# CHAPTER 5 OPEN CHANNEL HYDROLOGY

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1 5.4 Uniform Flow Calculations Design Charts CHAPTER 5 OPEN CHANNEL HYDROLOGY Following is a discussion of the equations that can be used for the design and analysis of open channel flow. The Federal Highway Administration has prepared numerous design charts to aid in the design of rectangular, triangular, and trapezoidal open channel cross sections. In addition, design charts for grass lined channels have been developed. These charts and instructions for their use given in Section Manning s Equation Manning s Equation, presented in three forms below, is recommended for evaluating uniform flow conditions in open channels: 2 / 3 1/ 2 v = ( 1.49 / n) R S (Eq ) Q = ( 1.49 / n) A R^ (2 / 3) S^ (1/ 2) (Eq ) S = [ Qn /(1.49 A R^ (2 / 3))]^2 (Eq ) Where: v = average channel velocity (ft/s) Q = discharge rate for design conditions (cfs) n = Manning s roughness coefficient A = cross-sectional area (ft 2 ) R = hydraulic radius A/P (ft) P = wetted perimeter (ft) S = slope of the energy grade line (ft/ft) For prismatic channels, in the absence of backwater conditions, the slope of the energy grade line, water surface and channel bottom are equal Geometric Relationships Area, wetted perimeter, hydraulic radius, and channel top width for standard channel cross-sections can be calculated from geometric dimensions. Irregular channel cross sections (i.e., those with a narrow deep main channel and a wide shallow overbank channel) must be subdivided into segments so that the flow can be computed separately for the main channel and overbank portions. This same process of subdivision may be used when different parts of the channel cross section have different roughness coefficients. When computing the hydraulic radius of the subsections, the water depth common to the two adjacent subsections is not counted as wetted perimeter

2 5.4.4 Direct Solutions When the hydraulic radius, cross-sectional area, and roughness coefficient and slope are known, discharge can be calculated directly from equation The slope can be calculated using equation when the discharge, roughness coefficient, area, and hydraulic radius are known. Nomographs for obtaining direct solutions to Manning s Equation are presented in Figures and Figure provides a general solution for the velocity form of Manning s Equation, while Figure provides a solution of Manning s Equation for trapezoidal channels. Table Manning s Roughness Coefficients For Artificial Channels n Ranges Depth Lining Category Lining Type ft ft >2.0 ft Rigid Concrete Grouted Riprap Stone Masonry Soil Cement Asphalt Unlined Bare Soil Rock Cut Temporary* Woven Paper Net Jute Net Fiberglass Roving Straw With Net Curled Wood Mat Synthetic Mat Gravel Riprap 1-inch D inch D Rock Riprap 6-inch D inch D Note: Values listed are representative values for the respective depth ranges. Manning s roughness coefficients, n, vary with the flow depth. *Some temporary linings become permanent when buried. Source: HEC-15,

3 Figure Manning s n Values For Vegetated Channels 5.4-3

4 Table Uniform Flow Values of Roughness coefficient n Type Of Channel And Description Minimum Normal Maximum EXCAVATED OR DREDGED a. Earth, Straight and uniform Clean, recently completed Clean, after weathering Gravel, uniform section, clean b. Earth, winding and sluggish 1. No vegetation Grass, some weeds Dense weeds/plants in deep channels Earth bottom and rubble sides Stony bottom and weedy sides Cobble bottom and clean sides c. Dragline-excavated or dredged 1. No vegetation Light brush on banks d. Rock cuts 1. Smooth and uniform Jagged and irregular e. Channels not maintained, weeds and brush uncut 1. Dense weeds, high as flow depth Clean bottom, brush on sides Same, highest stage of flow Dense brush, high stage NATURAL STREAMS Minor streams (top width at flood stage < 100 ft) a. Streams on Plain 1. Clean, straight, full stage, no rifts or deep pools 2. Same as above, but more stone and weeds 3. Clean, winding, some pools and shoals Same as above, but some weeds and some stones 5. Same as above, lower stages, more ineffective slopes and sections 6. Same as 4, but more stone Sluggish reaches, weedy, deep pools Very weedy reaches, deep pools, or floodways with heavy stand of timber and underbrush b. Mountain stream, no vegetation in channel, banks usually steep, trees and brush along banks submerged at high stages 1. Bottom: gravels, cobbles, few boulders Bottom: cobbles with large boulder

5 Table Uniform Flow Values of Roughness coefficient n (continued) Type Of Channel And Description Minimum Normal Maximum Floodplains a. Pasture, no brush 1. Short grass High grass b. Cultivated area 1. No crop Mature row crops Mature field crops c. Brush 1. Scattered brush, heavy weeds Light brush and trees in winter Light brush and trees, in summer Medium to dense brush, in winter Medium to dense brush, in summer d. Trees 1. Dense willows, summer, straight Cleared land, tree stumps, no sprouts Same as above, but with heavy growth of spouts 4. Heavy stand of timber, a few down trees, little undergrowth, flood stage below branches 5. Same as above, but with flood stage reaching branches Major Streams (top width at flood stage > 100 ft). The n value is less than that for minor streams of similar description, because banks offer less effective resistance. a. Regular section with no boulders or brush b. Irregular and rough section

