M6a: Open Channel Flow (Manning s Equation, Partially Flowing Pipes, and Specific Energy)


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1 M6a: Open Channel Flow (, Partially Flowing Pipes, and Specific Energy) Steady NonUniform Flow in an Open Channel Robert Pitt University of Alabama and Shirley Clark Penn State  Harrisburg Continuity Equation: V A = V A Chin 006; Figure. Steady, NonUniform Flow in an Open Channel Manning Coefficients for Open Channels (Table 4., Chin 000) SI units (m/s; m) V = R n S f U.S. Customary units (ft/sec; ft).486 V = R n S f The momentum equation can be used to derive the expression for shear stress: τ o = γrs f γ = specific weight of water (6.4 lbs/ft) R = hydraulic radius (ft) Sf = hydraulic slope (ft/ft) (slope of the energy grade line, or the friction slope) Chin 006; Figure. Where Sf is the slope of the energy grade line (friction slope). If the channel slope is used, then implies uniform flow, which is rare. 6 Only valid for hydraulically rough flow, when: n RS f.9x0 (SI units)
2 Example: Determine the flow rate in a rectangular concrete channel with a width of m and a HGL slope of 0.00 m/m when the depth of flow is.5 m. Assume n = Given: n = 0.04 (concrete channel) L = m (width of channel) w =.5 m (depth of flow) s f = 0.00 m/m Use the Manning's equation: Q = A n R S f Need A (crosssectional area of flow): A = Lw Substituting: A = ( m)(.5 m) A = 4.5 m Need R (hydraulic radius): R = A/P Need P, the wetted perimeter (noted on drawing by thicker lines). P = L + w Substituting: P = ( m) + (.5 m) P = 6 m Substituting into equation for hydraulic radius: R = A/P R = (4.5 m )/(6 m) R = 0.75 m Substituting into Manning's equation: (4.5m Q = Q = 8.9m / )(0.75m) (0.00m / m) 0.04 /sec /
3 Example: Given a Vshaped channel with a HGL slope of 0.00, a top width of 0 feet, and a depth of 5 feet, determine the velocity of flow using the Manning s equation. Find the discharge in both ft /sec (cfs) and m /sec (cms). Substituting: R = (5 ft )/4.4 ft R =.77 ft Assume that the channel is concretelined with a Manning s n of / / Q = AR S n.49 / / Q = (5 ft )(.77 ft) (0.00) 0.05 Q = 4.9 cfs = 5 ft /sec(0.048 m/ft) =.5 m /sec Example: Find the dimensions of a rectangular concrete channel to carry a flow of 50 m /sec, with a HGL slope of 0.05 and a mean velocity of 0. m/sec. Given: Q = 50 m /sec V = 0. m/sec S f = 0.05 Assume: Manning s n = 0.0 (concrete channel) Have everything needed to solve Manning s equation for the hydraulic radius, R: / / V = R S n / Vn R = / S / Vn R = / S (0.m /sec)(0.0 R = / (0.05) R =.m /
4 By definition, R = crosssectional area of flow/wetted perimeter A = (Base of channel)(depth of flow) P = (Base of channel) + (Depth of flow) Substituting : R = (Base)(Depth) [ Base + Depth] =.m By the Continuity Equation: Q A = = ( Base)( Depth) V 50m /sec A = 0.m /sec A = 4.7m = ( Base)( Depth) Have two equations and two unknowns: 4.7m = ( Base)( Depth) 4.7 Base = Depth 4.7m.m = Base + Depth Base + Depth =.0m Depth =.0 Depth Depth Depth = Depth Depth = 0 Two possible solutions to quadratic (both are correct): Base =.9 m Depth of Flow = 5.04 m Base = 0. m Depth of Flow =.46 m Figure 58 (Chow 959) can be used to significantly shorten the calculation effort for the design of channels. This figure is used to calculate the normal depth (y) of a channel based on the channel side slopes and known flow and channel characteristics, using the Manning s equation in the following form: AR = nq.49 S 0.5 Initial channel characteristics that must be know include: z (the side slope), and b (the channel bottom width, assuming a trapezoid). It is easy to examine several different channel options (z and b) by calculating the normal depth (y) for a given peak discharge rate, channel slope, and roughness. The most practical channel can then be selected from the alternatives. 4
5 Composite Manning s n Estimate, Example. (Chin 006) A floodplain (next slide) can be divided into seven sections as shown below. Use the various formula in the table to estimate the composite roughness value for this channel. Floodplain showing seven separate sections corresponding to different values of n. Figure.5, Chin 006 Each section has the following geometric characteristics: These values are used with the prior equations to result in the following estimates for Manning s n: The estimates of the composite n values can vary considerably, resulting in similar differences in predicted discharges. 5
6 As shown earlier, the Manning s equation can also be also used to predict flows in pipes. Drainage systems are typically designed as open channel flows in circular pipes, although other crosssectional shapes are used. Charts or tables can be used to help predict the flow conditions in these systems when the pipes are not flowing full. From: Metcalf and Eddy, Inc. and George Tchobanoglous. Wastewater Engineering: Collection and Pumping of Wastewater. McGrawHill, Inc. 98. Example: Determine the depth of flow and velocity in a sewer with a diameter of 00 mm having a HGL slope of m/m with an n value of 0.05 when discharging 0.0 m /sec. From: Metcalf and Eddy, Inc. and George Tchobanoglous. Wastewater Engineering: Collection and Pumping of Wastewater. McGrawHill, Inc. 98. Given: D = 00 mm S f = m/m n = 0.05 Q = 0.0 m /sec 6
7 Use the modified Manning s equation for partly full sewers: K' 8 / / Q = D S n Rearranging : nq K' = 8 / / D S Substituting : (0.05)(0.0m /sec) K' = 8 / (0.m) (0.005m / m) K' = / Using Table 5 (equation in terms of diameter of pipe): Close to K = Therefore, d/d = 0.8 Substituting: d/(0. m) = 0.8 Depth of flow, d = m To calculate velocity at depth of water of 84 mm, need to use continuity equation: Q = VA Using Manning s partial flow diagram (assuming a constant n): At d/d = 0.8 d/d = 0.8 A/A full = 0. From: Metcalf and Eddy, Inc. and George Tchobanoglous. Wastewater Engineering: Collection and Pumping of Wastewater. McGrawHill, Inc
