Medical Microbiology Culture Media :

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Medical Microbiology Culture Media :"

Transcription

1 Lecture 3 Dr. Ismail I. Daood Medical Microbiology Culture Media : Culture media are used for recognition and identification (diagnosis) of microorganisms. The media are contained in plates (Petri dishes), in test tubes, flasks or screw capped bottles. Used of media as : a- Simple or basal e.g., Nutrient agar, Nutrient broth. b- Special-purpose media e.g., selective media, enriched media. Types of culture media : 1- Liquid (fluid) media e.g., Nutrient broth, Peptone water. 2- Solid media, e.g., Nutrient agar, MacConkey agar. 3- Semisolid media : e.g., motility media. ÐÒ- -

2 Solid media as agar in special purpose as : 1. Enriched media, simple media enriched with substances e.g., added blood 5-10% added glucose 1-2%. 2. selective media containing inhibitory substance as : e.g., bile salts, antibiotic, dyes,.etc., which favors the growth of the concerned microorganism and inhibit the growth of others, e.g., MacConkey agar, Bismuth Sulphate agar or SS agar. 3. Differential media, certain species produce characteristic growth that can easily recognized or can produce certain effects in the media, e.g., Triple sugar Iron agar (TSI), hemolytic and non-hemolytic species on blood agar. Bacterial Growth Curve : During typical bacteria growth (growth cycle) bacteria cell divide by binary fission and their mass and number increase in an exponential manners. Bacterial growth in culture can be separated into at least four distinct phases : 1. Lag phase : This is period of intense physiologic adjustment involving the induction of new enzymes and the synthesis and assembly of ribosome. There would be increase in the size without any multiplication for same time. In lag phase and during this phase there occur : 1. increase in size of cells 2. increase in metabolic rate 3. adaptation to new environment and necessary enzymes. The length of lag phase depend upon a. type of bacteria b. better the medium, shorter the lag phase. c. The phase of culture from which inoculation in taken ÐÓ - -

3 d. Size or volume of inoculums e. Environmental factors like temperature. 2. Logarithmic (Expontial) phase : This phase is characterized by maximal rate of cell diction and followed by multiplication and increase in number of bacteria. The generation time (i.e., the time required for doubling the number of bacteria cell). During this phase is constant for given bacterial species grown under the same of condition but varies among species for example : the G.T. of Pseudomonas may be as brief as 14 minutes. The G.T. of M. tuberculosis as long 24 hours. In logarithmic phase the bacterial cell start dividing and their number increase by geometric progression with time and during this periods. a. bacteria have high rate of metabolism b. bacteria are more sensitive to antibiotics c. rate of penetration of the medium it depends on the concentration of material in the media. 3. Stationary phase : After some time growth rate becomes stationary and during this period there is a balance between cell growth and division and cell death. In stationary phase after some time a stage comes when rate of multiplication and death becomes almost equal it may be due to : a. depletion of nutrient b. accumulation of toxic products and sporulation may occur during this stage. Bacillus and Clostridium are capable of undergoing sporulation. 4. Decline or death phase : During this phase bacterial cells undergo lyses which reduces the number of viable cells. In decline (death) phase, during this phase ÐÔ - -

4 population decreases due to death of cells the factors responsible for are : a. nutritional exhaustion b. toxic accumulation c. autolysis enzymes. Evolution is common in phase of decline. Counting of bacteria of different period after in occultation and then events of sequences are represented on a graph is called "Growth Curve". See the figure of growth curve below : ÐÕ- -

5 Bacterial Classification : The general classification of the bacterium isolated from an infected patients. Readily observable properties usually are the basis for the grouping into large groups according : 1. Staining properties : a. Gram ( + ve ) bacteria e.g. Staphylococcus, Streptococcus... b. Gram ( - ve ) bacteria e.g. E. coli, Salmonella. c. Acid-fast stain e.g., Myco. Tuberculosis. ÐÖ- -

6 Fig. Bacterial cell wall of gram ( + ve ), up and gram ( - ve ), dawn 2. Morphological features : a. Shape e.g., Spherical ( cocci ), Bacilli, Coccobacilli b. Arrangement : as e.g., single cell cocci two Diplococci or more as Streptococcus. 3. Metabolic activity : a. Oxygen (O 2 ) requirements : e.g. Aerobes, as Vibrio cholera, An aerobes as Clostridium,Facultative as Enterobacter, Microaerophilic and Aerotolerent. b. metabolic carbohydrate utilization : e.g. fermented lactose as E. coli, Klebsiellia or non fermented lactose as : Salmonella, Shigella. c. Enzyme production : a. Oxidase e.g., Staphylococcus, Moraxella b. Catalase as Moraxella. 4. Serologic reactivity as genus specific - species-specific - specific for subgroup (serotype). 5. Genetic Classify on base of genetic a. ability to exchange genetic information as : transformation, conjugation. Ð - -

7 b. nucleotide base composition % G=C, A=T. c. nucleic acid homology hybridization study. d. nucleic acid sequences. Glossary Allergy : Hypersensitivity especially of the IgE mediated type mediated type Antibody: A protein produced by the body response to a foreign substance that reacts specifically with that substance. Antigen : A substance that can cause the production of specific antibodies and combine with those antibodies. Envelop : The structure which surround the cytoplasm of the cell. It includes the capsule cell wall, and cytoplasmic membrane. Colony: A population of bacterial cells arising from a single cell. Colonization: Establishment of a site of reproduction of microbes on a material animal or person without necessarily resulting in tissue invasion or damage. Spike : A protein on the surface of a virus that is important in attachment to the host cell. Spore : A specialized reproductive cell. Toxic : Poisonous. Toxin : A poisonous chemical substance. - - ÑÎ

