54 Prime and Composite Numbers


 Dorcas Chapman
 1 years ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 54 Prime and Composite Numbers Prime and Composite Numbers Prime Factorization Number of Divisorss Determining if a Number is Prime More About Primes Prime and Composite Numbers Students should recognizee that different types of numbers have particular characteristics; for example, square numbers have an odd number of factors and prime numbers have only two factors. The following rectangles represent the number 18. The number 18 has 6 positive divisors: 1, 2, 3, 6, 9 and 18. Number of Positive Divisors Prime and Composite Numbers Below each number listed across the top, we identify numbers less than or equal to 37 that have that number of positive divisors.
2 Prime number Any positive integer with exactly two distinct, positive divisors Composite number Any integer greater than 1 that has a positive factor other than 1 and itself Example 1 Show that the following numbers are composite. a b c d Prime Factorization Students continue to develop their understanding of multiplication and division and the structure of numbers by determining if a counting number greater than 1 is a prime, and if it is not, by factoring it into a product of primes. Composite numbers can be expressed as products of two or more whole numbers greater than 1. Each expression of a number as a product of factors is a factorization. A factorization containing only prime numbers is a prime factorization. Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic (Unique Factorization Theorem) Each composite number can be written as a product of primes in one and only one way except for the order of the prime factors in the product.
3 Prime Factorization To find the prime factorization of a composite number, rewrite the number as a product of two smaller natural numbers. If these smaller numbers are both prime, you are finished. If either is not prime, then rewrite it as the product of smaller natural numbers. Continue until all the factors are prime. The two trees produce the same prime factorization, except for the order in which the primes appear in the products. Prime Factorization We can also determine the prime factorization by dividing with the least prime, 2, if possible. If not, we try the next larger prime as a divisor. Once we find a prime that divides the number, we continue by finding smallest prime that divides that quotient, etc.
4 Number of Divisors How many positive divisors does 24 have? We are not asking how many prime divisors, just the number of divisors any divisors. Since 1 is a divisor of 24, then 24/1 = 24 is a divisor of 24. Since 2 is a divisor of 24, then 24/2 = 12 is a divisor of 24. Since 3 is a divisor of 24, then 24/3 = 8 is a divisor of 24. Since 4 is a divisor of 24, then 24/4 = 6 is a divisor of 24. Another way to think of the number of positive divisors of 24 is to consider the prime factorization 2 3 = 8 has four divisors. 3 has two divisors. Using the Fundamental Counting Principle, there are 4 2 = 8 divisors of 24.
5 If p and q are different primes, then p n q m has (n + 1)(m + 1) positive divisors. In general, if p 1, p 2,, p k are primes, and n 1, n 2,, n k are whole numbers, then has positive divisors. Example 2 a. Find the number of positive divisors of 1,000,000. b. Find the number of positive divisors of Determining if a Number is Prime To determine if a number is prime, you must check only divisibility by prime numbers less than the given number. For example, to determine if 97 is prime, we must try dividing 97 by the prime numbers: 2, 3, 5, and so on as long as the prime is less than 97. If none of these prime numbers divide 97, then 97 is prime. Upon checking, we determine that 2, 3, 5, 7 do not divide 97. Assume that p is a prime greater than 7 and p 97. Then 97/p also divides 97. Because p 11, then 97/pp must be less than 10 and hence cannot divide 97.
