APPENDIX D INLET CAPACITY AND SPACING. The capacity and spacing design of storm drainage inlets are presented in detail in this Appendix.

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3 Storm Drainage 3-D Inlet Spacing and Computation Sheets Inlet spacing design consists of locating the inlet, calculating the peak runoff (hydrology), determining the spread, and evaluating inlet efficiency. This design process can be viewed as a circular process that does not have a defined starting point and order of the process can vary as described in this section. The design starting point depends on site drainage characteristics. For example, some inlets are placed to collect runoff at locations with little regard for contributing area such as immediately up grade from pedestrian cross walks, entrance/exit ramp gores, sags, etc. Based on diagram -, the design process would begin at ocate Inlet, proceed to Calculate Hydrology, leading to spread calculations and end with calculating inlet efficiency. dditional detail on this design process is presented in this section. ocate Inlet Calculate inlet efficiency Calculate hydrology Calculate spread Diagram - Note: Figure is a computation summary sheet that is recommended to document the analysis process noted in Diagram -. Inlet spacing design could also begin by the designer assuming a spread width. This is a common approach to evaluating inlets placed on continuous grades. Based on diagram B-B, the design process would begin at assume spread, then compute hydrology, inlet efficiency, and end with calculating inlet spacing. Note: Figure 2 is a computation summary sheet that is recommended to document the analysis process noted in Diagram B-B.

4 3-D-4 Storm Drainage ssume Spread ocate inlet Calculate hydrology Calculate inlet efficiency Diagram B - B Geometric information is needed when designing storm drainage inlets. The type of information needed for design includes highway longitudinal slope, cross slope, gutter characteristics, location of crest and sag points, drainage patterns, and delineated drainage areas. This information can be obtained from highway profiles, typical cross sections, superelevation diagrams, and surveyed maps with contours. number of inlets are required to collect runoff at locations with little regard for contributing drainage area. ocate and note these inlets on the design plan. fter locating these inlets, obtain and use the roadway geometric information to assure that the design criteria such as minimum inlet efficiency and maximum gutter flow widths are not exceeded. If the design criteria are not satisfied, adjustments to the inlet system (e.g. type of inlet, inlet spacing, etc) may be required. This information should be included on the computation sheet (Figure ) provided to document the analysis. The spacing of inlets on continuous grades is based on the maximum spread allowed per Table. Two methods ( or B) are available for designing these types of inlets and are defined in Section 2. The first inlet and subsequent inlets are placed downstream of the crest point to meet the requirements of methods or B. These inlets can be equally spaced when the drainage areas consists of pavement only, uniform runoff characteristics, and are rectangular in shape. It is also assumed that the time of concentration would be the same for all inlets. The following equation can be used to locate the first on-grade inlet and subsequent inlets on continuous grade:

5 Storm Drainage 3-D-5 Q t = E CC iw f p (Equation ) Where: = distance from the crest in feet W p = width of drainage area in feet C = runoff coefficient C f = runoff coefficient adjustment factor to account for reduction of infiltration and other losses during high intensity storms (See ppendix F, Chapter 7; for 0- year storm C f = ) i = rainfall intensity in inches per hour Q t = maximum allowable flow in cubic feet per second (calculated as noted in Section 3.7 and Chapter 7). E = This constant is equal to one for the first inlet in all cases and is equal to capture efficiency (E) for subsequent inlets. The constant E can be assumed to be equal to for the first inlet because it receives almost no bypass flow from upslope inlets. To space successive down grade inlets on constant slope, use the capture efficiency (E). 43,560 = conversion from acres to square feet

6 3-D-6 Storm Drainage

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9 Storm Drainage 3-D-9 Inlet Design Computation Sheet (Diagram B-B Process) Given: Sketch: Surface Description Road Classification Type of Curb and Gutter, see Chapter 8, Curbs and Gutters Surface Material Manning's Coefficient, n Drainage rea Description Runoff Coefficient, C Hydrologic Zone (Chapter 7) Intensity (i) in/hr (Chapter 7) Cf (Chapter 7, ppendix F) Type of Inlet (Chapter 3, ppendix C, Table B) Design Method: Method Method B Design Criteria: Method (reference Section 2) Minimum Efficiency 70 Percent llowable spread (ppendix D, Table ) shoulder width distance into outside lane spread (T) = Shoulder Width + Distance into outside lane Percentage Clogged Method B (reference Section 2) llowable spread (ppendix D, Table ) shoulder width distance into outside lane spread (T) = Shoulder Width + Distance into outside lane Percentage Clogged Spread ssume Spread Calculate Hydrology Calculate Inlet Efficiency ocate Inlet ong. Slope Cross Slope Total Design Design Gutter Gutter Inlet Inlet Width Flow ength Width Flow from Contributing rea Bypass Flow from Upstream Inlet Total Flow Inlet Interception Efficiency Intercepted Flow Bypass Flow Drainage ength Drainage Width Drainage rea Number Station Comments T S Sx Sw W Qt i Wi Qr Qb Qt E Qi Qb Wp (ft) (ft/ft) (ft/ft) (ft/ft) (ft) (cfs) (ft) (ft) (cfs) (cfs) (cfs) (cfs) (cfs) (ft) (ft) (ac) Figure 2 Computation Sheet for Inlet Design