8 Using Manning s partial flow diagram (assuming a constant n): At d/d = 0.8, A/A full = 0. Substituting: A Afull A = 0. = m A = 0.056m Calculate A full. A A full full π = D 4 = m π = 4 ( 0.m) Substituting into the continuity equation: Q = VA 0.0m /sec = V (0.056m V = 0.64m /sec ) InClass Problem (Partially Flowing Sewer) Determine the depth of flow and velocity in a sewer with a diameter of 600 mm having a HGL slope of m/m with an n value of 0.0 when discharging m /sec. 8
9 Remember the problem having two correct answers: Typical Specific Energy Diagram (Figure.6, Chin 006) V E = y +α g When the water depth is close to critical, small changes in specific energy results in large depth changes, resulting in unstable and excessive wave action. Fr should be <0.86 or >. to prevent this. If water depth is deeper than the critical depth (y c ), then the flow is subcritical. If the water depth is shallower than the critical depth, then the flow is supercritical. The specific energy diagram is used to determine the most likely water depth. Prasuhn 987 In the subcritical zone, the water depth component is much larger than the velocity head In the supercritical zone, the velocity head component is much larger than the water depth. Prasuhn 987 9
10 In this example, the upstream flow is subcritical (deeper than the critical depth). When the water approaches an upward step, the specific energy calculation results in two possible water depth solutions. The correct downstream water depth solution is on the same limb of the specific energy diagram as the upstream water depth. In this case, the flow is still subcritical, although the water depth actually decreases (but it cannot pass through the critical depth value). In this example, the upstream flow is supercritical (shallower than the critical depth). When the water approaches an upward step, the specific energy calculation results in two possible water depth solutions. The correct downstream water depth solution is on the same limb of the specific energy diagram as the upstream water depth. In this case, the flow is still supercritical: the water depth increases (but it cannot pass through the critical depth value). Prasuhn 987 Prasuhn 987 In a rectangular channel, the critical depth can be easily calculated using a unit width flow rate: Q q = Where b is the width of the rectangular channel b The critical flow depth can then be calculated as: y c q = g E c = y c and the minimum specific energy in a rectangular channel is therefore: Example Problem: Determine the Downstream Water Depth when Affected by Channel Bottom Rise (ex. 7, Prasuhn 987) Determine the downstream depth in a horizontal rectangular channel in which the bottom rises 0.5 ft, if the steady flow discharge is 00 cfs, the channel width is ft, and the upstream depth is 4 ft. The discharge per unit width is: q Q 00 ft /sec = = = 5cfs ft b ft / The critical depth is therefore: ( 5cfs / ft) q y c = =. 69 ft g =. ft / sec 0
11 The upstream depth is therefore subcritical. The upstream specific energy is calculated to be: ( 5cfs / ft) ( ft / sec )( 4 ft) q H 0 = y + = 4 ft + = 4. 6 ft gy. ( 5cfs / ft) ( ft / sec )( 4 ft) q H 0 = y + = 4 ft + = 4. 6 ft gy. H = H q z = y + gy 0 0 and the corresponding downstream specific energy is: q H 0 = H 0 z = y + gy H 0 = 4.6ft 0.5 ft = 4.ft = y +. ( 5cfs / ft) ( ft / sec ) y From the subcritical position on the specific energy diagram, the depth and the water surface elevation will both decrease downstream over the bump in the channel bottom. Therefore, y must be greater than y c and less than y  z:.69 ft < y <.5 ft Solving the equation by iteration within this range results in the solution of y =.09 ft. The trial solutions can be used to draw in the specific energy diagram. InClass Problem Determine the downstream depth in a horizontal rectangular channel in which the bottom rises 0.75 ft, if the steady flow discharge is 550 cfs, the channel width is 5 ft, and the upstream depth is 6 ft. Also draw the specific energy diagram for this problem.
12 Choke What happens when z is increased to a greater and greater value under subcritical conditions? As z increases, H o must also continue to decrease. Therefore, y decreases as well. The limit is reached for subcritical flow when y equals the critical depth at which point the transition becomes a choke. A further increase in z results in the impossible situation where H o is less than H omin (there would be no positive solution to H o ): the upstream flow has insufficient energy to pass through the transition at the specified discharge. The flow will not cease, but will adjust itself to either a lower discharge or an increase in specific energy. The flow will likely not change due to upstream flow sources. The upstream flow will increase both its upstream depth and specific energy by means of a gentle swell or a series of small waves that travel upstream. The new upstream depth will be such that the flow can just pass the transition and y will equal y c, and H o will equal H omin. H o will exceed H omin by the value of z. This transition is called a choke since the critical depth prevails regardless of the increase in upstream energy. During supercritical flow conditions, the flow behavior is different as z increases. A choke occurs when the minimum specific energy is reached. However, when additional z occurs, a surge (wall of water) moves upstream. When equilibrium is reached, the supercritical flow will have been replaced by the identical subcritical flow discussed above, and the transition will continue to act as a choke. (summarized from Prasuhn 987)
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