6 If d is a divisor of n, then is also a divisor of n. If n is composite, then n has a prime factor p such that p 2 n. If n is an integer greater than 1 and not divisible by any prime p, such that p 2 n, then n is prime. Note: Because p 2 n implies that than or equal to is a divisor of n. it is enough to check if any prime less Example 3 a. Is 397 composite or prime? b. Is 91 composite or prime? Sieve of Eratosthenes One way to find all the primes less than a given number is to use the Sieve of Eratosthenes. If all the natural numbers greater than 1 are considered (or placed in the sieve), the numbers that are not prime are methodically crossed out (or drop through the holes of the sieve). The remaining numbers are prime. 5.4 Homework # A2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 13, 14, 18, 19
Tests for Divisibility, Theorems for Divisibility, the Prime Factor Test
1 Tests for Divisibility, Theorems for Divisibility, the Prime Factor Test Definition: Prime numbers are numbers with only two factors, one and itself. For example: 2, 3, and 5. Definition: Composite numbers
More informationPrime Factorization 0.1. Overcoming Math Anxiety
0.1 Prime Factorization 0.1 OBJECTIVES 1. Find the factors of a natural number 2. Determine whether a number is prime, composite, or neither 3. Find the prime factorization for a number 4. Find the GCF
More information15 Prime and Composite Numbers
15 Prime and Composite Numbers Divides, Divisors, Factors, Multiples In section 13, we considered the division algorithm: If a and b are whole numbers with b 0 then there exist unique numbers q and r such
More informationAlgebra for Digital Communication
EPFL  Section de Mathématiques Algebra for Digital Communication Fall semester 2008 Solutions for exercise sheet 1 Exercise 1. i) We will do a proof by contradiction. Suppose 2 a 2 but 2 a. We will obtain
More informationThis section demonstrates some different techniques of proving some general statements.
Section 4. Number Theory 4.. Introduction This section demonstrates some different techniques of proving some general statements. Examples: Prove that the sum of any two odd numbers is even. Firstly you
More informationPlaying with Numbers. factors and multiples
3 Playing with Numbers IN T H I S CH A P T E R, Y O U W I L L LEARN: Factors and multiples of a natural number Common factors and common multiples Types of natural numbers even and odd numbers, prime and
More informationSection 5.1 Number Theory: Prime & Composite Numbers
Section 5.1 Number Theory: Prime & Composite Numbers Objectives 1. Determine divisibility. 2. Write the prime factorization of a composite number. 3. Find the greatest common divisor of two numbers. 4.
More informationPreviously, you learned the names of the parts of a multiplication problem. 1. a. 6 2 = 12 6 and 2 are the. b. 12 is the
Tallahassee Community College 13 PRIME NUMBERS AND FACTORING (Use your math book with this lab) I. Divisors and Factors of a Number Previously, you learned the names of the parts of a multiplication problem.
More informationSession 6 Number Theory
Key Terms in This Session Session 6 Number Theory Previously Introduced counting numbers factor factor tree prime number New in This Session composite number greatest common factor least common multiple
More informationGrade 7/8 Math Circles Fall 2012 Factors and Primes
1 University of Waterloo Faculty of Mathematics Centre for Education in Mathematics and Computing Grade 7/8 Math Circles Fall 2012 Factors and Primes Factors Definition: A factor of a number is a whole
More informationFactoring Whole Numbers
2.2 Factoring Whole Numbers 2.2 OBJECTIVES 1. Find the factors of a whole number 2. Find the prime factorization for any number 3. Find the greatest common factor (GCF) of two numbers 4. Find the GCF for
More informationGrade 6 Math Circles March 10/11, 2015 Prime Time Solutions
Faculty of Mathematics Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 Centre for Education in Mathematics and Computing Lights, Camera, Primes! Grade 6 Math Circles March 10/11, 2015 Prime Time Solutions Today, we re going
More informationHomework until Test #2
MATH31: Number Theory Homework until Test # Philipp BRAUN Section 3.1 page 43, 1. It has been conjectured that there are infinitely many primes of the form n. Exhibit five such primes. Solution. Five such
More informationThe Fibonacci Numbers
The Fibonacci Numbers The numbers are: 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, 144, 233, 377, Each Fibonacci number is the sum of the previous two Fibonacci numbers! Let n any positive integer If F n is
More informationFACTORS, PRIME NUMBERS, H.C.F. AND L.C.M.
Mathematics Revision Guides Factors, Prime Numbers, H.C.F. and L.C.M. Page 1 of 16 M.K. HOME TUITION Mathematics Revision Guides Level: GCSE Higher Tier FACTORS, PRIME NUMBERS, H.C.F. AND L.C.M. Version:
More informationSection 2.1/2.2 An Introduction to Number Theory/Integers. The counting numbers or natural numbers are N = {1, 2, 3, }.