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11 Storm Drainage 3-D- 4.0 Clogging Factors Refer to Table for on-grade and sag inlet clogging factors. Table provides guidance on the clogging factor recommended based on road classification. Then go to the appropriate ODOT inlet design parameter clogging tables (Table B for 30 percent clogged or Table C for 50 percent clogged) for grate, curb-opening or slot width and length to be used for designing inlets partially clogged. Hydraulic capacity curves or data for available grates would have to be obtained from a manufacturer when evaluating trench drains. ssume 50 percent clogging for the following inlet types when using inlet design method B due to the tendency of these inlets to plug: Slotted drains Trench drains Scuppers Using a 50 percent clogging factor will result in providing twice the calculated required length than if no clogging factor were used. Note: Some assumptions must be made regarding the nature of the clogging in order to compute the capacity of a partially clogged grate. If the area of a grate is 50 percent covered by debris so that the debris-covered portion does not contribute to interception, the effective perimeter will be reduced by a lesser amount than 50 percent. 4. Grate Clogging Calculation Example The following example illustrates the application of clogging factors. 4.. Grate configuration assuming 50 percent clogged Tables B and C in this appendix identify adjusted widths to account for 30 percent and 50 percent clogging as required for Method B. The following is included to illustrate how inlet dimensions are adjusted to account for clogging. Reference Figure 3 of this ppendix to gain a conceptual understanding of the clogged inlets. If a 24-inch by 48-inch grate is located next to a curb at a sag and is assumed to be 50 percent clogged. The effective width is 2-inches, reduced from 24-inches to 2-inches. ikewise, the perimeter is reduced from 96-inches to 72-inches (2-inches + 48-inches + 2-inches). The area of the opening would be reduced by 50 percent and the perimeter by 25 percent. To provide an equivalent interception capacity of a grate with a perimeter of 96-inches several alternatives may be available. These alternatives include a grate measuring 48-inches by 48-inches, a grate measuring 24-inches by 72-inches, or a grate measuring 36-inches by 60-inches would meet these requirements. Note: Figure 3 illustrates typical inlet grate areas assumed to be clogged if placed on-grade, sag with curb or sag with no curb.

12 3-D-2 Figure 3 - Grate Clogging

13 Storm Drainage 3-D-3 Identification Table B - ODOT Inlet Design Parameters with 30 Percent Clogging Next to Curb Grate, curbopening or slot Width Grate, curbopening or slot ength Grate Clear Opening Perimeter rea Ratio (feet) (feet) (feet) (square (percent) feet) G- & CG- Y G- N G-2 & CG-2 Y G-2 N G-2M & G-2M N CG-3 Y h = N/ 0.63 N/ Curb Inlet Channel Y h = N/.39 N/ D N.58 h =.38 N/ Type 3 Catch Basin Y Type 3 Catch Basin N rea Drainage N Basin or Field Inlet (Round) Slotted Drain Y/N percent N/ N/ N/ of length shown on plans Deck Drain Type Y

14 3-D-4 Table C - ODOT Inlet Design Parameters with 50 Percent Clogging Identification Next To Curb Grate, curbopening or slot Width Grate, curbopening or slot ength Grate Clear Opening Perimeter rea Ratio (feet) (feet) (feet) (square (percent) feet) G- & CG- Y G- N G-2 & CG-2 Y G-2 N G-2M & G-2M N CG-3 Y h = N/ 0.45 N/ Curb Inlet Channel Y h = N/ 0.99 N/ D N.2 h =.38 N/ Type 3 Catch Basin Y Type 3 Catch Basin N rea Drainage Basin or Field Inlet (Round) N Slotted Drain Y/N percent of N/ N/ N/ length shown on plans Deck Drain Type Y

15 Storm Drainage 3-D Inlets on Grade Inlet interception capacity (Q i ) is the flow intercepted by an inlet under a given set of conditions. The efficiency (E) of an inlet is the percent of total flow that the inlet will intercept for those conditions. The efficiency of an inlet is dependent on the cross slope, longitudinal slope, total gutter flow, and pavement roughness. Efficiency is defined by the following equation: Qi E = (Equation 2) Q Where: E Q t Q i = inlet efficiency = total gutter flow in cubic feet per second = intercepted flow in cubic feet per second Flow that is not intercepted by an inlet is termed carryover or bypass flow and is defined as follows: Q b = Q t Q i (Equation 3) Where: Q b t = flow that is not intercepted by the inlet and must be included in the evaluation of downstream gutters, channels, and inlets The interception capacity of all inlet configurations increases with increasing flow rates, and inlet efficiency generally decreases with increasing flow rates. Factors affecting gutter flow also affect inlet interception capacity. The depth of water next to the curb is the major factor in the interception capacity of both grate inlets and curb-opening inlets. The interception capacity of a grate inlet depends on the amount of water flowing over the grate, the size and configuration of the grate and the velocity of flow in the gutter. Interception capacity of a curb-opening inlet is largely dependent on flow depth at the curb and curb-opening length. Flow depth at the curb and consequently, curb-opening inlet interception capacity and efficiency, is increased by the use of a local gutter depression at the curb-opening or a continuously depressed gutter to increase the proportion of the total flow adjacent to the curb. Slotted drain inlets function in essentially the same manner as curb-opening inlets, i.e., as weirs with flow entering from the side. Interception capacity is dependent on flow depth and inlet length. Efficiency is dependent on flow depth, inlet length and total gutter flow. The interception capacity of an equal length combination inlet consisting of a grate placed alongside a curb-opening on a grade does not differ materially from that of a grate only. Interception capacity and efficiency are dependent on the same factors which affect grate capacity and efficiency. combination inlet consisting of a curb-opening inlet placed upstream of a grate inlet has a capacity equal to that of the curb-opening length upstream of the grate plus that of the grate, taking into account the reduced spread and depth of flow over the grate because

