Viruses, Archaea and Bacteria

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Viruses, Archaea and Bacteria"

Transcription

1 Viruses, Archaea and Bacteria Viruses and Viroids Features of Prokaryotes Bacterial Diversity Archaeal Diversity

2 Viruses A virus is a noncellular infectious agent Ø Consists of a protein coat around a core of DNA or RNA Ø Replicates only in a host cell Ø Has no ribosomes or other metabolic machinery

3

4 Bacteriophage Replication Pathways

5 Retrovirus: RNA virus that uses reverse transcriptase to produce viral DNA in a host cell

6 HIV Replication Ø HIV replicates inside human white blood cells Ø Spikes of viral protein attach to proteins in the cell s plasma membrane Ø Drugs that fight HIV interfere with viral binding to the host, reverse transcription, integration of DNA, or formation of viral proteins

7 Viral Diseases Ø Caused by pathogenic viruses Ø Usually produce mild symptoms Ø Some persist in body for long periods (latent)/ herpes virus Ø Some increase the risk of cancer (HPV main cause of cervical cancer) Ø High mutation rate especially in RNA viruses Ø Viral recombination: viral genomes exchanging genes when two viruses infect a host at the same time

8 Common Viral Diseases Nonenveloped viruses: Ø Adenoviruses (colds) Ø Viral gastroenteritis (stomach flu) Ø Human papillomavirus (genital warts, cervical cancer)

9 Enveloped viruses: Ø Herpes viruses (cold sores, genital herpes, infectious mononucleosis, chicken pox) Ø Influenza (flu) Ø Mumps, measles, and German measles Emerging viral diseases: Ø Changes to viral genomes as a result of mutation or gene exchanges can alter the properties of a viral disease Ø A disease that was previously unknown, is new to humans, or has recently begun spreading to a new region

10 A small RNA, circular and singlestranded without a protein coat Do not encode proteins but interfere with normal gene expression Viroids

11 Ø Unicellular Prokaryotes Bacteria and Archaea Ø Very small cells: 1-5 µm (1/10 the size of eukaryotes) Ø Everywhere!! Ø Both beneficial and harmful impacts on humans

12 The biological mass of prokaryotes is at least 10X that of all eukaryotes Play crucial roles in the biosphere: Photosynthetic Decomposers Only a minority cause diseases in humans and other organisms/ majority essential for life

13 Prokaryotes Bacteria and Archaea

14

15 Cell Shape Important for identification and classification

16 Reproduction and Gene Exchange in Bacteria Vertical gene transfer Binary fission Horizontal gene transfer Conjugation Transformation Transduction

17 Binary Fission

18 Prokaryotic Conjugation

19 Transformation: introduction of foreign DNA/ Streptococcus pneumonia Transduction: process by which DNA is transferred from one bacterium to another by a virus

20 Metabolic Diversity

21 Cell Wall in Bacteria Peptidoglycan: Polymer of sugars cross-linked by short polypeptides

22 Some Major Bacterial Lineages Oxygen-Producing Cyanobacteria Proteobacteria Gram positive bacteria Spirochetes

23 Cyanobacteria Partner with fungi and form lichens Chloroplasts in eukaryotes evolved from cyanobacteria

24 Proteobacteria All gram negative Most diverse/ mode of nutrition and habitats Share one RNA sequence Thiomargarita namibiensis E. Coli The largest known bacterium Has an enormous vacuole that holds sulfur and nitrate Agrobacterium sp. Rhizobium sp.

25 Gram Positive Bacteria Diverse group Include species that are very common soil/ important organic matter decomposers Streptococcus, Bacillus, Lactobacillus

26 Spirochetes Free living and parasites Cattle guts/ help with cellulose digestion Notorious pathogens/ Syphilis and Lyme disease

27 How Do Bacteria Affect Human Health? Ø Normal flora Ø Normally harmless or beneficial microorganisms that typically live in or on a body/ E. coli (vit. K)/ Lactobacillus sp. (vit. E) Ø Some endospore*-forming bacteria make deadly toxins: Ø Bacillus anthracis: anthrax Ø Clostridium tetani: tetanus Ø C. botulinum: botulism

28 Infectious Bacteria About one half of the human illnesses are caused by pathogenic bacteria: most produce poison Exotoxins : secreted proteins (E. coli) Endotoxins: components of the outer membrane (Salmonella sp.) Ø Mycobacterium tuberculosis: tuberculosis Ø Streptococcus: strep throat Ø Staphylococcus aureus: Antibiotic-resistant staph infections

29 Archaea

30 Comparing Archaea & Bacteria Archaea share some traits with Bacteria, some with Eukarya, some unique

31 Archaea Extreme Halophiles Extreme Thermophiles Methanogens

Viruses and Prokaryotes. Chapter 21 Part 1

Viruses and Prokaryotes. Chapter 21 Part 1 Viruses and Prokaryotes Chapter 21 Part 1 Impacts, Issues The Effects of AIDS Some viruses and bacteria help us; others, such as the HIV virus that causes AIDS, can kill 21.1 Viral Characteristics and