Section 2.1/2.2 An Introduction to Number Theory/Integers The counting numbers or natural numbers are N = {1, 2, 3, }. A natural number n is called the product of the natural numbers a and b if a b = n.
More information5544 = 2 2772 = 2 2 1386 = 2 2 2 693. Now we have to find a divisor of 693. We can try 3, and 693 = 3 231,and we keep dividing by 3 to get: 1
MATH 13150: Freshman Seminar Unit 8 1. Prime numbers 1.1. Primes. A number bigger than 1 is called prime if its only divisors are 1 and itself. For example, 3 is prime because the only numbers dividing
More informationThe Prime Numbers. Definition. A prime number is a positive integer with exactly two positive divisors.
The Prime Numbers Before starting our study of primes, we record the following important lemma. Recall that integers a, b are said to be relatively prime if gcd(a, b) = 1. Lemma (Euclid s Lemma). If gcd(a,
More informationMath 201: Homework 7 Solutions
Math 201: Homework 7 Solutions 1. ( 5.2 #4) (a) The factors of 72 are 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, 12, 18, 24, 36, and 72. (b) The factors of 81 are 1, 3, 9, 27, and 81. (c) The factors of 62 are 1, 2, 31, and
More informationToday s Topics. Primes & Greatest Common Divisors
Today s Topics Primes & Greatest Common Divisors Prime representations Important theorems about primality Greatest Common Divisors Least Common Multiples Euclid s algorithm Once and for all, what are prime
More informationStrengthening Multiplicative Reasoning with Prime Numbers
Strengthening Multiplicative Reasoning with Prime Numbers Matt Roscoe University of Montana matt.roscoe@umontana.edu Ziv Feldman Boston University zfeld@bu.edu NCTM Research Conference San Francisco, CA
More informationFinding Prime Factors
Section 3.2 PREACTIVITY PREPARATION Finding Prime Factors Note: While this section on fi nding prime factors does not include fraction notation, it does address an intermediate and necessary concept to
More informationThe Locker Problem. Purpose: Participants will determine attributes of numbers and their factors.
The Locker Problem Purpose: Participants will determine attributes of numbers and their factors. Overview: Participants will determine which locker numbers have exactly two factors, an odd number of factors,
More informationCSCI 246 Class 5 RATIONAL NUMBERS, QUOTIENT REMAINDER THEOREM
CSCI 246 Class 5 RATIONAL NUMBERS, QUOTIENT REMAINDER THEOREM Quiz Questions Lecture 8: Give the divisors of n when: n = 10 n = 0 Lecture 9: Say: 10 = 3*3 +1 What s the quotient q and the remainder r?
More informationEven Number: An integer n is said to be even if it has the form n = 2k for some integer k. That is, n is even if and only if n divisible by 2.
MATH 337 Proofs Dr. Neal, WKU This entire course requires you to write proper mathematical proofs. All proofs should be written elegantly in a formal mathematical style. Complete sentences of explanation
More informationp 2 1 (mod 6) Adding 2 to both sides gives p (mod 6)
.9. Problems P10 Try small prime numbers first. p p + 6 3 11 5 7 7 51 11 13 Among the primes in this table, only the prime 3 has the property that (p + ) is also a prime. We try to prove that no other
More informationPractice Problems for First Test
Mathematicians have tried in vain to this day to discover some order in the sequence of prime numbers, and we have reason to believe that it is a mystery into which the human mind will never penetrate.
More informationPrime Numbers and Divisibility
2.1 Prime Numbers and Divisibility 2.1 OBJECTIVES 1. Find the factors of a number 2. Determine whether a number is prime, composite, or neither 3. Determine whether a number is divisible by 2, 3, or 5
More informationChapter 11 Number Theory
Chapter 11 Number Theory Number theory is one of the oldest branches of mathematics. For many years people who studied number theory delighted in its pure nature because there were few practical applications
More informationMathematics is the queen of sciences and number theory is the queen of mathematics.
