hydraulics Laboratory Experiment Report

Hydraulics Laboratory Experiment Report Hydraulics Laboratory Experiment Report Name: Ahmed Essam Mansour Section: "1", Monday 2-5 pm Title: Flow in open channel Date: 13 November-2006 Objectives: Calculate the Chezy and Manning coefficients

More information

Emergency Spillways (Sediment basins)

Emergency Spillways (Sediment basins) Emergency Spillways (Sediment basins) DRAINAGE CONTROL TECHNIQUE Low Gradient Velocity Control Short-Term Steep Gradient Channel Lining Medium-Long Term Outlet Control Soil Treatment Permanent [1] [1]

More information

MODELING FLUID FLOW IN OPEN CHANNEL WITH CIRCULAR CROSS SECTION DADDY PETER TSOMBE MASTER OF SCIENCE. (Applied Mathematics)

MODELING FLUID FLOW IN OPEN CHANNEL WITH CIRCULAR CROSS SECTION DADDY PETER TSOMBE MASTER OF SCIENCE. (Applied Mathematics) MODELING FLUID FLOW IN OPEN CHANNEL WITH CIRCULAR CROSS SECTION DADDY PETER TSOMBE MASTER OF SCIENCE (Applied Mathematics) JOMO KENYATTA UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE AND TECHNOLOGY 2011 Modeling fluid flow

More information

CHAPTER 860 OPEN CHANNELS

CHAPTER 860 OPEN CHANNELS HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL 860-1 CHAPTER 860 OPEN CHANNELS Topic 861 - General Index 861.1 - Introduction An open channel is a conveyance in which water flows with a free surface. Although closed conduits such

More information

Module 7: Hydraulic Design of Sewers and Storm Water Drains. Lecture 7 : Hydraulic Design of Sewers and Storm Water Drains

Module 7: Hydraulic Design of Sewers and Storm Water Drains. Lecture 7 : Hydraulic Design of Sewers and Storm Water Drains 1 P age Module 7: Hydraulic Design of Sewers and Storm Water Drains Lecture 7 : Hydraulic Design of Sewers and Storm Water Drains 2 P age 7.1 General Consideration Generally, sewers are laid at steeper

More information

Hydraulic Jumps and Non-uniform Open Channel Flow, Course #507. Presented by: PDH Enterprises, LLC PO Box 942 Morrisville, NC 27560 www.pdhsite.

Hydraulic Jumps and Non-uniform Open Channel Flow, Course #507. Presented by: PDH Enterprises, LLC PO Box 942 Morrisville, NC 27560 www.pdhsite. Hydraulic Jumps and Non-uniform Open Channel Flow, Course #507 Presented by: PDH Enterprises, LLC PO Box 942 Morrisville, NC 27560 www.pdhsite.com Many examples of open channel flow can be approximated

More information

SECTION 5 - STORM DRAINS

SECTION 5 - STORM DRAINS Drainage Criteria Manual SECTION 5 - STORM DRAINS 5.1.0 GENERAL This The purpose of this section discusses briefly is to consider the hydraulic aspects of storm drains and their appurtenances in a storm

More information

Broad Crested Weirs. I. Introduction

Broad Crested Weirs. I. Introduction Lecture 9 Broad Crested Weirs I. Introduction The broad-crested weir is an open-channel flow measurement device which combines hydraulic characteristics of both weirs and flumes Sometimes the name ramp

More information

THE UNIVERSITY OF TRINIDAD & TOBAGO

THE UNIVERSITY OF TRINIDAD & TOBAGO THE UNIVERSITY OF TRINIDAD & TOBAGO FINAL ASSESSMENT/EXAMINATIONS APRIL 2014 Course Code and Title: Programme: Date and Time: Duration: HYDRAULICS FLUD2006 BASc. Civil Engineering Wednesday 16 th April,