More information

Concept 27.1 Structural and functional adaptations contribute to prokaryotic success

Concept 27.1 Structural and functional adaptations contribute to prokaryotic success Name Period Chapter 27: Bacteria and Archaea Overview 1. The chapter opens with amazing tales of life at the extreme edge. What are the masters of adaptation? Describe what this means and the one case

More information

18.4 Bacteria and Archaea. Kingdom Eubacteria Domain Bacteria

18.4 Bacteria and Archaea. Kingdom Eubacteria Domain Bacteria Kingdom Eubacteria Domain Bacteria Description Bacteria are single-celled prokaryotes. Where do they live? Prokaryotes are widespread on Earth. ( Est. over 1 billion types of bacteria, and over 10 30 individual

More information

GENETICS OF BACTERIA AND VIRUSES

GENETICS OF BACTERIA AND VIRUSES GENETICS OF BACTERIA AND VIRUSES 1 Genes of bacteria are found in bacterial chromosomes Usually a single type of chromosome May have more than one copy of that chromosome Number of copies depends on the

More information

Bacterial Classification. Taxonomy and Characteristics

Bacterial Classification. Taxonomy and Characteristics Bacterial Classification Taxonomy and Characteristics Prokaryotes Domain Archaea [ancient bacteria] Domain Eubacteria [true bacteria] make up the old Kingdom Monera Prokaryotes Most abundant group Widely

More information

Chapter 13. Microorganisms: Prokaryotes and Viruses Worksheets. Lesson 13.1: Prokaryotes Lesson 13.2: Viruses

Chapter 13. Microorganisms: Prokaryotes and Viruses Worksheets. Lesson 13.1: Prokaryotes Lesson 13.2: Viruses Chapter 13 Microorganisms: Prokaryotes and Viruses Worksheets Lesson 13.1: Prokaryotes Lesson 13.2: Viruses (Opening image copyright Michael Taylor, 2010. Used under license from Shutterstock.com.) www.ck12.org

More information

Single celled organisms

Single celled organisms Single celled organisms Single Celled Organisms Some organisms, unlike plants and animals, consist of only one cell. These organisms are said to be unicellular An amoeba is another name given to an organism

More information

Chapter 27B: Bacteria and Archaea

Chapter 27B: Bacteria and Archaea Chapter 27B: Bacteria and Archaea 1. Prokaryotic Nutritional & Metabolic Adaptations 2. Survey of Prokaryotic Groups A. Domain Bacteria Gram-negative groups B. Domain Bacteria Gram-positive groups C. Domain

More information

Chapter 27: Bacteria and Archaea

Chapter 27: Bacteria and Archaea Name Period Overview 1. The chapter opens with amazing tales of life at the extreme edge. What are the masters of adaptation? Describe the one case you thought most dramatic. Concept 27.1 Structural and

More information

Viruses and Prokaryotes

Viruses and Prokaryotes Viruses and Prokaryotes Cellular Basis of Life Q: Are all microbes that make us sick made of living cells? 20.1 What is a virus? WHAT I KNOW SAMPLE ANSWER: A virus is a tiny particle that can make people

More information

Bacteria: The good, the bad, and the ugly. SEPA BioScience Montana Module 2

Bacteria: The good, the bad, and the ugly. SEPA BioScience Montana Module 2 Bacteria: The good, the bad, and the ugly. SEPA BioScience Montana Module 2 Introduction: The following reading will give you a basic introduction to bacteria and their role in illness. It will explore

More information

Chapter 13 Viral Genetics

Chapter 13 Viral Genetics Chapter 13 Viral Genetics Viral Diseases Polio Hepatitis Measles Chicken pox Influenza: 1918 Epidemic 30-40 million deaths world-wide Smallpox Eradicated in 1976 vaccinations ceased in 1980 at risk population?

More information

Human Genome Complexity, Viruses & Genetic Variability

Human Genome Complexity, Viruses & Genetic Variability Human Genome Complexity, Viruses & Genetic Variability (Learning Objectives) Learn the types of DNA sequences present in the Human Genome other than genes coding for functional proteins. Review what you

More information

Chapter 11 PROKARYOTES: Survey of the Bacteria & Archaea

Chapter 11 PROKARYOTES: Survey of the Bacteria & Archaea Chapter 11 PROKARYOTES: Survey of the Bacteria & Archaea 1. Metabolic Terms 2. The Bacteria A. Phototrophic Bacteria B. Gram-Positive Bacteria C. Gram-Negative Bacteria 3. The Archaea 1. Metabolic Terms

More information

KEY CONCEPT Organisms can be classified based on physical similarities. binomial nomenclature

KEY CONCEPT Organisms can be classified based on physical similarities. binomial nomenclature Section 17.1: The Linnaean System of Classification Unit 9 Study Guide KEY CONCEPT Organisms can be classified based on physical similarities. VOCABULARY taxonomy taxon binomial nomenclature genus MAIN

More information

BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE CONCEPTS: BIO113 1

BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE CONCEPTS: BIO113 1 BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE CONCEPTS: BIO113 1 There are 4 portions of this review a list of objectives, a table of diseases, sample multiple choice questions, and general questions. Your notes are the most important

More information

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Module 2B Viruses Viruses are not complete living organisms. They are smaller and simpler in structure than even the simplest prokaryotic cells. However, because they have some characteristics of life,

More information

Test I - Viruses, Bacteria, Protists, and Fungi

Test I - Viruses, Bacteria, Protists, and Fungi Test I - Viruses, Bacteria, Protists, and Fungi Matching For questions 1-12, write the letter of the word from the word bank that best fits each description. Only one answer is correct for each question.