Number Theory Mathematics is the queen of sciences and number theory is the queen of mathematics. But why is it computer science? It turns out to be critical for cryptography! Carl Friedrich Gauss Division
More informationFACTORING OUT COMMON FACTORS
278 (6 2) Chapter 6 Factoring 6.1 FACTORING OUT COMMON FACTORS In this section Prime Factorization of Integers Greatest Common Factor Finding the Greatest Common Factor for Monomials Factoring Out the
More informationFACTORS AND MULTIPLES Answer Key
I. Find prime factors by factor tree method FACTORS AND MULTIPLES Answer Key a. 768 2 384 2 192 2 96 2 48 2 24 2 12 2 6 2 3 768 = 2*2*2*2*2*2*2*2 *3 b. 1608 3 536 2 268 2 134 2 67 1608 = 3*2*2*2*67 c.
More informationGrade 7 & 8 Math Circles October 19, 2011 Prime Numbers
1 University of Waterloo Faculty of Mathematics Centre for Education in Mathematics and Computing Grade 7 & 8 Math Circles October 19, 2011 Prime Numbers Factors Definition: A factor of a number is a whole
More informationThere are 8000 registered voters in Brownsville, and 3 8. of these voters live in
Politics and the political process affect everyone in some way. In local, state or national elections, registered voters make decisions about who will represent them and make choices about various ballot
More informationChapter 5 Number Theory. 5.1 Primes, composites, and tests for divisibility
Chapter 5 Number Theory 5.1 Primes, composites, and tests for divisibility Primes and Composites Prime number (prime) a counting number with exactly two different factors Composite number (composite) a
More informationmay be sent to:
B A S I C M A T H A SelfTutorial by Luis Anthony Ast Professional Mathematics Tutor LESSON 5: FACTORS, MULTIPLES & DIVISIBILITY Copyright 2005 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced
More informationFormative Assessment
3 Objective Prime and Composite Numbers Students learning about factors discover that some numbers have fewer factors than other numbers. A prime number has exactly two factors: the number 1 and the number
More informationCOMPASS Numerical Skills/PreAlgebra Preparation Guide. Introduction Operations with Integers Absolute Value of Numbers 13
COMPASS Numerical Skills/PreAlgebra Preparation Guide Please note that the guide is for reference only and that it does not represent an exact match with the assessment content. The Assessment Centre
More information4. What least number must be added to 1056, so that the sum is completely divisible by 23? A.2 B. 3
1. Which one of the following is not a prime number? A.31 B. 61 C. 71 D.91 91 is divisible by 7. So, it is not a prime number. 2. (112 x 5 4 ) =? A.67000 B. 70000 C. 76500 D.77200 (112 x 5 4 ) = 112 x
More informationLesson 3.1 Factors and Multiples of Whole Numbers Exercises (pages 140 141)
Lesson 3.1 Factors and Multiples of Whole Numbers Exercises (pages 140 141) A 3. Multiply each number by 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. a) 6 1 = 6 6 2 = 12 6 3 = 18 6 4 = 24 6 5 = 30 6 6 = 36 So, the first 6 multiples
More informationRepetition and Loops. Additional Python constructs that allow us to effect the (1) order and (2) number of times that program statements are executed.