More information

Module 9: Basics of Pumps and Hydraulics Instructor Guide

Module 9: Basics of Pumps and Hydraulics Instructor Guide Module 9: Basics of Pumps and Hydraulics Instructor Guide Activities for Unit 1 Basic Hydraulics Activity 1.1: Convert 45 psi to feet of head. 45 psis x 1 ft. = 103.8 ft 0.433 psi Activity 1.2: Determine

More information

Lecture 25 Design Example for a Channel Transition. I. Introduction

Lecture 25 Design Example for a Channel Transition. I. Introduction Lecture 5 Design Example for a Channel Transition I. Introduction This example will be for a transition from a trapezoidal canal section to a rectangular flume section The objective of the transition design

More information

The Mathematics of Water Flow in Channels

The Mathematics of Water Flow in Channels The Mathematics of Water Flow in Channels Scenario As a newl qualified graduate ou have taken a ear out to work for an overseas aid agenc in a developing countr. You have been assigned to work on a development

More information

Lecture 22 Example Culvert Design Much of the following is based on the USBR technical publication Design of Small Canal Structures (1978)

Lecture 22 Example Culvert Design Much of the following is based on the USBR technical publication Design of Small Canal Structures (1978) Lecture 22 Example Culvert Design Much of the following is based on the USBR technical publication Design of Small Canal Structures (1978) I. An Example Culvert Design Design a concrete culvert using the

More information

Hydraulics Guide. Table 1: Conveyance Factors (English Units)... 7 Table 2: Conveyance Factors (Metric Units)... 8

Hydraulics Guide. Table 1: Conveyance Factors (English Units)... 7 Table 2: Conveyance Factors (Metric Units)... 8 Table of Contents 1.1 Index of Tables... 1 1. Index of Figures... 1 1.3 Overview of Hydraulic Considerations... 1.4 Discharge Curves... 1.5 Conveyance Method... 5 1.6 Flow Velocity Considerations... 9

More information

Storm Drainage Systems 11.9-1

Storm Drainage Systems 11.9-1 Storm Drainage Systems 11.9-1 11.9 Gutter Flow Calculations 11.9.1 Introduction Gutter flow calculations are necessary in order to relate the quantity of flow (Q) in the curbed channel to the spread of

More information

Flow Like An Egyptian: The Basics of Open channel flow

Flow Like An Egyptian: The Basics of Open channel flow Flow Like An Egyptian: The Basics of Open channel flow Walt Boyes,as ISA Life Fellow, Fellow of InstMC, Chartered Measurement and Control Technologist, Editor of Control and ControlGlobal.com and principal

More information

ANALYSIS OF OPEN-CHANNEL VELOCITY MEASUREMENTS COLLECTED WITH AN ACOUSTIC DOPPLER CURRENT PROFILER

ANALYSIS OF OPEN-CHANNEL VELOCITY MEASUREMENTS COLLECTED WITH AN ACOUSTIC DOPPLER CURRENT PROFILER Reprint from RIVERTECH 96 Proceedings from the1st International Conference On New/Emerging Concepts for Rivers Organized by the International Water Resources Association Held September 22-26, 1996, Chicago,

More information

A n. P w Figure 1: Schematic of the hydraulic radius

A n. P w Figure 1: Schematic of the hydraulic radius BEE 473 Watershed Engineering Fall 2004 OPEN CHANNELS The following provide the basic equations and relationships used in open channel design. Although a variety of flow conditions can exist in a channel

More information

Urban Hydraulics. 2.1 Basic Fluid Mechanics

Urban Hydraulics. 2.1 Basic Fluid Mechanics Urban Hydraulics Learning objectives: After completing this section, the student should understand basic concepts of fluid flow and how to analyze conduit flows and free surface flows. They should be able

More information

Basic Hydraulic Principles

Basic Hydraulic Principles CHAPTER 1 Basic Hydraulic Principles 1.1 General Flow Characteristics In hydraulics, as with any technical topic, a full understanding cannot come without first becoming familiar with basic terminology

More information

Time of Concentration

Time of Concentration Design Manual Chapter 2 - Stormwater 2B - Urban Hydrology and Runoff 2B-3 Time of Concentration A. Introduction Time of concentration (T c ) is the time required for runoff to travel from the hydraulically

More information

Design of open channel

Design of open channel Design of open channel Manning s n Sides slope Seepage losses Evaporation losses Free board Data ssumptions Two unknowns b & Flow rate Q Tpe of soil Longitudinal slope S Meterlogical data (temp., wind...etc.