16 3-D-6 of the interception by the curb-opening. This inlet configuration has the added advantage of intercepting debris that might otherwise clog the grate and deflect water away from the inlet. 5. Grate Inlets (On-grade) The capacity of a grate inlet depends upon its geometry, cross slope, longitudinal slope, total gutter flow, depth of flow and pavement roughness. The depth of water next to the curb is the major factor in the interception capacity of gutter inlets. t low velocities, all of the water flowing in the section of gutter occupied by the grate, called frontal flow, is intercepted by grate inlets, and a small portion of the flow along the length of the grate, termed side flow, is intercepted. On steep slopes, a portion of the frontal flow may tend to splash over the end of the grate for some grates. Chart in ppendix H can be utilized to determine splash-over velocities (V o ) for various grate configurations and the portion of frontal flow intercepted by the grate. Note: Standard grate inlets used in ODOT storm drainage systems are noted in ppendix C. The parallel bar grates are the most efficient grates on steep slopes but are not bicycle safe. The ratio of frontal flow to total gutter flow (E o ) for straight cross slope is expressed by the following equation: E o = Q Q w t W = - - (Equation 4) T Where: Q t = total gutter flow in cubic feet per second Q w = flow in width (W) in cubic feet per second W = width of depressed gutter or grate in feet T = total spread of water in the gutter in feet Chart 2 in ppendix H provides a graphical solution of (E o ) for either straight cross slopes or depressed gutter sections. The ratio of side flow (Q s ) to total gutter flow is: Q Q s t - Q w = - E o Q t = (Equation 5) The ratio of frontal flow intercepted to total frontal flow (R f ) is expressed by the following equation: R f = 0.09 (V V o ) (Equation 6)

17 Storm Drainage 3-D-7 Where: V V o = velocity of flow in the gutter in feet per second = gutter velocity where splash-over first occurs in feet per second Note: R f can not exceed.0. If V is less than V o, R f =, meaning that all flow is intercepted. If V is greater than V o, R f is less than, meaning that a portion of frontal flow is intercepted. This ratio is equivalent to frontal flow interception efficiency. Chart in ppendix H provides a solution of which takes into account grate length, bar configuration and gutter velocity at which splash-over occurs. The gutter velocity needed to use Chart in ppendix H is total gutter flow divided by the area of flow. Note: Chart 3 in ppendix H is a Nomograph to solve for velocity in a triangular gutter section with known cross slope, slope and spread. dditional nomographs are located in Chapter 8. The ratio of side flow intercepted to total side flow (R s ) or side flow interception efficiency, is expressed by: Where: V R s = S x 0.5 V Sx = velocity of flow in gutter in feet per second = length of the grate in feet = cross slope in foot per foot (Equation 7) Chart 4 in ppendix H provides a solution to Equation 7. The efficiency (E) of a grate is expressed as: E = R f E o + R s ( - E o ) (Equation 8) The interception capacity (Q i ) of a grate inlet on grade is equal to the efficiency of the grate multiplied by the total gutter flow: Q i = E Q = Q [ R f E o + R s ( - E o ) ] (Equation 9)

18 3-D Grate Inlet Capacity (On-grade) Example The following example illustrates the application of inlet spacing, efficiency and by-pass equations Determine maximum allowable flow, interception flow, bypass flow, location of first inlet, and spacing of subsequent inlets. Sketch: Face of curb T=0.5 feet d 3 d 2 S x d S w W=2.5 feet T = 8 feet s Given: Highway on-grade section (greater than or equal to 45 miles per hour) Type C curb and gutter (reference Chapter 8) n = 0.06 (Manning s coefficient for asphalt pavement) S x = 0.02 foot per foot (shoulder and roadway cross slope) S = foot per foot (roadway longitudinal slope) W p = 46.5 feet (width of contributing drainage area, 2 2-foot lanes with 0.5 foot shoulder/gutter, 5 foot sidewalk, 7 foot median) W = 2.5 feet (gutter width) S w = 0.05 foot per foot (gutter slope) C = 0.90 (rational method runoff coefficient for pavement) 0-year design, Hydrologic Zone 8 (IDR curves are located in Chapter 7) G-2 inlet with P- 7 / 8 4 grate (reference Table B, ppendix C) W g = 2.25 feet (grate width for G-2 grate inlet) g = feet (grate length for G-2 grate inlet)

19 Storm Drainage 3-D Method Criteria: llowable spread is 0 feet into the outside lane (reference Table, ppendix D) Therefore; T = allowable spread = shoulder width + gutter width = 8 feet feet = 0.5 feet E = 0.70 (minimum efficiency for Method ) 2 = 400 feet (maximum distance between successive inlets, reference Section 2, ppendix D) Solution: Step.- Solve for (d, d 2, d 3 ): d = flow depth at curb = (T-W) S x + WS w d 2 = flow depth at break in gutter cross slope = (T-W) S x (Chapter 8) d 3 = flow depth at edge of inlet = (T-W) S x + (W-grate width) S w d d 2 d 3 = ( )(0.02) + (2.5)(0.05) = feet = ( )(0.02) = 0.6 feet = ( ) (0.02) + ( )(0.05) = feet Step.2- Solve for (Q t ): Q t = total gutter flow (cubic feet per second) Q t = S d n S x S (d n S w - d 2 ) Chapter 8 or Chart 2 and 5, ppendix H Q t = (0.035) (0.6) (0.06)(0.02) (0.035) ( (0.06)(0.05) ) Q t = = 6.07 cubic feet per second Step.3- Solve for (Q w ): Q w Q w = = flow in width (W) or frontal flow, equal to the grate width (in cubic feet per second) 0.56 S 0.5 (d n S w - d 3 ) (Chapter 8 or Chart 5, in ppendix H) = (0.035) ( (0.06)(0.05) ) Q w = 3.39 cubic feet per second

20 3-D-20 Step.4- Solve for (V): V = average gutter flow velocity (in feet per second) Q t 2Q t 2Q t = = 2 2 V = 2 T + + (Chapter 8) s Sx W Sw 2WTsS x d 2 W(d + d 2 ) + Sx V = 2 (6.07) 2 (8) (0.02) + (2.5) (0.05) + (2)(2.5)(8)(0.02) 2 = 5.07 feet per second Step.5- Solve for (E o ): E o = the ratio of frontal flow to total gutter flow Q w 3.39 E o = = = (Equation 4 or Chart 2 in ppendix H) Q 6.07 Step.6- Solve for (R f ): R f t = the ratio of frontal flow intercepted to total frontal flow R f = 0.09 (V V o ) (Equation 6 or Chart in ppendix H) Where: V = average flow velocity in the gutter (in feet per second) V o = gutter velocity where splash over first occurs (in feet per second) V = 5.07 feet per second G-2 Grate length = feet Grate type = P 7 / 8 4 V o = 5.9 feet per second (per Chart, ppendix H) R f = 0.09 ( ) R f =.08 R f cannot exceed.0, therefore, R f =.0 Step.7- Solve for (R s ): R s = the ratio of side flow intercepted to total side flow R s = (Equation 7 or Chart 4, ppendix H).8 0.5V x