New Topic Repetition and Loops Additional Python constructs that allow us to effect the (1) order and (2) number of times that program statements are executed. These constructs are the 1. while loop and
More informationMath 319 Problem Set #3 Solution 21 February 2002
Math 319 Problem Set #3 Solution 21 February 2002 1. ( 2.1, problem 15) Find integers a 1, a 2, a 3, a 4, a 5 such that every integer x satisfies at least one of the congruences x a 1 (mod 2), x a 2 (mod
More informationObjectives: In this fractions unit, we will
Objectives: In this fractions unit, we will subtract and add fractions with unlike denominators (pp. 101 102) multiply fractions(pp.109 110) Divide fractions (pp. 113 114) Review: Which is greater, 1/3
More informationPlaying with Numbers
Playing with Numbers Chapter 3 3.1 Introduction Ramesh has 6 marbles with him. He wants to arrange them in rows in such a way that each row has the same number of marbles. He arranges them in the following
More informationPrime Numbers. Chapter Primes and Composites
Chapter 2 Prime Numbers The term factoring or factorization refers to the process of expressing an integer as the product of two or more integers in a nontrivial way, e.g., 42 = 6 7. Prime numbers are
More informationApplications of Fermat s Little Theorem and Congruences
Applications of Fermat s Little Theorem and Congruences Definition: Let m be a positive integer. Then integers a and b are congruent modulo m, denoted by a b mod m, if m (a b). Example: 3 1 mod 2, 6 4
More informationMORE ON PRIME NUMBERS
MORE O PRIME UMBERS It is known that all prime numbers, with the exception of, must take the form of an odd number n+1, n0,1,,3, However it is only for special values of n that is a prime. A convenient
More informationEuler Enrichment Stage
Euler Enrichment Stage Table of Contents Chapter 1 Problems I Like Michael Evans 1 Chapter 2 Primes and Composites 3 Chapter 3 Least Common Multiple 8 Chapter 4 Highest Common Factor and the Euclidean
More informationAn Introduction to Number Theory Prime Numbers and Their Applications.
East Tennessee State University Digital Commons @ East Tennessee State University Electronic Theses and Dissertations 82006 An Introduction to Number Theory Prime Numbers and Their Applications. Crystal
More informationPolynomials can be added or subtracted simply by adding or subtracting the corresponding terms, e.g., if
1. Polynomials 1.1. Definitions A polynomial in x is an expression obtained by taking powers of x, multiplying them by constants, and adding them. It can be written in the form c 0 x n + c 1 x n 1 + c
More informationNUMBER THEORY. Theorem 1. A number is a square if and only if it has an odd number of factors.
NUMBER THEORY BY THE SPMPS 2013 NUMBER THEORY CLASS Abstract. This paper presents theorems proven by the Number Theory class of the 2013 Summer Program in Mathematical Problem Solving. An appendix is included
More informationSOLUTIONS FOR PROBLEM SET 2
SOLUTIONS FOR PROBLEM SET 2 A: There exist primes p such that p+6k is also prime for k = 1,2 and 3. One such prime is p = 11. Another such prime is p = 41. Prove that there exists exactly one prime p such
More informationChapter 4 Fractions and Mixed Numbers
Chapter 4 Fractions and Mixed Numbers 4.1 Introduction to Fractions and Mixed Numbers Parts of a Fraction Whole numbers are used to count whole things. To refer to a part of a whole, fractions are used.
More informationCS 103X: Discrete Structures Homework Assignment 3 Solutions
CS 103X: Discrete Structures Homework Assignment 3 s Exercise 1 (20 points). On wellordering and induction: (a) Prove the induction principle from the wellordering principle. (b) Prove the wellordering
More informationHow To Math Properties
CLOSURE a + b is a real number; when you add 2 real numbers, the result is also a real number. and 5 are both real numbers, + 5 8 and the sum, 8, is also a real number. a b is a real number; when you subtract
More informationIntegers and division
CS 441 Discrete Mathematics for CS Lecture 12 Integers and division Milos Hauskrecht milos@cs.pitt.edu 5329 Sennott Square Symmetric matrix Definition: A square matrix A is called symmetric if A = A T.
More informationBlack GCF and Equivalent Factorization
Black GCF and Equivalent Factorization Here is a set of mysteries that will help you sharpen your thinking skills. In each exercise, use the clues to discover the identity of the mystery fraction. 1. My
More informationWOLLONGONG COLLEGE AUSTRALIA. Diploma in Information Technology
First Name: Family Name: Student Number: Class/Tutorial: WOLLONGONG COLLEGE AUSTRALIA A College of the University of Wollongong Diploma in Information Technology MidSession Test Summer Session 00800
More informationFACTORS, PRIME NUMBERS, H.C.F. AND L.C.M.