More information

GRADE 8 STUDY PACKET IMMUNE SYSTEM SC.6.L.14.5 AA

GRADE 8 STUDY PACKET IMMUNE SYSTEM SC.6.L.14.5 AA GRADE 8 STUDY PACKET IMMUNE SYSTEM SC.6.L.14.5 AA SC.6.L.14.5 AA Identify and investigate the general functions of the major systems of the human body (digestive, respiratory, circulatory, reproductive,

More information

Important Metabolic Terms

Important Metabolic Terms Chapter 11 PROKARYOTES: Survey of the Bacteria & Archaea 1. The Bacteria 2. The Archaea Important Metabolic Terms Oxygen tolerance/usage: aerobic requires or can use oxygen (O 2 ) anaerobic does not require

More information

Bacteria vs. Virus: What s the Difference? Grade 11-12

Bacteria vs. Virus: What s the Difference? Grade 11-12 Bacteria vs. Virus: What s the Difference? Grade 11-12 Subject: Biology Topic: Bacteria, viruses, and the differences between them. The role that water plays in spreading bacteria and viruses, and the

More information

Structure and Function of DNA

Structure and Function of DNA Structure and Function of DNA DNA and RNA Structure DNA and RNA are nucleic acids. They consist of chemical units called nucleotides. The nucleotides are joined by a sugar-phosphate backbone. The four

More information

Organization and Structure of Cells

Organization and Structure of Cells Organization and Structure of Cells All living things fall into one of the two categories: prokaryotes eukaryotes The distinction is based on whether or not a cell has a nucleus. Prokaryotic cells do not

More information

II. Pathways of Discovery in Microbiology. 1.6 The Historical Roots of Microbiology. Robert Hooke and Early Microscopy

II. Pathways of Discovery in Microbiology. 1.6 The Historical Roots of Microbiology. Robert Hooke and Early Microscopy II. Pathways of Discovery in Microbiology 1.6 The Historical Roots of Microbiology 1.6 The Historical Roots of Microbiology 1.7 Pasteur and the Defeat of Spontaneous Generation 1.8 Koch, Infectious Disease,

More information

Fig. 1.4 Theory of Spontaneous Generation

Fig. 1.4 Theory of Spontaneous Generation Early History of Microbiology: 1668 Francesco Redi disproves spontaneous generation 1676 Antony van Leeuwenhoek first observes microbes 1861 Louis Pasteur disproves spontaneous generation 1876 John Tyndall

More information

Viruses. The art of moving DNA around without sex. Pages:

Viruses. The art of moving DNA around without sex. Pages: Viruses The art of moving DNA around without sex Pages: 82 209-210 238-240 Viruses, too small to see with a light microscope (EM works though) Viruses are found everywhere (1 oz of sewage can contain 1

More information

Lecture Objectives: Why study microbiology? What is microbiology? Roots of microbiology

Lecture Objectives: Why study microbiology? What is microbiology? Roots of microbiology 1 Lecture Objectives: Why study microbiology? What is microbiology? Roots of microbiology Why study microbiology? ENVIRONMENTAL MEDICAL APPLIED SCIENCE BASIC SCIENCE The science of microbiology Microbiology

More information

Chapter 10: Genetics of Viruses

Chapter 10: Genetics of Viruses Chapter 10: Genetics of Viruses Student Learning Objectives Upon completion of this chapter you should be able to: 1. Understand the structure and genomic composition of viruses. 2. Distinguish between

More information

Guided Reading Activities

Guided Reading Activities Name Period Chapter 16: Microbial Life: Prokaryotes and Protists Guided Reading Activities Big idea: Prokaryotes Answer the following questions as you read modules 16.1 16.11: 1. True or false: Harmful

More information

Bacteria. Domain Bacteria. Morphology (cell shape) BIO162 Fall 07. Page Baluch

Bacteria. Domain Bacteria. Morphology (cell shape) BIO162 Fall 07. Page Baluch Bacteria BIO162 Fall 07 Page Baluch Domain Bacteria Differences (cell types, metabolism, etc) between microbes: Are results of evolution from a common ancestor Survival of the fittest for a specific environment

More information

Structure of viruses Categories of viruses: DNA and RNA-based Examples of viral diseases General anti-viral approaches

Structure of viruses Categories of viruses: DNA and RNA-based Examples of viral diseases General anti-viral approaches Anti-viral drugs General background Structure of viruses Categories of viruses: DNA and RNA-based Examples of viral diseases General anti-viral approaches Example 1: Targeting early stages of viral infection

