# Package rivr. October 16, 2015

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1 Type Package Package rivr October 16, 2015 Title Steady and Unsteady Open-Channel Flow Computation Version 1.1 Date Author Michael C Koohafkan [aut, cre] Maintainer Michael C Koohafkan A tool for undergraduate and graduate courses in open-channel hydraulics. Provides functions for computing normal and critical depths, steady-state water surface profiles (e.g. backwater curves) and unsteady flow computations (e.g. flood wave routing). URL BugReports License GPL (>= 3) Depends R (>= 3.1.2), utils, graphics Imports Rcpp (>= ) Suggests dplyr, ggplot2, knitr LinkingTo Rcpp LazyData true VignetteBuilder knitr NeedsCompilation yes Repository CRAN Date/Publication :56:28 R topics documented: rivr-package channel_geom compute_profile conveyance

2 2 channel_geom critical_depth froude normal_depth route_wave waterolympics Index 12 rivr-package Steady and Unsteady Open-Channel Flow Computation This package is designed as an educational tool for students and instructors of undergraduate courses in open channel hydraulics. Functions are provided for computing normal and critical depths, steady (e.g. backwater curves) and unsteady (flood wave routing) flow computations for prismatic trapezoidal channels. See the vignette to get started. channel_geom Channel geometry Compute geometry relations for trapezoidal channels. channel_geom(y, B, SS) y Flow depth [L]. B Channel bottom width [L]. SS Channel sideslope [LL 1 ]. For a rectangular channel, SS = 0. Channel geometry relations are routinely calculated in numerical solutions of steady, graduallyvaried and unsteady flows. This function is used extensively by internal procedures and is made accessible to the user for convenience.

3 compute_profile 3 Named vector: A Flow area [L 2 ]. P R dady dpdy drdy DH ybar Examples Wetted perimeter [L]. Hydraulic radius [L]. Water surface width [L]. First derivative of wetted perimeter w.r.t. flow depth. First derivative of hydraulic radius w.r.t. flow depth. Hydraulic depth [L]. Vertical distance from water surface to centroid of flow area [L]. channel_geom(1.71, 100, 0) # rectangular channel channel_geom(5.79, 6.1, 1.5) # trapezoidal channel with sideslope 3H:2V compute_profile Gradually-varied flow profiles Compute the gradually-varied flow profile of a prismatic channel. compute_profile(so, n, Q, y0, Cm, g, B, SS, z0 = 0, x0 = 0, stepdist, totaldist) So Channel slope [LL 1 ]. n Manning s roughness coefficient. Q Flow rate [L 3 T 1 ]. y0 The water depth at the control section [L]. Cm Unit conversion coefficient for Manning s equation. For SI units, Cm = 1. g Gravitational acceleration [LT 2 ]. B Channel bottom width [L]. SS Channel sideslope [LL 1 ]. z0 Elevation reference datum at control section [L]. Default is 0. x0 Distance reference at control section [L]. Default is 0. stepdist totaldist The spatial interval used in the Standard step method [L]. The total distance upstream (or downstream) to compute the profile [L].

4 4 conveyance Computes the longitudinal water surface profile of a prismatic channel using the standard step method by solving the non-linear ODE dy dx = S 0 S f 1 F r 2 The standard-step method operates by stepping along the channel by a constant distance interval, starting from a cross-section where the flow depth is known (the control section). The flow depth is computed at the adjacent cross-section (target section). The computed value at the target is then used as the basis for computing flow depth at the next cross-section, i.e. the previous target section becomes the new control section for each step. A Newton-Raphson scheme is used each step to compute the flow depth and friction slope. Technically, the average friction slope of the control and target section is used to compute the flow depth at the target section. data.frame with columns: x z y v A Sf E Fr Along-channel distance. Elevation. Flow depth. Flow velocity. Flow area. Friction slope. Total energy. Froude Number. Examples # example M1 profile compute_profile(0.001, 0.045, 250, 2.7, 1.486, 32.2, 100, 0, stepdist=50, totaldist=3000) # example M2 profile compute_profile(0.001, 0.045, 250, 0.64, 1.486, 32.2, 100, 0, stepdist=50, totaldist=3000) # example S2 profile compute_profile(0.1, 0.04, 250, 2.0, 1.486, 32.2, 10, 0, stepdist=0.1, totaldist=3000) # example S3 profile compute_profile(0.1, 0.04, 250, 1.0, 1.486, 32.2, 10, 0, stepdist=0.1, totaldist=3000) conveyance Channel conveyance Calculate the channel conveyance.