Mathematics Revision Guides Factors, Prime Numbers, H.C.F. and L.C.M. Page 1 of 10 M.K. HOME TUITION Mathematics Revision Guides Level: GCSE Foundation Tier FACTORS, PRIME NUMBERS, H.C.F. AND L.C.M. Version:
More informationNumber Theory. Proof. Suppose otherwise. Then there would be a finite number n of primes, which we may
Number Theory Divisibility and Primes Definition. If a and b are integers and there is some integer c such that a = b c, then we say that b divides a or is a factor or divisor of a and write b a. Definition
More informationFactorizations: Searching for Factor Strings
" 1 Factorizations: Searching for Factor Strings Some numbers can be written as the product of several different pairs of factors. For example, can be written as 1, 0,, 0, and. It is also possible to write
More informationChapter 1 Basic Number Concepts
Draft of September 2014 Chapter 1 Basic Number Concepts 1.1. Introduction No problems in this section. 1.2. Factors and Multiples 1. Determine whether the following numbers are divisible by 3, 9, and 11:
More informationProblem Set 5. AABB = 11k = (10 + 1)k = (10 + 1)XY Z = XY Z0 + XY Z XYZ0 + XYZ AABB
Problem Set 5 1. (a) Fourdigit number S = aabb is a square. Find it; (hint: 11 is a factor of S) (b) If n is a sum of two square, so is 2n. (Frank) Solution: (a) Since (A + B) (A + B) = 0, and 11 0, 11
More information5.1 Text HW Number Theory Math 210 pbf8 1. Illustrate = 34 as in theorem 1.5 [i.e. showing that EVEN + EVEN = EVEN!].
.1 Text HW Number Theory Math 10 pbf8 1. Illustrate 1+18 = 4 as in theorem 1. [i.e. showing that EVEN + EVEN = EVEN!]. 1 18 4 11 48. Illustrate + 449 = 781 as in theorem 1.: EVEN + ODD = ODD 449 781 4a.
More informationWorking with whole numbers
1 CHAPTER 1 Working with whole numbers In this chapter you will revise earlier work on: addition and subtraction without a calculator multiplication and division without a calculator using positive and
More informationCS103X: Discrete Structures Homework Assignment 2: Solutions
CS103X: Discrete Structures Homework Assignment 2: Solutions Due February 1, 2008 Exercise 1 (10 Points). Prove or give a counterexample for the following: Use the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic to
More informationLet s just do some examples to get the feel of congruence arithmetic.
Basic Congruence Arithmetic Let s just do some examples to get the feel of congruence arithmetic. Arithmetic Mod 7 Just write the multiplication table. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 2 0
More informationExponents, Factors, and Fractions. Chapter 3
Exponents, Factors, and Fractions Chapter 3 Exponents and Order of Operations Lesson 31 Terms An exponent tells you how many times a number is used as a factor A base is the number that is multiplied
More informationMathematical induction & Recursion
CS 441 Discrete Mathematics for CS Lecture 15 Mathematical induction & Recursion Milos Hauskrecht milos@cs.pitt.edu 5329 Sennott Square Proofs Basic proof methods: Direct, Indirect, Contradiction, By Cases,
More informationAn Insight into Division Algorithm, Remainder and Factor Theorem
An Insight into Division Algorithm, Remainder and Factor Theorem Division Algorithm Recall division of a positive integer by another positive integer For eample, 78 7, we get and remainder We confine the
More informationSummer High School 2009 Aaron Bertram. 1. Prime Numbers. Let s start with some notation:
Summer High School 2009 Aaron Bertram 1. Prime Numbers. Let s start with some notation: N = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5,...} is the (infinite) set of natural numbers. Z = {..., 3, 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, 3,...} is the set of
More informationCISC  Curriculum & Instruction Steering Committee. California County Superintendents Educational Services Association
CISC  Curriculum & Instruction Steering Committee California County Superintendents Educational Services Association Primary Content Module IV The Winning EQUATION NUMBER SENSE: Factors of Whole Numbers
More information. 0 1 10 2 100 11 1000 3 20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Introduction The purpose of this note is to find and study a method for determining and counting all the positive integer divisors of a positive integer Let N be a given positive integer We say d is a
More informationFurther linear algebra. Chapter I. Integers.