More information

Chapter 20: Antimicrobial Drugs

Chapter 20: Antimicrobial Drugs Chapter 20: Antimicrobial Drugs 1. Overview of Antimicrobial Drugs 2. Antibacterial Drugs 3. Antiviral Drugs 4. Drugs for Eukaryotic Pathogens 1. Overview of Antimicrobial Drugs Antibiotics An antibiotic

More information

Gymnázium, Brno, Slovanské nám. 7, WORKBOOK - Biology WORKBOOK. http://agb.gymnaslo.cz

Gymnázium, Brno, Slovanské nám. 7, WORKBOOK - Biology WORKBOOK. http://agb.gymnaslo.cz WORKBOOK http://agb.gymnaslo.cz Biology Subject: Teacher: Iva Kubištová Student:.. School year:../ This material was prepared with using http://biologygmh.com/ Topics: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Viruses and Bacteria

More information

VIRUSES. Viruses are not classified in any kingdom yet because they are not really alive. They only show signs of life after they infect a host cell.

VIRUSES. Viruses are not classified in any kingdom yet because they are not really alive. They only show signs of life after they infect a host cell. VIRUSES Viruses are not classified in any kingdom yet because they are not really alive. They only show signs of life after they infect a host cell. Virus: lifeless particle that does not carry out any

More information

In this lab, you will prepare and stain slides of five different bacterial species to determine how each reacts to gram stain.

In this lab, you will prepare and stain slides of five different bacterial species to determine how each reacts to gram stain. AP BIOLOGY DIVERSITY OF LIFE ACTIVITY #2 NAME DATE HOUR PROKARYOTES PART I: GRAM STAINING OF BACTERIA INTRODUCTION Gram stain is commonly used to assist in bacterial identification. This stain, first developed

More information

VIRUSES - General Principles; Focus on Bacterial viruses

VIRUSES - General Principles; Focus on Bacterial viruses VIRUSES - General Principles; Focus on Bacterial viruses Non-living obligate intracellular parasites OR the simplest living things there are (depends upon your definition of life ) Viruses They ALWAYS

More information

Make your own bacteria!

Make your own bacteria! Make your own bacteria! Bacteria: a single-celled microorganism with no membrane-bound nucleus. Bacteria are found everywhere from soil to acidic hot springs. You can make your own bacteria to take home

More information

20.3 Diseases Caused by Bacteria and Viruses

20.3 Diseases Caused by Bacteria and Viruses 20.3 Diseases Caused by Bacteria and Viruses Lesson Objectives Explain how bacteria cause disease. Explain how viruses cause disease. Define emerging disease and explain why emerging diseases are a threat

More information

A specialist in diseases that affect groups of people or animals. disease outbreak

A specialist in diseases that affect groups of people or animals. disease outbreak zoonotic pathogen A specialist in diseases that affect groups of people or animals. disease outbreak Government agency that protects the health, safety and security of Americans from disease threats. To

More information

ANTIQUITY. General characteristics 2/4/15. >3.5 BILLION years old. Alone for 2 billion years

ANTIQUITY. General characteristics 2/4/15. >3.5 BILLION years old. Alone for 2 billion years Prokaryotes (Domains Bacteria & Archaea) KEY POINTS 1. Decomposers: recycle organic and inorganic molecules in environment; makes them available to other organisms. 2. Essential components of symbioses.

More information

Biology Microbiology: Bacteria I

Biology Microbiology: Bacteria I a place of mind F A C U L T Y O F E D U C A T I O N Department of Curriculum and Pedagogy Biology Microbiology: Bacteria I Science and Mathematics Education Research Group Supported by UBC Teaching and

More information

Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells

Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells Have you ever wondered how people are similar to bacteria? It may seem like a silly question. After all, humans and bacteria are very different in size and complexity. Yet scientists have learned that

More information

Theme-Integrated Lesson Plans

Theme-Integrated Lesson Plans Theme-Integrated Lesson Plans Title: Attack of the Viruses! Grade: 9-10 Subject: Biology Length of Lesson: 2 Blocks Standards: North Carolina Standard Course of Study Objective 4.03 Assess, describe and

More information

Immune System and Disease

Immune System and Disease Immune System and Disease Homeostasis Q: How does the body fight against invading organisms that may disrupt homeostasis? WHAT I KNOW WHAT I LEARNED 35.1 How do people catch infectious diseases? SAMPLE

More information

Opening Activity # 1: Opening Activity # 2: Latin Root Word #1: Latin Root Word #2: Review of Old Information: N/A New Information:

Opening Activity # 1: Opening Activity # 2: Latin Root Word #1: Latin Root Word #2: Review of Old Information: N/A New Information: Section: 1.4 Opening Activity # 1: Name: Opening Activity # 2: Latin Root Word #1: Latin Root Word #2: Review of Old Information: N/A New Information: Emerging Viruses: 1)West Nile Virus 2)HIV 3)Ebola