Microbial Growth. By Dr. Carmen Rexach Microbiology Mt San Antonio College

Microbial Growth. By Dr. Carmen Rexach Microbiology Mt San Antonio College Microbial Growth By Dr. Carmen Rexach Microbiology Mt San Antonio College Microbial growth Definition Increase in the number of cells Increase in microbial mass Requires specific physical and chemical

More information

LAB 4. Cultivation of Bacteria INTRODUCTION

LAB 4. Cultivation of Bacteria INTRODUCTION LAB 4. Cultivation of Bacteria Protocols for use of cultivation of bacteria, use of general growth, enriched, selective and differential media, plate pouring, determination of temperature range for growth

More information

NUTRITION AND GROWTH OF BACTERIA

NUTRITION AND GROWTH OF BACTERIA 3 NUTRITION AND GROWTH OF BACTERIA 3.1 INTRODUCTION Bacteria are prokaryotic organisms that do not contain chlorophyll. They are unicellular and do not show true branching. They differ from eukaryotes

More information

INTRODUCTION TO BACTERIA

INTRODUCTION TO BACTERIA Morphology and Classification INTRODUCTION TO BACTERIA Most bacteria (singular, bacterium) are very small, on the order of a few micrometers µm (10-6 meters) in length. It would take about 1,000 bacteria,

More information

Cocci Coccobacilli Bacilli Curved or curled Vibrios Spirilla Spirochete. Mycoplasma. Identification Colored stains

Cocci Coccobacilli Bacilli Curved or curled Vibrios Spirilla Spirochete. Mycoplasma. Identification Colored stains 1 Bacteria size and organization Smallest living single celled organisms 0.2-2.0 microns 0.000002-0.000002 meters Chlamydia and Rickettsia Prokaryotic organization Nucleoid chromosome with no membrane

More information

SELECTIVE AND DIFFERENTIAL MEDIA

SELECTIVE AND DIFFERENTIAL MEDIA SELECTIVE AND DIFFERENTIAL MEDIA Selective and differential media are used to isolate or identify particular organisms. Selective media allow certain types of organisms to grow, and inhibit the growth

More information

WHY IS THIS IMPORTANT?

WHY IS THIS IMPORTANT? CHAPTER 10 BACTERIAL GROWTH Eye of Science / Science Photo Library WHY IS THIS IMPORTANT? Increase in numbers is one of the requirements for infection. This increase is dependent upon bacterial growth.

More information

LAB 5. Fermentation and Respiration chemoheterotrophs Respiration Fermentation

LAB 5. Fermentation and Respiration chemoheterotrophs Respiration Fermentation LAB 5. Fermentation and Respiration Protocols for Anaerobic growth, including use of Anaerobe Chamber, Catalase Assay, Oxidase Assay, Assay for Carbohydrate Utilization, Use of Oxidative-Fermentation tubes.

More information

Enteric Unknowns Miramar College Biology 205 Microbiology

Enteric Unknowns Miramar College Biology 205 Microbiology Enteric Unknowns Miramar College Biology 205 Microbiology Enteric (Greek enteron = intestine) bacteria are comprised of several different genera, but all reside in the digestive tract of mammals. Because

More information

Metabolism Dr.kareema Amine Al-Khafaji Assistant professor in microbiology, and dermatologist Babylon University, College of Medicine, Department of

Metabolism Dr.kareema Amine Al-Khafaji Assistant professor in microbiology, and dermatologist Babylon University, College of Medicine, Department of Metabolism Dr.kareema Amine Al-Khafaji Assistant professor in microbiology, and dermatologist Babylon University, College of Medicine, Department of Microbiology. Metabolism sum of all chemical processes

More information

LAB 4 BIOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF BACTERIA AND DETECTION OF MOTILITY

LAB 4 BIOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF BACTERIA AND DETECTION OF MOTILITY LAB 4 BIOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF BACTERIA AND DETECTION OF MOTILITY Objectives In this lab you will learn how to: - test the ability of your unknown (UK) to digest certain substrates - discern motility

More information

Lab Exercise 2 Media and Culture

Lab Exercise 2 Media and Culture Lab Exercise 2 Media and Culture Lab Exercise #2 Bacterial Media & Culture I. OBJECTIVES: Practice microbial collection techniques Describe colony morphology and the relationship to microbial identification.