21 Storm Drainage 3-D-2 R s = 0.5 (5.07) (0.02)() R s = Step.8- Solve for (E): E = the inlet interception efficiency E = R f E o + R s ( - E o ) (Equation 8) E = (.0)(0.56) ( ) = 0.59 E is less than 0.70, therefore, more than 30 percent would bypass inlet. narrower flow width (T) would be assumed and steps through 8 would be repeated until the minimum efficiency of 0.70 is obtained. Try T = allowable spread = 8.5 feet Sketch: Face of curb T = 8.5 feet d 3 d 2 S x d S w W = 2.5 feet T = 6 feet s Step.2- Solve for (d, d 2, d 3 ): d = flow depth at curb = (T-W) S x + WS w d 2 = flow depth at break in gutter cross slope = (T-W) S x (Chapter 8) d 3 = flow depth at edge of inlet = (T-W) S x + (W-grate width) S w d d 2 d 3 = ( )(0.02) + (2.5)(0.05) = feet = ( )(0.02) = 0.2 feet = ( ) (0.02) + ( )(0.05) = 0.3 feet

22 3-D-22 Step 2.2- Solve for (Q t ): Q t Q t = Q t = = total gutter flow (cubic feet per second) S d n S 2 + x 0.56 S (0.035) (0.2) (0.06)(0.02) 0.5 (d n S w - d 2 ) (0.035) ( (0.06)(0.05) Chapter 8 or Chart 2 and 5, ppendix H ) Q t = = 3.75 cubic feet per second Step 3.2- Solve for (Q w ): Q w = flow in width (W) or frontal flow, equal to the grate width (in cubic feet per second) Q w S (d - d3 ) = (Chapter 8 or Chart 5, ppendix H) n S w (.035) ( = (0.06)(0.05) ) Q w = 2.50 cubic feet per second Step 4.2- Solve for (V): V V = = average gutter flow velocity (in feet per second) Q t = T S 2 s x 2Q 2 + W S w t + 2WT S s x = W(d 2Q + d t 2 d ) + S 2 2 x (Chapter 8) 2 (3.75) V = = 4.60 feet per second 2 2 (6) (0.02) + (2.5) (0.05) + (2)(2.5)(6)(0.02) Step 5.2- Solve for (E o ): E o = the ratio of frontal flow to total gutter flow Q w 2.50 E o = = = 0.67 (Equation 4 or Chart 2, ppendix H) Q 3.75 Step 6.2- Solve for (R f ): R f t = the ratio of frontal flow intercepted to total frontal flow R f = 0.09 (V V o ) (Equation 6 or Chart, ppendix H)

23 Storm Drainage 3-D-23 Where: V = average flow velocity in the gutter (in feet per second) V o = gutter velocity where splash over first occurs (in feet per second) V = 4.60 feet per second Step 7.2- Solve for (R s ): G-2 Grate length = feet Grate type = P 7 / 8 4 V o = 5.9 feet per second (per Chart, ppendix H) R f =.09 ( ) R f =.2 R f can not exceed.0, therefore, R f =.0 R s R s = = the ratio of side flow intercepted to total side flow R s = (Equation 7 or Chart 4, ppendix H).8 0.5V S x = 0.5 (4.60) + (0.02)() Step 8.2- Solve for (E): E = the inlet interception efficiency E = R f E o + R s ( E o ) (Equation 8) E = (.0)(0.67) + (0.076) ( ) E = 0.70 Okay Step 9.2- Solve for ( ): = first inlet from the crest 43,560 Q t = E C C i W f p (Equation )

24 3-D-24 i = 2.28 inches per hour (ssume 5 minute t c using a 0-year storm design, Hydrologic Zone 8, use IDR curve in Chapter 7) C = 0.90 C f =.0 (per ppendix F, Chapter 7) W p = 24 feet (2 2 foot lanes) + 8 foot shoulder gutter + 5 foot sidewalk + 7 foot median = 46.5 feet (width of contributing drainage area) E =.0 = Step 0.2- Solve for ( 2 ): 2 = distance to successive inlets 43,560 Qi 2 = (Equation ) C C i W Q i Q i f (3.75) (0.90)(.0)(2.28)(46.5) p (.0) =,7feet = intercepted flow (in cubic feet per second) = EQ t = (0.70) (3.75) = 2.63 cubic feet per second 43,560 (2.63) = (0.9)(.0)(2.28)(46.5) 2 =,200 feet Maximum 2 = 400 feet (per ppendix D) Therefore, =,7 feet and 2 = 400 feet Method B ssume T = allowable spread = shoulder width + gutter width = = 0.5 feet (per Table for highway on-grade section; greater than or equal to 45 miles per hour) ssume 30 percent clogged (per Table ). g = 2.26 feet (grate length for G-2 grate inlet, 30 percent clogged, Table B) W g =.84 feet (grate width for G-2 grate inlet, 30 percent clogged, Table B) 2 = 400 feet, maximum distance to successive inlets (reference ppendix D) Solution: Step B.- Solve for (d, d 2, d 3 ): d = flow depth at curb = (T-W)S x + WS w (Chapter 8) d 2 = flow depth at break in gutter cross-slope = (T-W)S x d 3 = flow depth at edge of inlet = (T-W)S x + (W grate width)s w