More information

Recognition of a host cell Attachment is a specific process

Recognition of a host cell Attachment is a specific process Viruses: The Ultimate Parasites Reading How many childhood diseases can you recall having: mumps, measles, German measles? A generation ago or so ago, these diseases attacked mainly children and were extremely

More information

Prokaryotes Reading Bacteria Characteristics of Bacteria plasma membrane cell wall. flagella DNA ribosomes pili (singular = pilus)

Prokaryotes Reading Bacteria Characteristics of Bacteria plasma membrane cell wall. flagella DNA ribosomes pili (singular = pilus) Prokaryotes Reading Did you ever wonder what happens to all the leaves that fall from the trees every autumn? In a few years if they just piled up, the leaves in the woods would be knee-deep, and eventually

More information

Viruses. Viral components: Capsid. Chapter 10: Viruses. Viral components: Nucleic Acid. Viral components: Envelope

Viruses. Viral components: Capsid. Chapter 10: Viruses. Viral components: Nucleic Acid. Viral components: Envelope Viruses Chapter 10: Viruses Lecture Exam #3 Wednesday, November 22 nd (This lecture WILL be on Exam #3) Dr. Amy Rogers Office Hours: MW 9-10 AM Too small to see with a light microscope Visible with electron

More information

Microbiology / Active Lecture Questions Chapter 1 Microbial World & You 1 Chapter 1 Microbial World & You

Microbiology / Active Lecture Questions Chapter 1 Microbial World & You 1 Chapter 1 Microbial World & You 1 2 Which of the following is a scientific name? a. Mycobacterium tuberculosis b.tubercle bacillus 3 Which of the following is not a characteristic of bacteria? a. are prokaryotic b. have peptidoglycan

More information

It took a while for biologists to figure out that genetic information was carried on DNA.

It took a while for biologists to figure out that genetic information was carried on DNA. DNA Finally, we want to understand how all of the things we've talked about (genes, alleles, meiosis, etc.) come together at the molecular level. Ultimately, what is an allele? What is a gene? How does

More information

Replication of viruses An overview

Replication of viruses An overview Lec. 2 أ.د.فائزة عبذ اهلل مخلص Replication of viruses An overview Aim: Study the general steps in viral replication cycles. Objectives: 1. Viral growth curve 2. Stepwise description of specific events

More information

(ii) They are smaller than bacteria, and this can pass through bacteriological filter.

(ii) They are smaller than bacteria, and this can pass through bacteriological filter. Viruses Definition: Obligate intracellular parasite composed of: Nucleic acid - either DNA or RNA & Protein coat. Characteristics of viruses Viruses are the most primitive cellular and non-cytoplasmic

More information

2.1 The Prokaryotes: Eubacteria and Archaea

2.1 The Prokaryotes: Eubacteria and Archaea 2.1 The Prokaryotes: Eubacteria and Archaea Organisms in Domain Eubacteria (commonly called bacteria) and Domain Archaea are prokaryotes. They are single-celled organisms, and they lack membrane-bound

More information

Milestones of bacterial genetic research:

Milestones of bacterial genetic research: Milestones of bacterial genetic research: 1944 Avery's pneumococcal transformation experiment shows that DNA is the hereditary material 1946 Lederberg & Tatum describes bacterial conjugation using biochemical

More information

Grade 6 Life Posttest

Grade 6 Life Posttest Grade 6 Life Posttest Select the best answer to each question. 1. Eugene is studying the levels of structural organization of an animal s body. Which level would describe a dog s eye? A. organ B. tissue

More information

THE INTERESTING HISTORY OF CELLS STUDENT HANDOUT. There are two basic types of cells, prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells.

THE INTERESTING HISTORY OF CELLS STUDENT HANDOUT. There are two basic types of cells, prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells. THE INTERESTING HISTORY OF CELLS STUDENT HANDOUT There are two basic types of cells, prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells. Figure 1. A PROKARYOTIC CELL The prokaryotes are very small singlecelled organisms

More information

Chapter 6 - Virology. Structure. Size and morphology Capsid Envelope Complex Nucleic acid

Chapter 6 - Virology. Structure. Size and morphology Capsid Envelope Complex Nucleic acid Chapter 6 - Virology Topics Structure Classification Multiplication Cultivation and replication Nonviral infectious agent Teratogenic/Oncogenic - Viruses have a host range. That is, viruses infect specific

More information

Virus Replication. Virus-Infected Cells. Virus Replication. Microbiology Lecture 6. Virus Replication in Tissue Culture.