More information

Session 1 Fundamentals of Microbiology

Session 1 Fundamentals of Microbiology Session 1 Fundamentals of Microbiology Session overview Classification Microbial nomenclature Microbial growth Microbial death Spore formation Classification The Five Kingdom system is used to classify

More information

MICROBES OF THE BODY: THE ENTERICS

MICROBES OF THE BODY: THE ENTERICS MICROBES OF THE BODY: THE ENTERICS The term enterics refers to organisms belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae. This is a family of Gram-negative, oxidase-negative, facultative anaerobic rods. Several

More information

Chapter 3. Methods of Culturing Microorganisms. Topics. Different types of media Different types of microscopy

Chapter 3. Methods of Culturing Microorganisms. Topics. Different types of media Different types of microscopy Topics Chapter 3 Methods of Culturing Microorganisms Microscope Methods of Culturing Microorganisms Different types of media Different types of microscopy A single visible colony represents a pure culture

More information

Chapter 7. Microbial Growth. Binary fission. Steps in Binary Fission. Generation time

Chapter 7. Microbial Growth. Binary fission. Steps in Binary Fission. Generation time Chapter 7 Topics Microbial Growth Factors that affect microbial growth Microbial Nutrition Microbial Growth Binary fission Generation time Growth curve Enumeration of bacteria Definition of growth - Unicellular

More information

C. Instruct students to put on lab coats and gloves; clean their benches.

C. Instruct students to put on lab coats and gloves; clean their benches. Basic Clinical Microbiology Lesson Plan Week 5 Carbohydrate Fermentation, MRVP Class 1 A. Take attendance. B. Review Lab Report questions from previous week. C. Instruct students to put on lab coats and

More information

Environmental Forcing Functions:

Environmental Forcing Functions: Microbial Growth Environmental Forcing Functions: Temperature: Psychrophile, Mesophile, Thermophile & Hyperthermophile Cardinal Temps: Min*, Max, & Optimal* Q 10 Rule: 10 C rise will double the growth

More information

5. The chart below indicates the elements contained in four different molecules and the number of atoms of each element in those molecules.

5. The chart below indicates the elements contained in four different molecules and the number of atoms of each element in those molecules. 1. In the diagram below, which substance belongs in area Z? 5. The chart below indicates the elements contained in four different molecules and the number of atoms of each element in those molecules. A)

More information

Biology 2230 Microbiology Lecture Learning Objectives and Assessment Measures

Biology 2230 Microbiology Lecture Learning Objectives and Assessment Measures Biology 2230 Microbiology Lecture Learning Objectives and Assessment Measures A student who successfully completes the Lecture component of Biology 2230 (Microbiology) will have mastered the learning objectives

More information

Faculty Of Pharmacy. University Of Philadelphia. Lecturer: Dr.Layla Al-Omar. Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences. Dr.Saad Arif

Faculty Of Pharmacy. University Of Philadelphia. Lecturer: Dr.Layla Al-Omar. Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences. Dr.Saad Arif University Of Philadelphia Lecturer: Dr.Layla Al-Omar Dr.Saad Arif Faculty Of Pharmacy Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences Coordinator: Dr.Layla Al-Omar Internal Reviewer: Student name.. Student number.

More information

CHAPTER-III R.KAVITHA, M.PHARM, LECTURER, DEPARTMENT OF PHARMACEUTICS, SRM COLLEGE OF PHARMACY, SRM UNIVERSITY, KATTANKULATHUR.

CHAPTER-III R.KAVITHA, M.PHARM, LECTURER, DEPARTMENT OF PHARMACEUTICS, SRM COLLEGE OF PHARMACY, SRM UNIVERSITY, KATTANKULATHUR. CHAPTER-III R.KAVITHA, M.PHARM, LECTURER, DEPARTMENT OF PHARMACEUTICS, SRM COLLEGE OF PHARMACY, SRM UNIVERSITY, KATTANKULATHUR. Culture techniques Environment Carbon and Energy Flow Maintains of culture

More information

The influenza A virus genome is segmented into linear molecules.

The influenza A virus genome is segmented into linear molecules. An integrated stable genetic element in a eukaryotic cell A) can occur anywhere in the cellular DNA. B) is called a provirus. C) is analogous to the integration of phage DNA into a bacterial genome. A

More information

This module is for INFORMATION ONLY. No BETC test questions are from this module. On completion of this module, participants will be able to:

This module is for INFORMATION ONLY. No BETC test questions are from this module. On completion of this module, participants will be able to: MODULE 3 - LABORATORY TESTING Objective This module is for INFORMATION ONLY. No BETC test questions are from this module. On completion of this module, participants will be able to: o o Identify the types

More information

BIO203 Laboratory Media and Biochemical Tests

BIO203 Laboratory Media and Biochemical Tests BIO203 Laboratory Media and Biochemical Tests Table of Contents I. Media 1 TSA Tryptic Soy Agar 1 Blood Agar 2 EMB Eosin Methylene Blue Agar 3 MSA Mannitol Salt Agar 4 MacConkey Agar 5 II. Colony Morphology

More information

Isolation and Identification of Bacteria Present in the Activated Sludge Unit, in the Treatment of Industrial Waste Water

Isolation and Identification of Bacteria Present in the Activated Sludge Unit, in the Treatment of Industrial Waste Water Iranian J. Publ. Health, Vol. 30, Nos. 3-4, PP. 91-94, 2001 Isolation and Identification of Bacteria Present in the Activated Sludge Unit, in the Treatment of Industrial Waste Water MK Sharifi-Yazdi 1,

More information

Funky Fomites and Aseptic Microbiology Techniques for Bacterial Isolation

Funky Fomites and Aseptic Microbiology Techniques for Bacterial Isolation Funky Fomites and Aseptic Microbiology Techniques for Bacterial Isolation Written by Jackie Hoffman Annotation: This laboratory exercise includes both a lecture on the purpose of practicing aseptic technique