5 critical_depth 5 conveyance(n, A, R, Cm) n Manning s roughness coefficient (dimensionless). A Flow area [L 2 ]. R Hydraulic radius [L]. Cm Unit conversion coefficient for Manning s equation. For SI units, Cm = 1. Channel conveyance is routinely calculated in numerical solutions of steady, gradually-varied and unsteady flows. This function is used extensively by internal procedures and is made accessible to the user for convenience. The channel conveyance. critical_depth Critical depth Calculate the critical depth. critical_depth(q, yopt, g, B, SS) Q Flow rate [L 3 T 1 ]. yopt Initial guess for normal depth [L]. g Gravitational acceleration [LT 2 ]. B Channel bottom width [L]. SS Channel sideslope [LL 1 ].

6 6 froude The critical depth is the water depth at which a channel flow regime will transition from supercritical to subcritical (or vice versa). Calculation of the critical depth is based on a specific energy formulation, i.e. E = y + z + Q2 2gB 2 y 2 where y is the flow depth, z is the elevation relative to some datum (assumed to be 0), and the last term represents kinetic energy. More specifically, the function operates by finding the point where the derivative of specific energy w.r.t. y is zero, i.e. y = y c when. de dy = 1 Q2 ga 3 da dy = 0 The critical depth y c [L]. Examples critical_depth(250, 2, 32.2, 100, 0) # rectangular channel critical_depth(126, 1, 9.81, 6.1, 1.5) # trapezoidal channel with sideslope 3H:2V froude Froude Number Calculate the Froude Number. froude(q, g, A, DH) Q Flow rate [L 3 T 1 ]. g Gravitational acceleration [LT 2 ]. A Flow area [L 2 ]. DH Hydraulic depth [L].

7 normal_depth 7 The Froude number is a dimensionless measure of bulk flow characteristics that represents the relative importance of inertial forces and gravitational forces. For open channel flow, the Froude number of open channel flow is defined as F r = v gdh where v = Q A is the flow velocity, g is the gravitational acceleration and D H is the hydraulic depth. The Froude number is related to the energy state of the flow and can be used to identify flows as either supercritical (F r < 1) or subcritical (F r > 1). The Froude Number (dimensionless). Examples froude(250, 32.2, 171, 1.71) # subcritical flow froude(250, 32.2, 57.9, 0.579) # critical flow froude(250, 32.2, 45, 0.45) # supercritical flow normal_depth Normal depth Calculate the normal (equilibrium) depth using Manning s equation. normal_depth(so, n, Q, yopt, Cm, B, SS) So Channel slope [LL 1 ]. n Manning s roughness coefficient. Q Flow rate [L 3 T 1 ]. yopt Initial guess for normal depth [L]. Cm Unit conversion coefficient for Manning s equation. For SI units, Cm = 1. B Channel bottom width [L]. SS Channel sideslope [LL 1 ].

8 8 route_wave The normal depth is the equilibrium depth of a channel for a given flow rate, channel slope, geometry and roughness. Manning s equation is used to calculate the equilibrium depth. Manning s equation for normal flow is defined as Q = C m n AR2/3 S 1/2 0 where Q is the channel flow, S 0 is the channel slope, A is the cross-sectional flow area, R is the hydraulic depth and C m is a conversion factor based on the unit system used. This function uses a Newton-Raphson root-finding approach to calculate the normal depth, i.e. y = y n when. f(y) = A5/3 P 2/3 nq C m S 1/2 0 = 0 The normal depth y n [L]. Examples normal_depth(0.001, 0.045, 250, 3, 1.486, 100, 0) # rectangular channel normal_depth(0.0008, 0.013, 126, 5, 1, 6.1, 1.5) # trapezoidal channel with sideslope 3H:2V route_wave Flood wave routing Route a flood wave down a prismatic channel. route_wave(so, n, Cm, g, B, SS, initial.condition, boundary.condition, downstream.condition, timestep, spacestep, numnodes, monitor.nodes, monitor.times, engine = c("dynamic", "Kinematic"), scheme = c("maccormack", "Lax"), boundary.type = c("qq", "Qy", "yq", "yy")) So Channel slope [LL 1 ]. n Manning s roughness coefficient. Cm Unit conversion coefficient for Manning s equation. For SI units, Cm = 1. g Gravitational acceleration [LT 2 ]. B Channel bottom width [L].