Virus Replication. Virus-Infected Cells. Virus Replication. Microbiology Lecture 6. Virus Replication in Tissue Culture. Virus Replication Microbiology Lecture 6 Professor T.J. Foster Virus Replication Can causes many different changes to host cells Cytopathic Effects (CPE) Altered shape Lysis Membrane fusion (giant cell

More information

3 Domains of Life Eukaryotic Cell (non bacterial) Prokaryotic Cell (bacteria)

3 Domains of Life Eukaryotic Cell (non bacterial) Prokaryotic Cell (bacteria) Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells Two Main Classes of Cells Prokaryotic (Bacteria and Archaea) Pro = Before ; Karyon = Kernel No nucleus, DNA coiled up inside cell Eukaryotic (Everything else) Eu = True

More information

Virus Replication. I- Viral Growth Curve

Virus Replication. I- Viral Growth Curve Virus Replication The viral replication cycle is described in two different ways. The first approach is a growth curve, which shows the amount of virus produced at different times after infection. The

More information

Immunology Ambassador Guide (updated 2014)

Immunology Ambassador Guide (updated 2014) Immunology Ambassador Guide (updated 2014) Immunity and Disease We will talk today about the immune system and how it protects us from disease. Also, we ll learn some unique ways that our immune system

More information

Mini-Medical School on Infectious Diseases. Session #1 - Basic Science

Mini-Medical School on Infectious Diseases. Session #1 - Basic Science Mini-Medical School on Infectious Diseases Session #1 - Basic Science The Microbial World Michael V. Norgard, Ph.D., Chairman Department of Microbiology U.T. Southwestern Medical Center The Microbial World

More information

Three Domains of Life

Three Domains of Life Image from Scientific American blog Three Domains of Life http://www.buzzle.com/articles/three-domains-of-life.html The three-domain system, which classifies life on the planet into three different domains

More information

Informative Reading Work Sample Assessment High School For Classroom Use

Informative Reading Work Sample Assessment High School For Classroom Use Informative Reading Work Sample Assessment High School For Classroom Use Instructions Read the following article carefully and make notes in the margin as you read. Your notes may include: Comments that

More information

Chapter 12 - DNA Technology

Chapter 12 - DNA Technology Bio 100 DNA Technology 1 Chapter 12 - DNA Technology Among bacteria, there are 3 mechanisms for transferring genes from one cell to another cell: transformation, transduction, and conjugation 1. Transformation

More information

Cell grouping. Fig Methanosarcina sp. (an Archaea) - note the packets of 4 or more cells. LECTURE 3 PROKARYOTIC CELL STRUCTURE

Cell grouping. Fig Methanosarcina sp. (an Archaea) - note the packets of 4 or more cells. LECTURE 3 PROKARYOTIC CELL STRUCTURE The Shape of Things = Morphology LECTURE 3 PROKARYOTIC CELL STRUCTURE We ll mostly discuss Bacteria, more about Archaea and Eukarya Later. Two main shapes of bacteria:!"#$%&'()*+ Spheres - cocci (singular

More information

10/21/2010. Chapter 13. Ch. 13 Topics. Medical Importance of Viruses

10/21/2010. Chapter 13. Ch. 13 Topics. Medical Importance of Viruses Chapter 13 Viruses, Viroids, and Prions J. Meléndez Lectures prepared by Christine L. Case Ch. 13 Topics Structure Multiplication Cultivation and replication of bacteriophages and animal viruses Non-viral

More information

D.U.C. Assist. Lec. Faculty of Dentistry Medical Biology Ihsan Dhari. Kingdoms of life

D.U.C. Assist. Lec. Faculty of Dentistry Medical Biology Ihsan Dhari. Kingdoms of life Kingdoms of life The earliest classification system recognized only two kingdoms : plants and animals but the use of microscope led to discovery of microorganisms, so the two kingdoms system was no longer

More information

Chapter 10 Molecular Biology of the Gene

Chapter 10 Molecular Biology of the Gene Chapter 10 Molecular Biology of the Gene PowerPoint Lectures for Biology: Concepts & Connections, Sixth Edition Campbell, Reece, Taylor, Simon, and Dickey Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Lecture

More information

WHY IS THIS IMPORTANT?

WHY IS THIS IMPORTANT? CHAPTER 12 THE STRUCTURE AND INFECTION CYCLE OF VIRUSES Eye of Science / Science Photo Library WHY IS THIS IMPORTANT? More than 80% of infectious diseases are caused by viruses. As a health professional,

More information

Scientific Process Skills: Scientific Process Skills:

Scientific Process Skills: Scientific Process Skills: Texas University Interscholastic League Contest Event: Science The contest challenges students to read widely in biology, to understand the significance of experiments rather than to recall obscure details,

More information

7.013 Spring 2005 Problem Set 7 FRIDAY May 6th, 2005

7.013 Spring 2005 Problem Set 7 FRIDAY May 6th, 2005 MI Department of Biology 7.013: Introductory Biology - Spring 2005 Instructors: Professor Hazel Sive, Professor yler Jacks, Dr. Claudette Gardel Question 1 7.013 Spring 2005 Problem Set 7 RIDAY May 6th,

More information

Biology 2230 Microbiology Lecture Learning Objectives and Assessment Measures

Biology 2230 Microbiology Lecture Learning Objectives and Assessment Measures Biology 2230 Microbiology Lecture Learning Objectives and Assessment Measures A student who successfully completes the Lecture component of Biology 2230 (Microbiology) will have mastered the learning objectives

More information

Lecture 17 Viruses Bacteriophages life cycle Learning objectives: Characteristics of Virus