More information

BACTERIAL IDENTIFICATION TESTS

BACTERIAL IDENTIFICATION TESTS 11 BACTERIAL IDENTIFICATION TESTS 11.1 INTRODUCTION In the previous chapter we have discussed various methods of isolation of bacteria. The bacteria thus isolated needs to be further identified to genus

More information

Viruses and Prokaryotes

Viruses and Prokaryotes Viruses and Prokaryotes Cellular Basis of Life Q: Are all microbes that make us sick made of living cells? 20.1 What is a virus? WHAT I KNOW SAMPLE ANSWER: A virus is a tiny particle that can make people

More information

BIOL 3200-005 Unknown Lab Report. Unknown #545. Enterococcus faecalis

BIOL 3200-005 Unknown Lab Report. Unknown #545. Enterococcus faecalis BIOL 3200-005 Unknown Lab Report Unknown #545 Enterococcus faecalis Henry G. Norrell III (Manny) Lab: Tuesdays 3:00-4:50 pm 2 December 2014 INTRODUCTION: This experiment was performed to identify an unknown

More information

Laboratory Exercise # 11: Differentiation of the Species Staphylococcus and Streptococcus

Laboratory Exercise # 11: Differentiation of the Species Staphylococcus and Streptococcus Laboratory Exercise # 11: Differentiation of the Species Staphylococcus and Streptococcus Purpose: The purpose of this laboratory exercise is to explore the differences between Staphylococcal species and

More information

Normal flora, which make up about 90% of the cells of a human body, are microbes that

Normal flora, which make up about 90% of the cells of a human body, are microbes that Indigenous Unknowns Lab Report Introduction: Normal flora, which make up about 90% of the cells of a human body, are microbes that live and grow on the body without causing disease under normal conditions.

More information

Welcome to Implementing Inquirybased Microbial Project. Veronica Ardi, PhD

Welcome to Implementing Inquirybased Microbial Project. Veronica Ardi, PhD Welcome to Implementing Inquirybased Microbial Project Veronica Ardi, PhD Microbiology Laboratory Courses CourseSmart: ebook resources http://instructors.coursesmart.com/ Microbiology Laboratory Courses

More information

Growth of microbial cultures

Growth of microbial cultures Growth of microbial cultures 1 The dream of a bacterium...... is becoming two bacteria. Microorganisms proliferate mostly by binary division. Hereby they are potentially immortal. By rapid and exponential

More information

Stimulating Participation and Learning in Microbiology: Presence and Identification of Bacteria from Student s Hands

Stimulating Participation and Learning in Microbiology: Presence and Identification of Bacteria from Student s Hands Teaching and Learning Tips Stimulating Participation and Learning in Microbiology: Presence and Identification of Bacteria from Student s Hands Patrícia Antunes Abstract: We proposed in the Basic Microbiology

More information

F. Y. B. Sc. Microbiology Paper II: Fundamental Methods in Microbiology

F. Y. B. Sc. Microbiology Paper II: Fundamental Methods in Microbiology F. Y. B. Sc. Microbiology Paper II: Fundamental Methods in Microbiology Chapter 1: Microscopy Q. 12 marks each 1. What is aberration? Explain different types of aberrations. 2. What is microscope? Explain

More information

Adapted from Biology 15 Laboratory Supplemental Manual: Wrightsman, Ininns and Cannon- Moloznic.

Adapted from Biology 15 Laboratory Supplemental Manual: Wrightsman, Ininns and Cannon- Moloznic. Biology 3B Laboratory Cultural Characteristics of Bacteria Objectives: Describe bacterial structure: colony morphology, cell shape, growth patterns. To distinguish how various growth media will affect

More information

MOLECULAR GENETICS GENETIC ENGINEERING RECOMBINANT DNA. Molecular Genetics Activity #6 page 1

MOLECULAR GENETICS GENETIC ENGINEERING RECOMBINANT DNA. Molecular Genetics Activity #6 page 1 AP BIOLOGY MOLECULAR GENETICS ACTIVITY #6 NAME DATE HOUR RECOMBINANT DNA GENETIC ENGINEERING Molecular Genetics Activity #6 page 1 GENETIC ENGINEERING Molecular Genetics Activity #6 page 2 PART I: PRODUCING

More information

HOW TO WRITE AN UNKNOWN LAB REPORT IN MICROBIOLOGY

HOW TO WRITE AN UNKNOWN LAB REPORT IN MICROBIOLOGY HOW TO WRITE AN UNKNOWN LAB REPORT IN MICROBIOLOGY GENERAL Unknown reports in microbiology are written in scientific format. Scientific writing is written differently from other types of writing. The results

More information

Lecture Objectives: Why study microbiology? What is microbiology? Roots of microbiology

Lecture Objectives: Why study microbiology? What is microbiology? Roots of microbiology 1 Lecture Objectives: Why study microbiology? What is microbiology? Roots of microbiology Why study microbiology? ENVIRONMENTAL MEDICAL APPLIED SCIENCE BASIC SCIENCE The science of microbiology Microbiology

More information

Chapter 6: Microbial Growth

Chapter 6: Microbial Growth Chapter 6: : Refers to an increase in cell number, not in cell size. Bacteria grow and divide by binary fission, a rapid and relatively simple process. 1. Temperature: Microbes are loosely classified into