More information

Concrete Pipe Design Manual INDEX OF CONTENTS. FOREWORD... iii. Chapter 1. INTRODUCTION... 1

Concrete Pipe Design Manual INDEX OF CONTENTS. FOREWORD... iii. Chapter 1. INTRODUCTION... 1 Concrete Pipe Design Manual INDEX OF CONTENTS FOREWORD...... iii Chapter 1. INTRODUCTION... 1 Chapter 2. HYDRAULICS OF SEWERS Sanitary Sewers... 3 Determination of Sewer System Type... 3 Determination

More information

CHAPTER 4 FLOW IN CHANNELS

CHAPTER 4 FLOW IN CHANNELS CHAPTER 4 FLOW IN CHANNELS INTRODUCTION 1 Flows in conduits or channels are of interest in science, engineering, and everyday life. Flows in closed conduits or channels, like pipes or air ducts, are entirely

More information

Spreadsheet Use for Partially Full Pipe Flow Calculations

Spreadsheet Use for Partially Full Pipe Flow Calculations Spreadsheet Use for Partially Full Pipe Flow Calculations Course No: C02-037 Credit: 2 PDH Harlan H. Bengtson, PhD, P.E. Continuing Education and Development, Inc. 9 Greyridge Farm Court Stony Point, NY

More information

Applied Fluid Mechanics

Applied Fluid Mechanics Applied Fluid Mechanics 1. The Nature of Fluid and the Study of Fluid Mechanics 2. Viscosity of Fluid 3. Pressure Measurement 4. Forces Due to Static Fluid 5. Buoyancy and Stability 6. Flow of Fluid and

More information

Backwater Rise and Drag Characteristics of Bridge Piers under Subcritical

Backwater Rise and Drag Characteristics of Bridge Piers under Subcritical European Water 36: 7-35, 11. 11 E.W. Publications Backwater Rise and Drag Characteristics of Bridge Piers under Subcritical Flow Conditions C.R. Suribabu *, R.M. Sabarish, R. Narasimhan and A.R. Chandhru

More information

ESTIMATING DISCHARGE AND STREAM FLOWS

ESTIMATING DISCHARGE AND STREAM FLOWS ESTIMATING DISCHARGE AND STREAM FLOWS A Guide for Sand and Gravel Operators Prepared by: Joy P. Michaud and Marlies Wierenga, EnviroVision Art and design by: S. Noel, Noel Design, LLC July 2005 Ecology

More information

Riprap-lined Swale (RS)

Riprap-lined Swale (RS) Riprap-lined Swale (RS) Practice Description A riprap-lined swale is a natural or constructed channel with an erosion-resistant rock lining designed to carry concentrated runoff to a stable outlet. This

More information

FUNDAMENTALS OF FLUID MECHANICS Chapter 10 Flow in Open Channels

FUNDAMENTALS OF FLUID MECHANICS Chapter 10 Flow in Open Channels FUNDAMENTALS OF FLUID MECHANICS Chapter 10 Flow in Open Channels Jyh-Cherng Shieh Department of Bio-Industrial Mechatronics Engineering National Taiwan University 1 MAIN TOPICS General Characteristics

More information

LECTURE 1: Review of pipe flow: Darcy-Weisbach, Manning, Hazen-Williams equations, Moody diagram

LECTURE 1: Review of pipe flow: Darcy-Weisbach, Manning, Hazen-Williams equations, Moody diagram LECTURE 1: Review of pipe flow: Darcy-Weisbach, Manning, Hazen-Williams equations, Moody diagram 1.1. Important Definitions Pressure Pipe Flow: Refers to full water flow in closed conduits of circular