25 Storm Drainage 3-D-25 d d 2 d 3 = ( )(0.02) + (2.5)(.05) = feet = ( )(0.02) = 0.6 feet = ( )(0.02) + (2.5.84)(.05) = 0.93 feet Step B.2- Solve for (Q t ): Q t = total gutter flow (cubic feet per second) Q t = S d n S x S (d n S w - d 2 ) Chapter 8 or Charts 2 and 5, ppendix H Q t = (0.035) (0.6) (0.06)(0.02) (0.035) ( (0.06)(0.05) ) Q t = = 6.07 cubic feet per second Step B.3- Solve for (Q w ): Q w = flow in width (W) or frontal flow, equal to the clogged grate width (in cubic feet per second) Q w = 0.56 S 0.5 (d n S w - d 3 ) (Chapter 8 or Chart 5, ppendix H) (0.035) ( ) Q w = = 2.97 cubic feet per second (0.06)(0.05) Step B.4- Solve for (V): V = average gutter flow velocity (in feet per second) Q t 2 Q t 2 Q t V = = = (Chapter 8) Ts Sx + W Sw + 2WTsS x d 2 W(d + d 2 ) + Sx 2 (6.07) V = = 5.07 feet per second 2 2 (8) (0.02) + (2.5) (0.05) + 2(2.5)(8)(0.02) Step B.5- Solve for (E o ): E o = the ratio of frontal flow to total gutter flow Q w 2.97 E o = = = (Equation 4 or Chart 2, ppendix H) Q 6.07 t

26 3-D-26 Step B.6- Solve for (R f ): R f = the ratio of frontal flow intercepted to total frontal flow R f = 0.09 (V V o ) (Equation 6 or Chart, ppendix H) V V o V V o = average flow velocity in the gutter (in feet per second) = gutter velocity where splash over first occurs (in feet per second) = 5.07 feet per second = 5. feet per second (per Chart, ppendix H, using 30 percent clogged grate length equal to 2.26 feet) R f = 0.09 (V V o ) R f = 0.09 ( ) R f =.0027 R f can not exceed.0, therefore, R f =.0 Step B.7- Solve for (R s ): R s R s = R s = = the ratio of side flow intercepted to total side flow 0.5 V Sx = 2.26 feet (30 percent clogged grate length) R s = (5.07) (0.02)(2.26) (Equation 7 or Chart 4, ppendix H) Step B.8- Solve for (E): E = the inlet interception efficiency E = R f E o + R s ( E o ) (Equation 8) E = (.0)(0.489) ( ) E = 0.5 Okay (70 percent minimum efficiency criteria does not apply to Method B)

27 Storm Drainage 3-D-27 Step B.9- Solve for ( ): = first inlet from the crest Q t = E C C i W f p (Equation ) i = 2.28 inches per hour (ssume 5-minute t c using a 0-year storm design, Hydrologic Zone 8; use IDR curve in Chapter 7) C = 0.90 C f =.0 (per ppendix F, Chapter 7) W p = 24 feet (2 2-foot lanes) foot shoulder/gutter + 5-foot sidewalk + 7-foot median = 46.5 feet E =.0 = 43,560 (6.07) () = 2,77feet (0.90)(.0)(2.28)(46.5) Step B.0- Solve for ( 2 ): 2 = distance to successive inlets 43,560 Qi 2 = C C i W (Equation ) f p Q i = intercepted flow (in cubic feet per second) Q i 2 = = E Q t = (0.5)(6.07) = 3.0 cubic feet per second 43,560 (3.0) (0.90)(.0)(2.28)(46.5) =,45 feet 2 = 400 feet, maximum distance to successive inlets (per ppendix D) Therefore, = 277 feet and 2 = 400 feet

28 3-D-28 Storm Drainage Inlet Design Computation Sheet (Diagram B-B Process) Given: Surface Description Road Classification Highway on-grade section (greater than or equal to 45 miles per hour) Type of Curb and Gutter, see Chapter 8, Curbs and Gutters C Surface Material asphalt pavement Manning's Coefficient, n 0.06 Drainage rea Description Runoff Coefficient, C 0.9 Hydrologic Zone (Chapter 7) 8 Intensity (i) in/hr (Chapter 7) 2.28 in/hr, 5-minute T c, 0-year design storm C f (Chapter 7, ppendix F) Type of Inlet (Chapter 3, ppendix C, Table B) G-2 Inlet with P- 7/8-4 grate Design Method: Method Method B Design Criteria: Method (reference Section 2) Minimum Efficiency 70 Percent llowable spread (ppendix D, Table ) shoulder + gutter shoulder width 8.00 feet distance into outside lane 0, but 2.5-foot gutter spread (T) = Shoulder Width + Distance into outside lane 0.5 feet Percentage Clogged 0% Method B (reference Section 2) llowable spread (ppendix D, Table ) shoulder width distance into outside lane spread (T) = Shoulder Width + Distance into outside lane Percentage Clogged Sketch: B Q t = Q r W p Qr = Ci B T Q b Q r2 = Ci 2 2 S Profile: Section - Profile: Cross Slope Section B-B T W T s S X Q W Q S S W Inlet Q t2 = Q b + Q r2 Spread ong. Slope ssume Spread Calculate Hydrology Calculate Inlet Efficiency ocate Inlet Bypass Flow Total Design Design from Inlet Gutter Gutter Inlet Inlet Flow from Upstream Total Interception Intercepted Drainage Drainage Cross Slope Width Flow ength Width Contributing rea Inlet Flow Efficiency Flow Bypass Flow ength Width Drainage rea Number Station Comments T S S x S w W Q t i W i Q r Q b Q t E Q i Q b W p (ft) (ft/ft) (ft/ft) (ft/ft) (ft) (cfs) (ft) (ft) (cfs) (cfs) (cfs) (cfs) (cfs) (ft) (ft) (ac) High point Because E is less than 70 percent, more flow would bypass than allowed, reduce , flow width and try again First inlet from crest , This is the maximum distance (,200 feet) allowed between catchbasins with bypass flows based on hydraulic conditions only; however, due to maintenance requirements, the maximum distance between catchbasins is 400 feet. Figure 4a Example Problem 5.. (Diagram B-B, Method )