More information

II. Pathways of Discovery in Microbiology. 1.6 The Historical Roots of Microbiology. Robert Hooke and Early Microscopy

II. Pathways of Discovery in Microbiology. 1.6 The Historical Roots of Microbiology. Robert Hooke and Early Microscopy II. Pathways of Discovery in Microbiology 1.6 The Historical Roots of Microbiology 1.6 The Historical Roots of Microbiology 1.7 Pasteur and the Defeat of Spontaneous Generation 1.8 Koch, Infectious Disease,

More information

Viruses, Archaea and Bacteria

Viruses, Archaea and Bacteria Viruses, Archaea and Bacteria Viruses and Viroids Features of Prokaryotes Bacterial Diversity Archaeal Diversity Viruses A virus is a noncellular infectious agent Ø Consists of a protein coat around a

More information

2.4 MEASUREMENT AND KINETICS OF MICROBIAL GROWTH

2.4 MEASUREMENT AND KINETICS OF MICROBIAL GROWTH 2.4 MEASUREMENT AND KINETICS OF MICROBIAL GROWTH Microbial growth is described as an orderly increase in all chemical components in the presence of suitable medium and the culture environment. There are

More information

#1 NAME MCB 2004 GENERAL MICROBIOLOGY TEST #1, FEBRUARY 5, 2001

#1 NAME MCB 2004 GENERAL MICROBIOLOGY TEST #1, FEBRUARY 5, 2001 #1 NAME GENERAL MICROBIOLOGY TEST #1, FEBRUARY 5, 2001 IN THIS PART THERE ARE FORTY-FIVE QUESTIONS WORTH TWO POINTS EACH. THERE IS ONLY ONE CORRECT ANSWER FOR EACH QUESTION. PLEASE CIRCLE THE CORRECT LETTER

More information

Page 1. Name: 1) The diagram below represents one possible immune response that can occur in the human body.

Page 1. Name: 1) The diagram below represents one possible immune response that can occur in the human body. Name: 8931-1 - Page 1 1) The diagram below represents one possible immune response that can occur in the human body. 5) One similarity between cell receptors and antibodies is that both A) are involved

More information

Chapter 6. Microbial Growth

Chapter 6. Microbial Growth Chapter 6 Microbial Growth 1 Growth increase in cellular constituents that may result in: increase in cell number e.g., when microorganisms reproduce by budding or binary fission increase in cell size

More information

Production of penicillin

Production of penicillin Production of penicillin Learning objective: To be able to identify useful products from microorganisms To be able to identify the microorganisms used and the main stages in the production of penicillin.

More information

Biochemical identification of bacteria. Dr. Paul Ingram Infectious Diseases Physician (RPH) & Microbiologist (PathWest Laboratories)

Biochemical identification of bacteria. Dr. Paul Ingram Infectious Diseases Physician (RPH) & Microbiologist (PathWest Laboratories) Biochemical identification of bacteria Dr. Paul Ingram Infectious Diseases Physician (RPH) & Microbiologist (PathWest Laboratories) Outline Phenotypic vs genotypic tests Pros and cons of biochemical tests

More information

General Microbiology -- Bacterial Growth

General Microbiology -- Bacterial Growth General Microbiology -- Bacterial Growth Begin with increase in Cell Mass AND Number: Generation time is the time required to DOUBLE cell number (titer) OR cell mass. Check out Fig 6.1, bacterial cell

More information

Microbial Growth. Copyright McGraw-Hill Global Education Holdings, LLC. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Microbial Growth. Copyright McGraw-Hill Global Education Holdings, LLC. Permission required for reproduction or display. 7 Microbial Growth Copyright McGraw-Hill Global Education Holdings, LLC. Permission required for reproduction or display. 1 Binary Fission: Chromosome Replication and Partitioning and Cytokinesis Most

More information

The Growth of Microorganisms

The Growth of Microorganisms The Growth of Microorganisms Course Medical Microbiology Unit VI Concepts of Medical Microbiology Essential Question How do bacteria grow in culture? TEKS 130.207(c)2FGH 4BC Prior Student Learning Intro

More information

30. Genetics and recombination in bacteria Lecture Outline 11/16/05. The Bacterial Genome and Its Replication The bacterial chromosome

30. Genetics and recombination in bacteria Lecture Outline 11/16/05. The Bacterial Genome and Its Replication The bacterial chromosome 30. Genetics and recombination in bacteria Lecture Outline 11/16/05 Replication in bacteria Types of recombination in bacteria Transduction by phage Conjugation ( mating ) F+ plasmids Hfr s Transformation

More information

IDENTIFICATION OF UNKNOWN BACTERIA

IDENTIFICATION OF UNKNOWN BACTERIA IDENTIFICATION OF UNKNOWN BACTERIA It is virtually impossible to identify bacteria based on physical characteristics alone. This is due to the fact that there are only a few basic shapes and physical features

More information

Growth of E. coli and determination of its doubling times on enriched and minimal media.

Growth of E. coli and determination of its doubling times on enriched and minimal media. Period 4 (Feb. 12) Growth of E. coli and determination of its doubling times on enriched and minimal media. The study of the growth of bacterial cultures does not constitute a specialized subject or branch

More information

The growth of Mos are effected by Chemical and Physical surroundings:

The growth of Mos are effected by Chemical and Physical surroundings: The Continuous Culture of Microorganisms: Continuous Culture System! A microbial population of can be maintained in the exponential growth phase and at a constant biomass concentration for extended periods.!