Lecture 17 Viruses Bacteriophages life cycle Learning objectives: Characteristics of Virus Lecture 17 Viruses Bacteriophages life cycle Learning objectives: The aim of this lecture is to introduce the basic facts about the virology and how virus multiplies on the host virus and understand their

More information

CHAPTER 35 HUMAN IMMUNE SYSTEM STANDARDS:SC.912.L.14.52 & SC.912.L.14.6

CHAPTER 35 HUMAN IMMUNE SYSTEM STANDARDS:SC.912.L.14.52 & SC.912.L.14.6 CHAPTER 35 HUMAN IMMUNE SYSTEM STANDARDS:SC.912.L.14.52 & SC.912.L.14.6 SECTION 1 - Infectious Disease 1.Identify the causes of infectious disease. 2.Explain how infectious diseases are spread. Causes

More information

Overview of Viruses. Dr. Angela M. Shaw Assistant Professor of Food Science and Human Nutrition Food Safety Extension and Outreach Specialist

Overview of Viruses. Dr. Angela M. Shaw Assistant Professor of Food Science and Human Nutrition Food Safety Extension and Outreach Specialist Overview of Viruses Dr. Angela M. Shaw Assistant Professor of Food Science and Human Nutrition Food Safety Extension and Outreach Specialist Viruses Dmitri Iwanowski - 1892 Experiments with tobacco plants

More information

How the Vaccine is Made. Vaccine Protects. Similar Pathogen. Toxoid Vaccine. Heat Killed Vaccine. Naked DNA Vaccine.

How the Vaccine is Made. Vaccine Protects. Similar Pathogen. Toxoid Vaccine. Heat Killed Vaccine. Naked DNA Vaccine. Name: Date: Period: Making Background: A vaccine against a disease works by generating an immune response in the body against some kind of pathogen a virus, bacterium or some other agent that causes the

More information

Pathogens and the immune system

Pathogens and the immune system Review of lecture 7 Pathogens and the immune system Veronica Leautaud, Ph.D. vl2@ rice.edu BRC 511 / 530-lab Lecture 8 BIOE 301-Bioengineering and World Health Science Science is the human activity of

More information

Chapter 9. Biotechnology and Recombinant DNA Biotechnology and Recombinant DNA

Chapter 9. Biotechnology and Recombinant DNA Biotechnology and Recombinant DNA Chapter 9 Biotechnology and Recombinant DNA Biotechnology and Recombinant DNA Q&A Interferons are species specific, so that interferons to be used in humans must be produced in human cells. Can you think

More information

Chapter 2 Viruses, Bacteria, Protists, and Fungi

Chapter 2 Viruses, Bacteria, Protists, and Fungi complete petri dishes Chapter 2 Viruses, Bacteria, Protists, and Fungi Viruses Lesson 1 Objectives Name and describe the characteristics of viruses and how they multiply. Discuss both positive and negative

More information

Name: Understanding Viruses. HIV, Herpes, Influenza, small pox, chicken pox, measles, mumps, bird flu, swine flu.

Name: Understanding Viruses. HIV, Herpes, Influenza, small pox, chicken pox, measles, mumps, bird flu, swine flu. Name: Understanding Viruses Section 1 1. List as many viruses as you can. HIV, Herpes, Influenza, small pox, chicken pox, measles, mumps, bird flu, swine flu. 2. How do viruses reproduce? (aside from the

More information

Pathogens and the immune system

Pathogens and the immune system Pathogens and the immune system Veronica Leautaud, Ph.D. vl2@ rice.edu BRC 511 / 530-lab Lecture 8 BIOE 301-Bioengineering and World Health Review of lecture 7 Science Science is the human activity of

More information

Chapter 08 Lecture 1

Chapter 08 Lecture 1 Chapter 08 Lecture 1 Antibiotic Resistance Staphylococcus aureus Gram-positive coccus; commonly called Staph Frequent cause of skin and wound infections Since 1970s, treated with penicillin-like antibiotics

More information

Cocci Coccobacilli Bacilli Curved or curled Vibrios Spirilla Spirochete. Mycoplasma. Identification Colored stains

Cocci Coccobacilli Bacilli Curved or curled Vibrios Spirilla Spirochete. Mycoplasma. Identification Colored stains 1 Bacteria size and organization Smallest living single celled organisms 0.2-2.0 microns 0.000002-0.000002 meters Chlamydia and Rickettsia Prokaryotic organization Nucleoid chromosome with no membrane

More information

Prokaryotes (bacteria) and Gram Staining

Prokaryotes (bacteria) and Gram Staining Prokaryotes (bacteria) and Gram Staining Gram positive and Gram negative Why are we learning this? We will be monitoring our bioreactors for bacterial contamination. We sometimes are culturing E.coli as

More information

Viruses. Early events. Overview. Virus Characteristics. Growth of Viruses. Viral Entry. Microbiology Chapters 16-18

Viruses. Early events. Overview. Virus Characteristics. Growth of Viruses. Viral Entry. Microbiology Chapters 16-18 Overview Viruses Microbiology Chapters 16-18 18 What is a virus? Genetic element within a protein coat that requires a host cell for replication, and has an extracellular phase (virion( virion). Virus