More information

Package rivr. October 16, 2015

Package rivr. October 16, 2015 Type Package Package rivr October 16, 2015 Title Steady and Unsteady Open-Channel Flow Computation Version 1.1 Date 2015-10-15 Author Michael C Koohafkan [aut, cre] Maintainer Michael C Koohafkan

More information

ADS, Inc. Drainage Handbook Hydraulics 3-1

ADS, Inc. Drainage Handbook Hydraulics 3-1 ADS, Inc. Drainage Handbook Hydraulics 3-1 3-0 HYDRAULICS TABLE OF CONTENTS 3-1 Overview of Hydraulic Considerations... 3-2 3-2 Design Manning s Value... 3-2 3-3 Discharge Curves... 3-4 3-3 The Conveyance

More information

The Manitoba Water Services Board SECTION 022180 Standard Construction Specifications PIPE EXCAVATION, BEDDING AND BACKFILL Page 1 of 11

The Manitoba Water Services Board SECTION 022180 Standard Construction Specifications PIPE EXCAVATION, BEDDING AND BACKFILL Page 1 of 11 Page 1 of 11 Part 1 General 1.1 DESCRIPTION OF WORK.1 The work described herein shall consist of the excavation of trenches (or excavation of tunnels); the supply and placing of bedding and backfill materials;

More information

CHAPTER 5 OPEN-CHANNEL FLOW

CHAPTER 5 OPEN-CHANNEL FLOW CHAPTER 5 OPEN-CHANNEL FLOW 1. INTRODUCTION 1 Open-channel flows are those that are not entirely included within rigid boundaries; a part of the flow is in contract with nothing at all, just empty space

More information

CHAPTER 2 HYDRAULICS OF SEWERS

CHAPTER 2 HYDRAULICS OF SEWERS CHAPTER 2 HYDRAULICS OF SEWERS SANITARY SEWERS The hydraulic design procedure for sewers requires: 1. Determination of Sewer System Type 2. Determination of Design Flow 3. Selection of Pipe Size 4. Determination

More information

Civil Engineering Hydraulics Open Channel Flow. Adult: Where s your costume? What are you supposed to be?

Civil Engineering Hydraulics Open Channel Flow. Adult: Where s your costume? What are you supposed to be? Civil Engineering Hydraulics Calvin: Trick or treat! Adult: Where s your costume? What are you supposed to be? Calvin: I m yet another resource-consuming kid in an overpopulated planet, raised to an alarming

More information

FLOW CONDITIONER DESIGN FOR IMPROVING OPEN CHANNEL FLOW MEASUREMENT ACCURACY FROM A SONTEK ARGONAUT-SW

FLOW CONDITIONER DESIGN FOR IMPROVING OPEN CHANNEL FLOW MEASUREMENT ACCURACY FROM A SONTEK ARGONAUT-SW FLOW CONDITIONER DESIGN FOR IMPROVING OPEN CHANNEL FLOW MEASUREMENT ACCURACY FROM A SONTEK ARGONAUT-SW Daniel J. Howes, P.E. 1 Charles M. Burt, Ph.D., P.E. 2 Brett F. Sanders, Ph.D. 3 ABSTRACT Acoustic

More information

SECTION 08000 STORM DRAINAGE TABLE OF CONTENTS

SECTION 08000 STORM DRAINAGE TABLE OF CONTENTS SECTION 08000 STORM DRAINAGE 08010 DESIGN A. Location B. Sizing TABLE OF CONTENTS 08020 MATERIALS A. Pipe Materials B. Structure Materials C. Installation D. Inlets and Outlets 08030 INSPECTIONS AND TESTING

More information

Applied Fluid Mechanics

Applied Fluid Mechanics Applied Fluid Mechanics Sixth Edition Robert L. Mott University of Dayton PEARSON Prentkv Pearson Education International CHAPTER 1 THE NATURE OF FLUIDS AND THE STUDY OF FLUID MECHANICS 1.1 The Big Picture