29 Storm Drainage 3-D-29 Inlet Design Computation Sheet (Diagram B-B Process) Given: Surface Description Road Classification Highway on-grade section (greater than or equal to 45 miles per hour) Type of Curb and Gutter, see Chapter 8, Curbs and Gutters C Surface Material asphalt pavement Manning's Coefficient, n 0.06 Drainage rea Description Runoff Coefficient, C 0.9 Hydrologic Zone (Chapter 7) 8 Intensity (i) in/hr (Chapter 7) 2.28 in/hr, 5-minute T c, 0-year design storm C f (Chapter 7, ppendix F) Type of Inlet (Chapter 3, ppendix C, Table B) G-2 Inlet with P- 7/8-4 grate Design Method: Method Method B Design Criteria: Method (reference Section 2) Minimum Efficiency 70 Percent llowable spread (ppendix D, Table ) shoulder width distance into outside lane spread (T) = Shoulder Width + Distance into outside lane Percentage Clogged Method B (reference Section 2) llowable spread (ppendix D, Table ) shoulder + gutter + 0 feet into lane shoulder width 8.00 feet distance into outside lane 0.00, but 2.5-foot gutter spread (T) = Shoulder Width + Distance into outside lane 0.5 feet Percentage Clogged 30% Sketch: B Q t = Q r W p Qr = Ci B T Q b Q r2 = Ci 2 2 S Profile: Section - Profile: Cross Slope Section B-B T W T s S X Q W Q S S W Inlet Q t2 = Q b + Q r2 Spread ong. Slope ssume Spread Calculate Hydrology Calculate Inlet Efficiency ocate Inlet Bypass Flow Total Design Design from Inlet Gutter Gutter Inlet Inlet Flow from Upstream Total Interception Intercepted Drainage Drainage Cross Slope Width Flow ength Width Contributing rea Inlet Flow Efficiency Flow Bypass Flow ength Width Drainage rea Number Station Comments T S S x S w W Q t i W i Q r Q b Q t E Q i Q b W p (ft) (ft/ft) (ft/ft) (ft/ft) (ft) (cfs) (ft) (ft) (cfs) (cfs) (cfs) (cfs) (cfs) (ft) (ft) (ac) High point , First inlet from crest , This is the maximum distance (,45 feet) allowed between catchbasins with bypass flows based on hydraulic conditions only; however, due to maintenance requirements, the maximum distance between catchbasins is 400 feet. Figure 4b Example Problem 5.. (Diagram B-B, Method B)

30 3-D-30 Storm Drainage 5.2 Curb-Opening Inlets (On-grade) Curb-opening inlets are effective in the drainage of highway pavements where flow depth at the curb is sufficient for the inlet to perform efficiently. Curb-openings are relatively free of clogging tendencies and offer little interference to traffic operation. They are a viable alternative to grates in many locations where grates would be in traffic lanes or would be hazardous for pedestrians or bicyclists. Note: Standard curb-opening inlets used in ODOT storm drainage systems are noted in ppendix C. Curb-opening inlets lose capacity rapidly with an increase in longitudinal grade. The length of curb-opening inlet required for total interception of gutter flow on a pavement section with a straight cross slope is expressed by: Where: T = T S x n Q t S Q t S n S x (Equation 0) = curb-opening length required to intercept 00 percent of the gutter flow in feet = cross slope in foot per foot = Manning s coefficient = total gutter flow in cubic feet per second = longitudinal slope in foot per foot The efficiency of curb-opening inlets shorter than the length required for total interception is expressed by: E = - - T.8 (Equation ) Where: = curb-opening length in feet Chart 6 in ppendix H is a nomograph for the solution of Equation 0, and Chart 7 (ppendix H) provides a solution of Equation. The length of inlet required for total interception by depressed curb-opening inlets or curbopenings in depressed gutter sections can be found by the use of an equivalent cross slope (S e ) in Equation 2. S e = S x + S' w E o (Equation 2)

31 Storm Drainage 3-D-3 Where: S' w a W E o S x = cross slope of the gutter measured from the cross slope of the pavement = a/w in foot per foot = gutter depression in feet = width of the depressed gutter section (W = 2 feet for CG-3 inlets) in feet = ratio of flow in the depressed section to total gutter flow. It is determined by the gutter configuration upstream of the inlet. = roadway cross slope in foot per foot Note: S e can be used to calculate the length of curb-opening by substituting S e for S x in Equation Curb-Opening Inlet (On-grade) Example The following example illustrates the application of the inlet interception equation Determine location of first inlet and spacing of subsequent inlets Sketch: W d =2.0 feet T T Face of curb S x Pavement Face of curb S = 0.02 ft/ft x Pavement a = 2 inches SECTION - Depressed gutter section at inlet only NTS =2.5 feet h=0.36 feet SECTION B-B NTS Note: Section B-B typical for upstream & downstream section from inlet. B W d =2 feet B CURB OPENING INET NTS

32 3-D-32 Storm Drainage Given: Highway on-grade section (less than 45 miles per hour) Type curb and gutter (reference Chapter 8) n = 0.06 (Manning s coefficient for asphalt pavement) S x = 0.02 foot per foot (roadway cross slope) S = foot per foot (roadway longitudinal slope) W p = 3 feet (width of contributing drainage area, 2 2-foot lanes with 7-foot shoulder) CG-3 inlet (reference Table B, ppendix C) h = 0.36 feet (curb opening height for CG-3 inlet, see sketch above) = 2.5 feet (curb opening length for CG-3 inlet, see sketch above) a = 2 inches (inlet depression, see sketch above) W d = 2 feet (width of depressed gutter section) C = 0.90 (rational method runoff coefficient for pavement) 0-year design, Salem area (IDR curves are located in Chapter 7) Criteria: llowable spread is 2 feet into the outside lane (per Table for highway on-grade section; less than 45 miles per hour) Therefore; T = allowable spread = shoulder width + 2 feet = 7 feet + 2 feet = 9 feet E = 0.70 (minimum efficiency for Method ) 2 = 400 feet (maximum distance between successive inlets, reference Section 2, ppendix D) Method Solution: Step.- Solve for (Q t ): Q t = total gutter flow (cubic feet per second). The approach gutter section to the inlet is used to calculate the total flow Q t = (Sx ) (S ) (T) (Chapter 8 or Chart 5, ppendix H) n Q t = (0.02) (0.0025) (9).06 = 0.90 cubic feet per second Q t Step.2- Solve for (E o ): E o = ratio of flow in the depressed section to total gutter flow Wd 2 E o = - - = - - = T 9 Equation 4 or Chart 2, ppendix H