9 route_wave 9 SS Channel sideslope [LL 1 ]. initial.condition The initial flow rate [L 3 T 1 ], assumed constant throughout the channel. boundary.condition Vector specifying the upstream boundary condition for the full duration of the model. If engine = "Kinematic", values are assumed to be flow [L 3 T 1 ]. If engine = "Dynamic", the form of the boundary condition is determined by the argument boundary.type. downstream.condition Only used if engine = "Dynamic". Vector specifying the upstream boundary condition for the full duration of the model. Must be the same length as boundary.condition. timestep spacestep numnodes monitor.nodes monitor.times engine scheme boundary.type Temporal resolution of the model. Also the assumed time interval [T ] between elements of boundary.condition and downstream.condition. The user is responsible for ensuring numerical stability. the spatial resolution of the model, interpreted as the distance [L] between nodes in the model domain. The user is responsible for ensuring numerical stability. The number of nodes used to discretize the channel. The total channel extent is computed as spacestep*(numnodes - 1). the nodes to be monitored every time step. Specified as a vector of node indices, with 1 being the upstream boundary and numnodes being the downstream boundary. the time steps at which to monitor every node. Specified as a vector of indices of boundary.condition. Defaults to five equally-spaced time steps including the first and last time steps. The engine to be used for routing the flood wave. May be either "Kinematic" or "Dynamic". Only used if engine = "Dynamic". Specifies whether to use the Lax Diffusive scheme or the MacCormack predictor-corrector scheme. Only used if engine = "Dynamic". Specifies what boundary data is supplied. Possible characters are If boundary.type = "QQ", both boundary.condition and downstream.condition are assumed to be flows [L 3 T 1 ]. If boundary.type = "Qy" the upstream boundary is assumed to be flow while the downstream boundary is assumed to be depth [L]. Other possibilities are "yq" and "yy". Provides implementations of a Kinematic Wave Model (KWM) and a Dynamic Wave Model (DWM) with the choice of two numerical schemes. The MacCormack scheme is a second-order accurate predictor-corrector scheme that provides efficient flood wave routing. The Lax diffusive scheme can be used to obtain smooth solutions for problems with discontinuities in the boundary conditions, e.g. sudden gate closures. The DWM implementation uses the Method of Characteristics (MOC) to compute the flow regime at the model boundaries, and allows the user to specify boundaries in terms of depths and/or flows. the KWM implementation assumes the normal depth at the upstream boundary and is only first-order accurate.

10 10 route_wave data.frame with columns: step node time distance flow depth velocity area monitor.type Time step. Node index. Time since start. Downstream distance. Flow rate. Flow depth. Flow velocity. Flow area. Row refers to a monitored node ("node") or timestep ("timestep"). Examples ## Not run: # kinematic wave routing times = seq(0, 30000, by = 25) floodwave = ifelse(times >= 9000, 250, (750/pi)*(1 - cos(pi*times/(60*75)))) route_wave(0.001, 0.045, 1.486, 32.2, 100, 0, initial.condition = 250, boundary.condition = floodwave, timestep = 25, spacestep = 50, numnodes=301, monitor.nodes = c(1, 101, 201, 301), monitor.times = seq(1, length(times), by = 10), engine = "Kinematic") # dynamic wave routing with zero-gradient downstream condition using MacCormack scheme route_wave(0.001, 0.045, 1.486, 32.2, 100, 0, initial.condition = 250, boundary.condition = floodwave, downstream.condition = rep(-1, length(times)), timestep = 25, spacestep = 500, numnodes = 31, engine = "Dynamic", scheme = "MacCormack", monitor.nodes = c(1, 11, 21, 31), monitor.times = seq(1, length(times), by = 10)) # mixed boundary conditions (sudden gate closure) using Lax scheme lax = route_wave( , 0.013, 1, 9.81, 6.1, 1.5, initial.condition = 126, boundary.condition = rep(5.79, 2001), downstream.condition = rep(0, 2001), timestep = 1, spacestep = 10, numnodes = 501, monitor.nodes = c(1, 151, 251, 301, 501), monitor.times = c(1, 501, 1001, 1501, 2001), engine="dynamic", scheme="lax", boundary.type="yq") # extract data for a monitored point require(dplyr) filter(lax, monitor.type == "node", node == 151) ## End(Not run)

11 waterolympics 11 waterolympics California Water Olympics Format Digitized results from the California Water Olympics. The variables are as follows: t The time (in seconds) since the start of the model run. Q The flow rate [ft 3 s 1 ]. x The distance downstream [ft] at which the hydrograph was recorded. The data can be used to validate numerical solutions to flood wave routing for a channel under the following conditions: Channel width is 100 feet. Channel slope is Channel extent is 150,000 feet. Channel roughness (Manning s n) is Channel sideslope is 0 (rectangular channel). Initial flow rate is 250 cfs. Upstream boundary condition is defined as data(waterolympics) A data frame with 40 rows and 3 variables References Q(t < 9000) = πt (1 cos π 4500 ) Q(t >= 9000) = 250 Sobey, Rodney. "H11: Hydrograph Routing." Review of One-Dimensional Hydrodynamic and Transport Models. Bay-Delta Modeling Forum, 15 June Web. 13 Mar < DReview/>.

12 Index Topic datasets waterolympics, 11 channel_geom, 2 compute_profile, 3 conveyance, 4 critical_depth, 5 froude, 6 normal_depth, 7 rivr-package, 2 route_wave, 8 waterolympics, 11 12

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