More information

Head Loss in Pipe Flow ME 123: Mechanical Engineering Laboratory II: Fluids

Head Loss in Pipe Flow ME 123: Mechanical Engineering Laboratory II: Fluids Head Loss in Pipe Flow ME 123: Mechanical Engineering Laboratory II: Fluids Dr. J. M. Meyers Dr. D. G. Fletcher Dr. Y. Dubief 1. Introduction Last lab you investigated flow loss in a pipe due to the roughness

More information

CHAPTER 9. Outlet Protection

CHAPTER 9. Outlet Protection CHAPTER 9 Outlet Protection General Considerations Not an ABACT, but should be used in all watersheds to prevent erosion due to concentrated discharges For channel or swale, use guidance for pipe with

More information

CONTENTS Channels. 1 Introduction... 7.1

CONTENTS Channels. 1 Introduction... 7.1 CONTENTS Channels Introduction... 7. Flow classification... 7.. Steady uniform flow... 7.. Unsteady non-uniform flow... 7.. Unsteady uniform flow... 7. Laminar and turbulent flow... 7. 4 Flow equations...

More information

Chapter 8: Flow in Pipes

Chapter 8: Flow in Pipes Objectives 1. Have a deeper understanding of laminar and turbulent flow in pipes and the analysis of fully developed flow 2. Calculate the major and minor losses associated with pipe flow in piping networks

More information

Part 654 Stream Restoration Design National Engineering Handbook

Part 654 Stream Restoration Design National Engineering Handbook United States Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service Stream Restoration Design Chapter 6 Issued August 007 Cover photo: Stream hydraulics focus on bankfull frequencies, velocities,

More information

21. Channel flow III (8.10 8.11)

21. Channel flow III (8.10 8.11) 21. Channel flow III (8.10 8.11) 1. Hydraulic jump 2. Non-uniform flow section types 3. Step calculation of water surface 4. Flow measuring in channels 5. Examples E22, E24, and E25 1. Hydraulic jump Occurs

More information

CHAPTER 5. Storm Sewer

CHAPTER 5. Storm Sewer CHAPTER 5 Storm Sewer A. Introduction All proposed developments shall have a properly designed and constructed storm water conveyance system. This chapter deals only with the conveyance system. Storm water

More information

Physics Notes Class 11 CHAPTER 3 MOTION IN A STRAIGHT LINE

Physics Notes Class 11 CHAPTER 3 MOTION IN A STRAIGHT LINE 1 P a g e Motion Physics Notes Class 11 CHAPTER 3 MOTION IN A STRAIGHT LINE If an object changes its position with respect to its surroundings with time, then it is called in motion. Rest If an object

More information

ME 305 Fluid Mechanics I. Part 8 Viscous Flow in Pipes and Ducts

ME 305 Fluid Mechanics I. Part 8 Viscous Flow in Pipes and Ducts ME 305 Fluid Mechanics I Part 8 Viscous Flow in Pipes and Ducts These presentations are prepared by Dr. Cüneyt Sert Mechanical Engineering Department Middle East Technical University Ankara, Turkey csert@metu.edu.tr

More information

DIVISION OF WATER QUALITY CONSTRUCTION GRANTS & LOANS SECTION FAST TRACK AUDIT CHECKLIST

DIVISION OF WATER QUALITY CONSTRUCTION GRANTS & LOANS SECTION FAST TRACK AUDIT CHECKLIST DIVISION OF WATER QUALITY CONSTRUCTION GRANTS & LOANS SECTION FAST TRACK AUDIT CHECKLIST CERTIFICATION 1. Did the engineer submit a certificate of completion utilizing the appropriate page of the issued

More information

Chapter 7 Ditches and Channels

Chapter 7 Ditches and Channels Chapter 7 Ditches and Channels TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER 7 - DITCHES AND CHANNELS... 7-1 7.1 Introduction... 7-1 7.2 Design Policy... 7-2 7.2.1 Federal Policy... 7-2 7.2.2 Commonwealth of Virginia Policy...