33 Storm Drainage 3-D-33 Step.3- Solve for (S e ): S e = equivalent cross-slope (foot per foot) ' S w = a (cross slope of the depressed gutter measured from the cross W d slope of the pavement, S x ) a W d = 2 inches for CG-3 inlets (gutter depression) = 2 feet for CG-3 inlets (width of the depressed gutter section) 2 in ' 2 in/ft S w = = foot per foot 2 ft S e = S x + S' W E o (Equation 2) Step.4- Solve for ( T ): Step.5- S e = (0.0833)(0.489) = T T = = curb-opening length required to intercept 00 percent of the gutter flow 0.6 Q 0.42 S 0.3. n S e 0.6 (S e is substituted for S x in Equation 0) T = 0.6 (0.90) (0.0025) = 6. feet (0.06)(0.0607) Solve for (E): E = the curb-opening interception efficiency 0.6 E = - - T = 2.5 feet (curb-opening length).8 (Equation or Chart 7, ppendix H) E = E = The curb-opening interception efficiency (E) is less than 0.70 therefore, more than 30 percent would bypass the inlet. narrower flow width (T) would be assumed and steps through 5 would be repeated until the minimum efficiency of 0.70 is obtained.

34 3-D-34 Storm Drainage Try T = allowable spread = 8 feet Step.2- Solve for (Q t ): Q t Q t = Q t = Q t = total flow in shoulder and gutter (cubic feet per second) 0.56 n Step 2.2- Solve for (E o ): E o = E o = Step 3.2- Solve for (S e ): Step 4.2- Solve for ( T ): (S x ).67 (0.02) (S.67 ) 0.5 (T) (0.0025) = 0.66 cubic feet per second Wd - - T = (8) (Chapter 8 or Chart 5, ppendix H) (Equation 4 or Chart 2, ppendix H) S e = S x + S' W E o (Equation 2) S e = (0.0833)(0.536) = T = 0.6 Q 0.42 S 0.3 n S e 0.6 (S e is substituted for S x in Equation 0) Step 5.2- Solve for (E): T = 0.6 (.66) (0.0025) = 5.7 feet (.06) (.0646) 0.6 E = - - T.8 (Equation or Chart 7, ppendix H) E = - - = Okay Step 6.2- Solve for ( ): = first inlet from the crest 43,560 Qt = E (Equation ) C C i W f p

35 Storm Drainage 3-D-35 i = 2.0 inches per hour (Salem area, assume 5 minute t c using a 0-year storm design) C = 0.90 C f =.0 (per ppendix F, Chapter 7) W p = 24 feet (2 twelve foot lanes) + 7 foot shoulder = 3 feet E =.0 = 43,560 (0.66) () = 490 feet (0.90)(.0)(2.0)(3) Step 7.2- Solve for ( 2 ): = distance to successive inlets 2 () 2 = (2) = 43,560 Qi C C i W f 43,560 Q C C f p t i W p (Equation ) (Equation ) (3) Q i = EQ t (Equation 9) Substituting Q i = EQ t into Equation and equating Equations and 2 simplifies to: 2 = (E) ( ) 2 = (0.70)(490) = 343 feet Therefore = 490 feet and 2 = 343 feet Method B Criteria: llowable spread is 2 feet into the outside lane (per Table for highway on-grade section; less than 45 miles per hour) T = shoulder width + 2 feet = 7 feet + 2 feet = 9 feet (total allowable spread, per Table ) ssume 30 percent clogged (per Table ) Curb-opening inlet 30 percent clogged: h = 0.36 feet (curb opening height for CG-3 inlet, 30 percent clogged per Table B) =.75 feet (curb opening length for CG-3 inlet, 30 percent clogged per Table B) 2 = 400 feet (maximum distance between successive inlets, reference Section 2, ppendix D)

36 3-D-36 Storm Drainage Step B.- Solve for (Q t ): Q t = Q t = Q t (Sx ) (S n 0.56 (0.02) ) 0.5 (T) (0.0025) = 0.90 cubic feet per second 0.5 (9) (Chapter 8 or Chart 5, ppendix H) Step B.2- Solve for (E o ): Wd 2 E o = - - = - - = T 9 Equation 4 or Chart 2, ppendix H Step B.3- Solve for (S e ): ' S w = a W d a W d = 2 inches for CG-3 inlets (gutter depression) = 2 feet for CG-3 inlets (width of the depressed gutter section) 2 in ' 2 in/ft S w = = foot per foot 2 ft Step B.4- Solve for ( T ): S e = S x + S' W E o (Equation 2) S e = (0.0833)(0.488) = T = T = T 0.6 Q S n S e (0.90) (0.0025) = 6. feet (S e is substituted for S x in Equation 0) (0.06) (0.0607) Step B.5- Solve for (E): E = - - T.8 =.75 feet (30 percent clogged curb-opening length) (Equation or Chart 7, ppendix H)