Further linear algebra. Chapter I. Integers. Andrei Yafaev Number theory is the theory of Z = {0, ±1, ±2,...}. 1 Euclid s algorithm, Bézout s identity and the greatest common divisor. We say that a Z divides
More informationTheorem (The division theorem) Suppose that a and b are integers with b > 0. There exist unique integers q and r so that. a = bq + r and 0 r < b.
Theorem (The division theorem) Suppose that a and b are integers with b > 0. There exist unique integers q and r so that a = bq + r and 0 r < b. We re dividing a by b: q is the quotient and r is the remainder,
More informationZero: If P is a polynomial and if c is a number such that P (c) = 0 then c is a zero of P.
MATH 11011 FINDING REAL ZEROS KSU OF A POLYNOMIAL Definitions: Polynomial: is a function of the form P (x) = a n x n + a n 1 x n 1 + + a x + a 1 x + a 0. The numbers a n, a n 1,..., a 1, a 0 are called
More informationSCHOOL OF ENGINEERING & BUILT ENVIRONMENT. Mathematics. Numbers
SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING & BUILT ENVIRONMENT Mathematics Numbers. Factors 2. Multiples 3. Prime and Composite Numbers 4. Modular Arithmetic 5. Boolean Algebra 6. Modulo 2 Matrix Arithmetic 7. Number Systems
More informationALGEBRAIC APPROACH TO COMPOSITE INTEGER FACTORIZATION
ALGEBRAIC APPROACH TO COMPOSITE INTEGER FACTORIZATION Aldrin W. Wanambisi 1* School of Pure and Applied Science, Mount Kenya University, P.O box 55350100, Kakamega, Kenya. Shem Aywa 2 Department of Mathematics,
More informationDefinition 1 Let a and b be positive integers. A linear combination of a and b is any number n = ax + by, (1) where x and y are whole numbers.
Greatest Common Divisors and Linear Combinations Let a and b be positive integers The greatest common divisor of a and b ( gcd(a, b) ) has a close and very useful connection to things called linear combinations
More informationMATH10040 Chapter 2: Prime and relatively prime numbers
MATH10040 Chapter 2: Prime and relatively prime numbers Recall the basic definition: 1. Prime numbers Definition 1.1. Recall that a positive integer is said to be prime if it has precisely two positive
More informationThis is Radical Expressions and Equations, chapter 8 from the book Beginning Algebra (index.html) (v. 1.0).
This is Radical Expressions and Equations, chapter 8 from the book Beginning Algebra (index.html) (v. 1.0). This book is licensed under a Creative Commons byncsa 3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/byncsa/
More informationSome practice problems for midterm 2
Some practice problems for midterm 2 Kiumars Kaveh November 15, 2011 Problem: What is the remainder of 6 2000 when divided by 11? Solution: This is a longwinded way of asking for the value of 6 2000 mod
More informationSquares and Square Roots
SQUARES AND SQUARE ROOTS 89 Squares and Square Roots CHAPTER 6 6.1 Introduction You know that the area of a square = side side (where side means the length of a side ). Study the following table. Side
More informationThe Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic
MODULE 3 The Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic 1. Sieve of Eratosthenes Two is the only odd prime. Every even number > 2 is composite because it is divisible by 2. Similarly, all multiples of 3 6 are composite;
More informationBecause 6 divides into 50 eight times with remainder 2, 6 is not a factor of 50.