More information

SECTION 5: SANITARY SEWER SYSTEM DESIGN

SECTION 5: SANITARY SEWER SYSTEM DESIGN SECTION 5: SANITARY SEWER SYSTEM DESIGN 5.01 GENERAL Sanitary sewer improvements shall be designed to serve the ultimate level of City development as defined in the General Plan and the Wastewater Facilities

More information

Channel Stabilization with Basic Flow Calculations

Channel Stabilization with Basic Flow Calculations Channel Stabilization with Basic Flow Calculations Description Selection Criteria The selection of a channel lining will greatly influence how a drainage channel performs, the amount of erosion and scour,

More information

Significance of Different Flow, Channel and Bed Conditions in Estimation of Open Channel Flow Resistance

Significance of Different Flow, Channel and Bed Conditions in Estimation of Open Channel Flow Resistance Significance of Different Flow, Channel and Bed Conditions in Estimation of Open Channel Flow Resistance Dr. Mimi Das Saikia 1, Meenu Das 2 1 Professor., Department of Civil Engineering, Assam down town

More information

CHAPTER IX HYDRAULICS AND DRAINAGE

CHAPTER IX HYDRAULICS AND DRAINAGE CHAPTER IX HYDRAULICS AND DRAINAGE 9-04.1 GENERAL. Providing for the control of erosion is a necessary part of the complete design of any highway construction project. These provisions must include measures

More information

APPENDIX M-2 SANITARY SEWER TECHNICAL MEMORANDUM. Stadium Reconstruction EIR

APPENDIX M-2 SANITARY SEWER TECHNICAL MEMORANDUM. Stadium Reconstruction EIR APPENDIX M-2 SANITARY SEWER TECHNICAL MEMORANDUM Stadium Reconstruction EIR Appendices \ AECOM Technical Services, Inc 401 West A Street Suite 1200 San Diego, CA 92101 www.aecom.com 619-610-7600 tel 619-610-7601

More information

Florida Building Code 2004 SECTION 1009 STAIRWAYS AND HANDRAILS

Florida Building Code 2004 SECTION 1009 STAIRWAYS AND HANDRAILS Florida Building Code 2004 SECTION 1009 STAIRWAYS AND HANDRAILS 1009.1 Stairway width. The width of stairways shall be determined as specified in Section 1005.1, but such width shall not be less than 44

More information

CHAPTER ONE Fluid Fundamentals

CHAPTER ONE Fluid Fundamentals CHPTER ONE Fluid Fundamentals 1.1 FLUID PROPERTIES 1.1.1 Mass and Weight Mass, m, is a property that describes the amount of matter in an object or fluid. Typical units are slugs in U.S. customary units,

More information

These slides contain some notes, thoughts about what to study, and some practice problems. The answers to the problems are given in the last slide.

These slides contain some notes, thoughts about what to study, and some practice problems. The answers to the problems are given in the last slide. Fluid Mechanics FE Review Carrie (CJ) McClelland, P.E. cmcclell@mines.edu Fluid Mechanics FE Review These slides contain some notes, thoughts about what to study, and some practice problems. The answers

More information

Pressure drop in pipes...

Pressure drop in pipes... Pressure drop in pipes... PRESSURE DROP CALCULATIONS Pressure drop or head loss, occurs in all piping systems because of elevation changes, turbulence caused by abrupt changes in direction, and friction

More information

CLARK COUNTY REGIONAL FLOOD CONTROL DISTRICT HYDROLOGIC CRITERIA AND DRAINAGE DESIGN MANUAL SECTION 1100 ADDITIONAL HYDRAULIC STRUCTURES

CLARK COUNTY REGIONAL FLOOD CONTROL DISTRICT HYDROLOGIC CRITERIA AND DRAINAGE DESIGN MANUAL SECTION 1100 ADDITIONAL HYDRAULIC STRUCTURES CLARK COUNTY REGIONAL FLOOD CONTROL DISTRICT HYDROLOGIC CRITERIA AND DRAINAGE DESIGN MANUAL SECTION 1100 ADDITIONAL HYDRAULIC STRUCTURES TABLE OF CONTENTS Page 1101 INTRODUCTION 1102 1102 CHANNEL DROPS

More information