37 Storm Drainage 3-D-37 E = E = Okay (70 percent minimum efficiency criteria does not apply to method B) Step B.6- Solve for ( ): = first inlet from the crest 43,560 Q t = E C C i W f p (Equation ) i = 2.0 inches per hour (0-year precipitation intensity for Salem area) C = 0.90 C f =.0 (per ppendix F, Chapter 7) W p = 24 feet (2 2-foot lanes) + 7-foot shoulder = 3 feet E =.0 = 43,560 (0.90) () = 669 feet (0.90)(.0)(2.0)(3) Step B.7- Solve for ( 2 ): 2 2 = distance to successive inlets = (E) ( ) = (0.456) (669 feet) = 304 feet 5.3 Slotted Inlets (On-grade) Slotted inlets are effective pavement drainage inlets which have a variety of applications. They can be used on curbed or uncurbed sections and offer little interference to traffic operations. They can be placed longitudinally in the gutter or transversely to the gutter. Slotted inlets should be connected into inlet structures or provide clean-out ports on both ends for maintenance access in case of plugging or freezing. The minimum cleanout velocity of 3 feet per second should be provided for slotted drain systems. minimum slope of 0.89 percent for an 8-inch corrugated pipe and.5 percent slope for a 2-inch diameter corrugated pipe would provide the desired velocity of 3 feet per second. The designer should assume 50 percent clogging when using inlet design method B, which will result in twice the calculated required length for flow interception because slotted inlets tend to plug. Note: Standard slotted inlet used in ODOT Storm drain systems is noted in ppendix C

38 3-D-38 Storm Drainage 5.3. ongitudinal Placement Flow interception by slotted inlets and curb-opening inlets is similar in that each is a side weir and the flow is subjected to lateral acceleration due to the cross slope of the pavement. Slotted inlets may have economic advantages in some cases and could be very useful on widening and safety projects where right of way is narrow and existing inlet capacity must be supplemented. It is much less expensive to add length to an existing slotted inlet to increase interception capacity than it is to add length to an existing curb-opening inlet. In some cases curbs could be eliminated as a result of utilizing slotted inlets. The Federal Highway dministration has performed tests of slotted inlets with.75 inch slot widths and these tests have determined that the length of slotted inlet required for total interception can be computed by Equation 0. Therefore, Chart 6 should be used to evaluate slotted inlets. Equation is also applicable to slotted inlets and Chart 7 can be used to obtain the inlet efficiency for the selected length of slotted inlet. Note: The determination of total interception and efficiencies are the same for slotted and curbopening inlets. Therefore, the equations and figures used for the design of curb-opening inlets should be used in the design of slotted inlets. When using Equation 0 for slot inlet design, it should only be used with a slot width of.75 inches Slotted Inlet (On-grade) Example The following example illustrates the application of the inlet efficiency equations for slotted inlets Determine the inlet interception efficiency (E), the intercepted flow (Q i ), and bypass flow (Q b ) for the following conditions:

39 Storm Drainage 3-D-39 Sketch: T Face of Curb d S = 0.02 ft/ft x Pavement SECTION - NTS Flow Slot Inlet SOTTED INET NTS Grate Inlet (ignored throughout this example. Emphasis is on analyzing a slotted inlet. Inlet is needed at downsteam end of slotted inlet to function as a junction and cleanout) Given: Collector road, on-grade section, less than 45 miles per hour Type "C" curb and gutter ongitudinal placement of a slotted inlet adjacent to curb. = 0 feet (slotted inlet length) S = 0.0 foot per foot (roadway longitudinal slope) S x = 0.02 foot per foot (roadway cross slope) n = 0.06 (Manning s coefficient for asphalt pavement) 0-year design storm, Hydraulic Zone 8 (IDR curves located in Chapter 7) W p = 3 feet (width of contributing area, 2.5 foot lanes with 8-foot shoulder) 2 = 400 feet (distance to upstream catch basin) i = 2.28 inches per hour (Salem area, assume 5 minute time of concentration, using a 0-year storm)

40 3-D-40 Storm Drainage Method Criteria: Bypass flow is limited to a maximum of 30 percent ssume no clogging, therefore = 0 feet (slotted inlet length) T = shoulder width + 2 feet = 8 feet + 2 feet = 0 feet (total allowable spread per Table ) E = 0.70 (minimum efficiency for Method ) Solution: Step.- Solve for (Q 0 ): Q 0 = flowrate to slotted inlet in cubic feet per second Q = Ci (Chapter 7) Q = (400)(3) = 2,400 square feet = 0.28 acres = (0.90)(2.28)(0.28) = 0.57 cubic feet per second Step.2- Solve for (T): T = total spread at the slotted inlet (Chapter 8) T = Q 0.56(S ) n (S X ) (0.57)(0.06) T = = 5.9 feet 0.56(0.0) 0.5 (0.02).67 Spread at the slotted inlet = 5.9 feet llowable spread = 0 feet. Placing this slotted inlet 400 feet downstream is acceptable because maximum spread (5.9 feet) is less then the allowable spread (0 feet). Step.3- Solve for ( T ): T = length of opening to intercept 00 percent of the gutter flow in feet T = Q0 S ns x (Equation 0)

41 Storm Drainage 3-D-4 T = T (0.57) (0.0) = 4.9 feet (0.06)(0.02) Step.4- Solve for (E): E = inlet interception efficiency E = T.8 (Equation ) E =.8 0 = E = 86 percent Okay, 70 percent minimum efficiency criteria is satisfied. Step.5 Solve for (Q i ): Q i = intercepted flow Q i = EQ (Equation 9) = (0.86)(0.57) = 0.49 cubic feet per second Step.6 Solve for (Q b ): Q b = flow that is not intercepted by the slotted inlet and must be included in the evaluation of downstream gutter and inlet Q b = Q - Q i (Equation 3) = = 0.08 cubic feet per second Q b Method B Criteria: ssume 50 percent clogging per Table, therefore = 0(0.50) = 5 feet T = shoulder width + 2 feet = 8 feet + 2 feet = 0 feet (total allowable spread per Table ) Step B.- Solve for (Q 0 ): Q 0 = flowrate to slotted inlet in cubic feet per second Q = Ci (Chapter 7) Q = (400)(3) = 2,400 square feet = 0.28 acres = (0.90)(2.28)(0.28) = 0.57 cubic feet per second

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