More information

IDENTIFICATION OF OTHER UNKNOWN BACTERIAL SPECIES: OU

IDENTIFICATION OF OTHER UNKNOWN BACTERIAL SPECIES: OU IDENTIFICATION OF OTHER UNKNOWN BACTERIAL SPECIES: OU I. OBJECTIVES To demonstrate the capacity to utilize previous laboratory experiences to accurately interpret tests conducted to identify a certain

More information

Exercise X. IMViC Tests

Exercise X. IMViC Tests Exercise X IMViC Tests IMViC tests are used to study the physiological characteristics of bacteria from the Family Enterobacteriaceae, especially Escherichia and Enterobacter. The biochemical characteristics

More information

URINARY TRACT CULTURES

URINARY TRACT CULTURES URINARY TRACT CULTURES Assuming that there is no kidney infection (nephritis), urine comes out of the kidney sterile. The sterile urine moves down the ureters into the urinary bladder for storage. The

More information

IDENTIFICATION OF UNKNOWN BACTERIA

IDENTIFICATION OF UNKNOWN BACTERIA IDENTIFICATION OF UNKNOWN BACTERIA It is virtually impossible to identify bacteria based on physical characteristics alone. This is due to the fact that there are only a few basic shapes and physical features

More information

Molecular Biology. Lab #2 Growth of E. coli Bacteria

Molecular Biology. Lab #2 Growth of E. coli Bacteria Molecular Biology Name Lab #2 Growth of E. coli Bacteria Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a rod-shaped (bacillus), enteric (gut) bacterium of the family Enterobacteriaceae. It is a normal resident of the

More information

Laboratory Exercise #3. Isolation and identification of Unknown Bacteria. Procedure for Week 1 of Exercise 3. Day 1:

Laboratory Exercise #3. Isolation and identification of Unknown Bacteria. Procedure for Week 1 of Exercise 3. Day 1: Laboratory Exercise #3 Isolation and identification of Unknown Bacteria Procedure for Week 1 of Exercise 3 Day 1: 1. You will have 5 broth cultures at your workstation. Three of these tubes will contain

More information

Plasmid Isolation. Prepared by Latifa Aljebali Office: Building 5, 3 rd floor, 5T250

Plasmid Isolation. Prepared by Latifa Aljebali Office: Building 5, 3 rd floor, 5T250 Plasmid Isolation Prepared by Latifa Aljebali Office: Building 5, 3 rd floor, 5T250 Plasmid Plasmids are small, double strand, closed circular DNA molecules. Isolated from bacterial cells. Replicate independently

More information

STANDARD 2 Students will demonstrate appropriate safety procedures and equipment use in the laboratory.

STANDARD 2 Students will demonstrate appropriate safety procedures and equipment use in the laboratory. BIOTECHNOLOGY Levels: 11-12 Units of Credit: 1.0 CIP Code: 51.1201 Prerequisite: Biology or Chemistry Skill Certificates: #708 COURSE DESCRIPTION is an exploratory course designed to create an awareness

More information

GENETICS OF BACTERIA AND VIRUSES

GENETICS OF BACTERIA AND VIRUSES GENETICS OF BACTERIA AND VIRUSES 1 Genes of bacteria are found in bacterial chromosomes Usually a single type of chromosome May have more than one copy of that chromosome Number of copies depends on the

More information

Microbial Nutrition And bacterial Classification Microbiology Unit-I. Muhammad Iqbal Lecturer KMU

Microbial Nutrition And bacterial Classification Microbiology Unit-I. Muhammad Iqbal Lecturer KMU Microbial Nutrition And bacterial Classification Microbiology Unit-I Muhammad Iqbal Lecturer KMU Objectives At the end of this lecture the students will be able to: Define key terms. Identify the basic

More information

Escherichia coli (E. coli) primary stain

Escherichia coli (E. coli) primary stain Lab Exercise #3 - INSTRUCTIONS Identification of Unknown Bacteria Differential Staining and Specialized Bacterial Growth Media Lab Exercise #3 INSTRUCTIONS I. OBJECTIVES: Provide the student with an opportunity

More information

Environmental Limits on Microbial Growth

Environmental Limits on Microbial Growth Environmental Limits on Microbial Growth n Temperature n ph n Osmolarity n Oxygen n Pressure 2009 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 1 Changes in Temperature n Growth rate increases with temperature n Proteins

More information

URINE CULTURES GENERAL PROCEDURE

URINE CULTURES GENERAL PROCEDURE University of Nebraska Medical Center Division of Laboratory Science Clinical Laboratory Science Program CLS 418/CLS 419 URINE CULTURES GENERAL PROCEDURE I. Principle Urine cultures are performed to detect

More information

2014 Summer II Nursing Microbiology Laboratory Biology 2460

2014 Summer II Nursing Microbiology Laboratory Biology 2460 2014 Summer II Nursing Microbiology Laboratory Biology 2460 Graduate TA: Email: Office Hours/Location: Class Day, Time & Location: M & W 1:00 4:50 p.m. Class Location: LSB: 342 (Section 002) Lab Manual:

More information

Bacteria: The good, the bad, and the ugly. SEPA BioScience Montana Module 2

Bacteria: The good, the bad, and the ugly. SEPA BioScience Montana Module 2 Bacteria: The good, the bad, and the ugly. SEPA BioScience Montana Module 2 Introduction: The following reading will give you a basic introduction to bacteria and their role in illness. It will explore

More information

BIOCHEMICAL TEST TO DISTINGUISH BETWEEN VARIOUS TYPES OF BACTERIA

BIOCHEMICAL TEST TO DISTINGUISH BETWEEN VARIOUS TYPES OF BACTERIA BIOCHEMICAL TEST TO DISTINGUISH BETWEEN VARIOUS TYPES OF BACTERIA 1. Catalase test : distinguish streptococci from staphylococci (if the catalase test is positive, it will be staph, but if it s negative

More information

Transmission of genetic variation: conjugation. Transmission of genetic variation: conjugation

Transmission of genetic variation: conjugation. Transmission of genetic variation: conjugation Transmission of genetic variation: conjugation Transmission of genetic variation: conjugation Bacterial Conjugation is genetic recombination in which there is a transfer of DNA from a living donor bacterium

More information

BACTERIAL CULTURE MEDIA

BACTERIAL CULTURE MEDIA Bacterial Culture Media MODULE 9 BACTERIAL CULTURE MEDIA 9.1 INTRODUCTION Why bacteria have to be grown (cultured) in the laboratory on artificial culture media? 1. One of the most important reasons being

More information

PURE CULTURE TECHNIQUES. To demonstrate good aseptic technique in culture transfer or inoculation and in handling sterile materials.

PURE CULTURE TECHNIQUES. To demonstrate good aseptic technique in culture transfer or inoculation and in handling sterile materials. PURE CULTURE TECHNIQUES I. OBJECTIVES To demonstrate good aseptic technique in culture transfer or inoculation and in handling sterile materials. To demonstrate skill in isolation of organisms from a mixed

More information

Biological Sciences Initiative

Biological Sciences Initiative Biological Sciences Initiative HHMI Student Activities Measuring Antibiotic Resistance Introduction: You might be aware that antibiotics were once thought of as a magic bullet; a nearly perfect drug for

More information

The Processes of Life. Bicester Community College Science Department

The Processes of Life. Bicester Community College Science Department B4 The Processes of Life B4 Key Questions How do chemical reactions take place in living things? How do plants make food? How do living organisms obtain energy? How do chemical reactions take place in

More information

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Module 2B Viruses Viruses are not complete living organisms. They are smaller and simpler in structure than even the simplest prokaryotic cells. However, because they have some characteristics of life,

More information

Get It Right. Answers. Chapter 1: The Science of Life. A biologist studies all living things.

Get It Right. Answers. Chapter 1: The Science of Life. A biologist studies all living things. Discover Biology 'N' Level Science Chapter 1 Chapter 1: The Science of Life A biologist studies all living things. In order to carry out the scientific method, we need to ask questions. Discover Biology

More information

The general structure of bacteria

The general structure of bacteria The general structure of bacteria The uni-cellular organisms Viruses Herpes virus, HIV, influenza virus The procaryotic organisms Escherichia, Salmonella, Pseudomonas Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Neisseria

More information

Recombinant DNA technology (genetic engineering) involves combining genes from different sources into new cells that can express the genes.

Recombinant DNA technology (genetic engineering) involves combining genes from different sources into new cells that can express the genes. Recombinant DNA technology (genetic engineering) involves combining genes from different sources into new cells that can express the genes. Recombinant DNA technology has had-and will havemany important

More information

Lab 6: Assay Development, Day 1

Lab 6: Assay Development, Day 1 Lab 6: Assay Development, Day 1 This lab is the first of three labs in which we will be performing different types of assays. Conducting assays is an essential part of the biomanufacturing process, because

More information

Medical Microbiology Microscopic slides and media

Medical Microbiology Microscopic slides and media Medical Microbiology Microscopic slides and media Head of Microbiology Department and Laboratory Medical Immunology : Janina Grzegorczyk MD, PhD, professor Implementators: Małgorzata Brauncajs MD Zbigniew

More information

CULTURE MEDIA AND CULTIVATION OF BACTERIA

CULTURE MEDIA AND CULTIVATION OF BACTERIA Culture Media 1 CULTURE MEDIA AND CULTIVATION OF BACTERIA The study of microorganisms requires techniques for isolating cells from natural sources and growing them in the laboratory on synthetic media.

More information

Oxygen relation Definition Examples Picture Facultative Anaerobe

Oxygen relation Definition Examples Picture Facultative Anaerobe Oxygen relation Definition Examples Picture Facultative Anaerobe Does not require oxygen. Can grow with or without it. Able to detoxify toxic by products of oxygen. E. Coli Microaerophile Growth throughout

More information

Acknowledgements. Developing collaborative lab experiments across disciplines through the identification of bacteria

Acknowledgements. Developing collaborative lab experiments across disciplines through the identification of bacteria Acknowledgements Developing collaborative lab experiments across disciplines through the identification of bacteria Joanna Huxster, Ph.D. Sarah Moss, MS 15 Emily Bilyk, BS 16 Brian M. Forster, Ph.D. Lab