CHAPTER 3 FACTORS AND MULTIPLES Factors and multiples deal with dividing and multiplying positive integers1,2,3,4,. In this chapter you will work with such concepts as Greatest Common Factor (GCF) and
More informationIndividual Round Arithmetic
Individual Round Arithmetic (1) A stack of 100 nickels is 6.25 inches high. To the nearest $.01, how much would a stack of nickels 8 feet high be worth? 8 feet = 8 12 inches. Dividing 96 inches by 6.25
More informationCourse notes on Number Theory
Course notes on Number Theory In Number Theory, we make the decision to work entirely with whole numbers. There are many reasons for this besides just mathematical interest, not the least of which is that
More informationLesson 4.2 Irrational Numbers Exercises (pages )
Lesson. Irrational Numbers Exercises (pages 11 1) A. a) 1 is irrational because 1 is not a perfect square. The decimal form of 1 neither terminates nor repeats. b) c) d) 16 is rational because 16 is a
More informationCONTENTS. Please note:
CONTENTS Introduction...iv. Number Systems... 2. Algebraic Expressions.... Factorising...24 4. Solving Linear Equations...8. Solving Quadratic Equations...0 6. Simultaneous Equations.... Long Division
More informationFinally, the Chinese Remainder Theorem implies now that. and this shows that 341 is a Fermat pseudoprime to base 2. n = ap 1
28 MA6011 15 Pseudoprimes In the previous section we learnt that we need to find large prime numbers when we use the RSA cryptosystem. The question then arises how we can find large primes or if there
More informationNotes on Factoring. MA 206 Kurt Bryan
The General Approach Notes on Factoring MA 26 Kurt Bryan Suppose I hand you n, a 2 digit integer and tell you that n is composite, with smallest prime factor around 5 digits. Finding a nontrivial factor
More informationMathematics of Cryptography
Number Theory Modular Arithmetic: Two numbers equivalent mod n if their difference is multiple of n example: 7 and 10 are equivalent mod 3 but not mod 4 7 mod 3 10 mod 3 = 1; 7 mod 4 = 3, 10 mod 4 = 2.
More informationMathematical Induction
Mathematical S 0 S 1 S 2 S 3 S 4 S 5 S 6 S 7 S 8 S 9 S 10 Like dominoes! Mathematical S 0 S 1 S 2 S 3 S4 S 5 S 6 S 7 S 8 S 9 S 10 Like dominoes! S 4 Mathematical S 0 S 1 S 2 S 3 S5 S 6 S 7 S 8 S 9 S 10
More informationMAT Mathematical Concepts and Applications
MAT.1180  Mathematical Concepts and Applications Chapter (Aug, 7) Number Theory: Prime and Composite Numbers. The set of Natural numbers, aka, Counting numbers, denoted by N, is N = {1,,, 4,, 6,...} If
More informationUNIT 2 VOCABULARY: DIVISIBILITY
1º ESO Bilingüe Página 1 UNIT 2 VOCABULARY: DIVISIBILITY 1.1. Multiples and factors We say that a number b is a factor or a divisor of another number a if the division a : b is an exact division. If a
More information18. [Multiples / Factors / Primes]
18. [Multiples / Factors / Primes] Skill 18.1 Finding the multiples of a number. Count by the number i.e. add the number to itself continuously. OR Multiply the number by 1, then 2,,, 5, etc. to get the
More informationMath 101 Study Session Quiz 1 Chapter 3 Sections 1 through 4
Math 101 Study Session Quiz 1 Chapter 3 Sections 1 through 4 July 28, 2016 Chapter 3 Section 1: The Least Common Multiple and Greatest Common Factor Natural number factors of a number divide that number
More information5.1 The Remainder and Factor Theorems; Synthetic Division
5.1 The Remainder and Factor Theorems; Synthetic Division In this section you will learn to: understand the definition of a zero of a polynomial function use long and synthetic division to divide polynomials
More informationSection A3 Polynomials: Factoring APPLICATIONS. A22 Appendix A A BASIC ALGEBRA REVIEW
A Appendi A A BASIC ALGEBRA REVIEW C In Problems 53 56, perform the indicated operations and simplify. 53. ( ) 3 ( ) 3( ) 4 54. ( ) 3 ( ) 3( ) 7 55. 3{[ ( )] ( )( 3)} 56. {( 3)( ) [3 ( )]} 57. Show by
More information10 k + pm pm. 10 n p q = 2n 5 n p 2 a 5 b q = p
Week 7 Summary Lecture 13 Suppose that p and q are integers with gcd(p, q) = 1 (so that the fraction p/q is in its lowest terms) and 0 < p < q (so that 0 < p/q < 1), and suppose that q is not divisible
More information