6 Table Classification of Vegetal Covers as to Degrees of Retardance Retardance Cover Condition A Weeping Lovegrass Excellent stand, tall (average 30 ) Yellow Bluestem Ischaemum Excellent stand, tall (average 36 ) B Kudzu Very dense growth, uncut Bermuda grass Good stand, tall (average 12 ) Native grass mixture little bluestem, bluestem, blue gamma other short and long stem Midwest lovegrass Good stand, unmowed Weeping lovegrass Good stand, tall (average 24 ) Laspedeza sericea Good stand, not woody, tall (average 19 ) Alfalfa Good stand, uncut (average 11 ) Weeping lovegrass Good stand, unmowed (average 13 ) Kudzu Dense growth, uncut Blue gamma Good stand, uncut (average 13 ) C Crabgrass Fair stand, uncut (10 48 ) Bermuda grass Good stand, mowed (average 6 ) Common lespedeza Good stand, uncut (average 11 ) Grass-legume mixture: summer (orchard grass redtop, Italian ryegrass, and common lespedeza Good stand, uncut (6 8 ) Centipede grass Very dense cover (average 6 ) Kentucky blue grass Good stand, headed (6 12 ) D Bermuda grass Good stand, cut to 2.5 Common lespedeza Excellent stand, uncut (average 4.5 ) Buffalo grass Good stand, uncut (3 6 ) Grass-legume mixture: fall, spring (orchard grass, redtop, Italian ryegrass, and common lespedeza Good stand, uncut (4 5 ) Lespedeza serices After cutting to 2 (very good before cutting) E Bermuda grass Good stand, cut to 1.5 Bermuda grass Burned stubble Note: Covers classified have been tested in experimental channels. Covers were green and generally uniform

7 5.4.5 General Solution Nomograph The following steps are used for the general solution nomograph in Figure Determine open channel data, including slope in ft/ft, hydraulic radius in ft, and Manning s n value Connect a line between the Manning s n scale and slope scale and note the point of intersection on the turning line Connect a line from the hydraulic radius to the point of intersection obtained in Step Extend the line from Step 3 to the velocity scale to obtain the velocity in ft/s Trapezoidal Solution Nomograph The trapezoidal channel nomograph solution to Manning s Equation in Figure can be used to find the depth of flow if the design discharge is known or the design discharge if the depth of flow is known Determine input data, including slope in ft/ft, Manning s n value, bottom width in ft, and side slope in ft/ft Given the design discharge, find the product of Q times n, connect a line from the scale to the Qn scale, and find the point of intersection on the turning line Connect a line from the turning point from Step 2a to the b scale and find the intersection with the z = 0 scale Project horizontally from the point located in Step 2b to the appropriate z value and find the value of d/b Multiply the value of d/b obtained in Step 2c by the bottom width b to find the depth of uniform flow, d Given the depth of flow, find the ratio d divided by b and project a horizontal line from the d/b ratio at the appropriate side slope, z, to the z=0 scale Connect a line from the point located in Step 3a to the b scale and find the intersection with the turning line Connect a line from the point located in Step 3b to the slope scale and find the intersection with the Qn scale

8 Divide the value of Qn obtained in Step 3c by the n value to find the design discharge, Q. Figure Nomograph For The Solution Of Manning s Equation 5.4-8

9 Figure Solution Of Manning s Equation For Trapezoidal Channels 5.4-9

10 5.4.7 Trial And Error Solutions A trial and error procedure for solving Manning s Equation is used to compute the normal depth of flow in a uniform channel when the channel shape, slope, roughness, and design discharge are known. For purposes of the trial and error process, Manning s Equation can be arranged as: 3 1/ 2 AR 2 / = ( Qn) /(1.49 S ) (Eq ) Where: A R Q n S = cross-sectional area (ft) = hydraulic radius (ft) = discharge rate for design conditions (cfs) = manning s roughness coefficient = slope of the energy grade line (ft/ft) To determine the normal depth of flow in a channel by the trail and error process, trail values of depth are used to determine A, P, and R for the given channel cross section. Trial values of AR 2/3 are computed until the equality of equation is satisfied such that the design flow is conveyed for the slope and selected channel cross section. Graphical procedures for simplifying trial and error solutions are presented in Figure for trapezoidal channels Determine input data, including design discharge, Q, Manning s n value, channel bottom width, b, channel slope, S, and channel side slope, z Calculate the trapezoidal conveyance factor using the equation: KT = ( Qn) /( b^ (8 / 3) S(1/ 2)) (Eq ) Where: K T Q n b S = trapezoidal open channel conveyance factor = discharge rate for design conditions (cfs) = manning s roughness coefficient = bottom width (ft) = slope of the energy grade line (ft/ft) Enter the x-axis of Figure with the value of K T calculated in Step 2 and draw a line vertically to the curve corresponding to the appropriate z value from Step

11 From the point of intersection obtained in Step 3, draw a horizontal line to the y-axis and read the value of the normal depth of flow over the bottom width, d/b Multiply the d/b value from Step 4 by b to obtain the normal depth of flow

12 Figure Trapezoidal Channel Capacity Chart END OF SECTION

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