More information

MMG 301 Dr. Frank Dazzo Control of Microbial Growth: Chemical Antimicrobials

MMG 301 Dr. Frank Dazzo Control of Microbial Growth: Chemical Antimicrobials MMG 301 Dr. Frank Dazzo Control of Microbial Growth: Chemical Antimicrobials Previously described physical factors (e.g., temperature) affecting microbial growth. Here focus on chemical antimicrobials

More information

Lecture 36: Basics of DNA Cloning-II

Lecture 36: Basics of DNA Cloning-II Lecture 36: Basics of DNA Cloning-II Note: Before starting this lecture students should have completed Lecture 35 Sequential steps involved in DNA cloning using plasmid DNA as vector: Molecular cloning

More information

Growth and Multiplication of Bacteria

Growth and Multiplication of Bacteria Growth and Multiplication of Bacteria 1 There are four phases of bacterial growth [and death]: the lag phase is in black; the log phase is in blue; the stationary phase is in red; the death or decline

More information

Lab Exercise 3: Media, incubation, and aseptic technique

Lab Exercise 3: Media, incubation, and aseptic technique Lab Exercise 3: Media, incubation, and aseptic technique Objectives 1. Compare the different types of media. 2. Describe the different formats of media, plate, tube etc. 3. Explain how to sterilize it,

More information

Methods of Grading S/N Style of grading Percentage Score 1 Attendance, class work and assignment 10 2 Test 20 3 Examination 70 Total 100

Methods of Grading S/N Style of grading Percentage Score 1 Attendance, class work and assignment 10 2 Test 20 3 Examination 70 Total 100 COURSE: MIB 303 Microbial Physiology and Metabolism (3 Units- Compulsory) Course Duration: Three hours per week for 15 weeks (45 hours). Lecturer: Jimoh, S.O. B.Sc., M.Sc, Ph.D Microbiology (ABU, Zaria)

More information

t ln 2 ln X 0 t log 2

t ln 2 ln X 0 t log 2 BACTERIAL GROWTH CURVE I. OBJECTIVES To determine the growth rate of bacteria under different temperature and aeration conditions To establish growth curves for an unknown bacterial species and observe

More information

Professional English for Clinical Microbiology Unit 2: Working with Bacteria

Professional English for Clinical Microbiology Unit 2: Working with Bacteria Introduction When we pick our culture from the incubator, we will have a grown culture. Growth appears as colonies on the plate surface. Once we have obtained any growth, work flow in the Microbiology

More information

Biotechnology. Unit 2: Microbiological Techniques. Student Materials [HIGHER] Margot McKerrell. abc. Learning and Teaching Scotland

Biotechnology. Unit 2: Microbiological Techniques. Student Materials [HIGHER] Margot McKerrell. abc. Learning and Teaching Scotland Biotechnology Unit 2: Microbiological Techniques Student Materials [HIGHER] Margot McKerrell abc The Scottish Qualifications Authority regularly reviews the arrangements for National Qualifications. Users

More information

ASIAGEL. The smart choice in Life Sciences PREPARED CULTURE MEDIA CATALOGUE. Competitiveness Fast & ready-to-use Affordable prices Flexibility

ASIAGEL. The smart choice in Life Sciences PREPARED CULTURE MEDIA CATALOGUE. Competitiveness Fast & ready-to-use Affordable prices Flexibility The smart choice in Life Sciences Competitiveness Fast & ready-to-use Affordable prices Flexibility PREPARED CULTURE MEDIA CATALOGUE The smart choice in Life Sciences Competitiveness Fast & ready-to-use

More information

IDENTIFICATION OF BACTERIA BELONGING TO THE FAMILY ENTEROBACTERIACEAE: EU

IDENTIFICATION OF BACTERIA BELONGING TO THE FAMILY ENTEROBACTERIACEAE: EU IDENTIFICATION OF BACTERIA BELONGING TO THE FAMILY ENTEROBACTERIACEAE: EU I. OBJECTIVES To learn specifically which diagnostic tests are required to identify a species of the Enterobacteriaceae family.

More information

1. The diagram below represents a biological process

1. The diagram below represents a biological process 1. The diagram below represents a biological process 5. The chart below indicates the elements contained in four different molecules and the number of atoms of each element in those molecules. Which set

More information

Functions of Blood. Collects O 2 from lungs, nutrients from digestive tract, and waste products from tissues Helps maintain homeostasis

Functions of Blood. Collects O 2 from lungs, nutrients from digestive tract, and waste products from tissues Helps maintain homeostasis Blood Objectives Describe the functions of blood Describe blood plasma Explain the functions of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets Summarize the process of blood clotting What is Blood?

More information

Cell Processes. Chapter Review

Cell Processes. Chapter Review Name Date Class Chapter Review Cell Processes Part A. Vocabulary Review Directions: Select the term from the following list that matches each description. active transport energy enzyme inorganic compound

More information

Keystone Review Practice Test Module A Cells and Cell Processes. 1. Which characteristic is shared by all prokaryotes and eukaryotes?

Keystone Review Practice Test Module A Cells and Cell Processes. 1. Which characteristic is shared by all prokaryotes and eukaryotes? Keystone Review Practice Test Module A Cells and Cell Processes 1. Which characteristic is shared by all prokaryotes and eukaryotes? a. Ability to store hereditary information b. Use of organelles to control

More information