More information

10. T and B cells are types of a. endocrine cells. c. lymphocytes. b. platelets. d. complement cells.

10. T and B cells are types of a. endocrine cells. c. lymphocytes. b. platelets. d. complement cells. Virus and Immune System Review Directions: Write your answers on a separate piece of paper. 1. Why does a cut in the skin threaten the body s nonspecific defenses against disease? a. If a cut bleeds, disease-fighting

More information

Recombinant DNA Technology

Recombinant DNA Technology PowerPoint Lecture Presentations prepared by Mindy Miller-Kittrell, North Carolina State University C H A P T E R 8 Recombinant DNA Technology The Role of Recombinant DNA Technology in Biotechnology Biotechnology

More information

Common Infectious Diseases. Chapter 28 Lesson 2

Common Infectious Diseases. Chapter 28 Lesson 2 Common Infectious Diseases Chapter 28 Lesson 2 Respiratory Infections Respiratory tract infections are infections of the breathing passages, which range from the nose to the alveoli of the lungs. Most

More information

PROKARYOTES. Chapter 16 Microbial Life: Prokaryotes & Protists. Review: Two different types of cells. Prokaryotes = Domain Bacteria & Domain Archaea

PROKARYOTES. Chapter 16 Microbial Life: Prokaryotes & Protists. Review: Two different types of cells. Prokaryotes = Domain Bacteria & Domain Archaea Chapter 16 Microbial Life: Prokaryotes & Protists PROKARYOTES Review: Two different types of cells Prokaryotic Cells Eukaryotic Cells ( before-nucleus ) ( true-nucleus ) Ancient, single-celled organisms

More information

Antibiotic susceptibility

Antibiotic susceptibility Antibiotic susceptibility Antibiotic: natural chemicals produced by bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, plants or animals, and either inhibits or kills other microbes and/or cells Chemotherapeutic agent: A

More information

Host-Pathogen Interactions

Host-Pathogen Interactions Chapter 4 - Lesson 4 Host-Pathogen Interactions Introduction Microbes are found everywhere. On a daily basis we ingest, inhale, and transport thousands of organisms (i.e., bacterial, viral, protozoal,

More information

Viruses and Other Acellular Infectious Agents

Viruses and Other Acellular Infectious Agents 6 Viruses and Other Acellular Infectious Agents 1 6.1 Viruses 1. Defines the terms virology, bacteriophages, and phages. 2. List organisms that are hosts to viruses. 2 Acellular Agents Viruses protein

More information

Given these characteristics of life, which of the following objects is considered a living organism? W. X. Y. Z.

Given these characteristics of life, which of the following objects is considered a living organism? W. X. Y. Z. Cell Structure and Organization 1. All living things must possess certain characteristics. They are all composed of one or more cells. They can grow, reproduce, and pass their genes on to their offspring.

More information

Viral Replication. I. Steps in Viral Replication. Scott M. Hammer

Viral Replication. I. Steps in Viral Replication. Scott M. Hammer Scott M. Hammer Viral Replication I. Steps in Viral Replication A. Attachment. This is the first step in viral replication. Surface proteins of the virus interact with specific receptors on the target

More information

Week 3 eukaryotic nucleus Organelles Figure 3.1a

Week 3 eukaryotic nucleus Organelles Figure 3.1a Week 3 If you recall from week one, I mentioned that one of the characteristics of all living things is that they are made up of cells. We are now ready to look at cells in a little more detail. We will

More information

Analysis of ancient rocks provides evidence for the Earth s early atmospheric and surface conditions.

Analysis of ancient rocks provides evidence for the Earth s early atmospheric and surface conditions. CHAPTER FIFTEEN: THE EVOLUTION OF MICROBIAL LIFE Microorganisms are called microbes for short. This category of life forms includes cellular life forms as well as the non-living crystals called viruses

More information

2.3: Eukaryotic Evolution and Diversity pg. 67. For about 1.5 billion years Prokaryotes were on the only living organism on Earth.

2.3: Eukaryotic Evolution and Diversity pg. 67. For about 1.5 billion years Prokaryotes were on the only living organism on Earth. 2.3: Eukaryotic Evolution and Diversity pg. 67 For about 1.5 billion years Prokaryotes were on the only living organism on Earth. 3.5 to 2 billion years ago Prokaryotes thrive in many different environments.

More information

Prokaryotes. (bacteria, concentrating on disease) And viruses and prions

Prokaryotes. (bacteria, concentrating on disease) And viruses and prions Prokaryotes (bacteria, concentrating on disease) And viruses and prions Prions Creutzfeldt - Jakob Disease (CJD) "Spongiform" (brain turns to sponge) There were seemingly esoteric cases Kuru disease in

More information

Medical Microbiology Culture Media :

Medical Microbiology Culture Media : Lecture 3 Dr. Ismail I. Daood Medical Microbiology Culture Media : Culture media are used for recognition and identification (diagnosis) of microorganisms. The media are contained in plates (Petri dishes),

More information