1 America: Pathways to the Present Chapter 10 Becoming a World Power ( ) Copyright 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey. All rights reserved.
2 America: Pathways to the Present Chapter 10: Becoming a World Power ( ) Section 1: The Pressure to Expand Section 2: The Spanish-American War Section 3: A New Foreign Policy Section 4: Debating America s New Role Copyright 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey. All rights reserved.
3 The Pressure to Expand Chapter 10, Section 1 What factors led to the growth of imperialism around the world? In what ways did the United States begin to expand its interests abroad in the late 1800s? What arguments were made in favor of United States expansion in the 1890s?
4 Growth of Imperialism Chapter 10, Section 1 Under imperialism, stronger nations attempt to create empires by dominating weaker nations. The late 1800s marked the peak of European imperialism, with much of Africa and Asia under foreign domination. Several factors account for the growth of imperialism. Economic factors: The growth of industry increased the need for natural resources. Nationalistic factors: Competition among European nations for large empires was the result of a rise in nationalism or devotion to one s own nation. Military factors: Europe had better armies than Africa and Asia, and it needed bases around the world to refuel and supply navy ships. Humanitarian factors: Europeans believed that they had a duty to spread the blessings of western civilizations to other countries. By 1890, the United States was eager to join the competition for new territory. Supporters of expansion denied that the United States sought to annex foreign lands. (To annex is to join a new territory to an existing country.) Yet annexation did take place.
5 Expanding U.S. Interests Chapter 10, Section 1 The Monroe Doctrine Seward s Folly Midway Islands Latin America and Hawaii Originally meant that the United States declared itself neutral in European wars and warned other nations to stay out of the Western Hemisphere. Later, the doctrine was interpreted to mean a more active role to protect the interests of the United States. In 1867, Secretary of State William Seward bought Alaska from Russia. Seward bought the uninhabited Midway Islands for use as repairing and refueling stations for navy vessels in the Pacific. The United States signed a treaty with Hawaii and took a more active role in protecting Latin America.
6 Arguments for U.S. Expansion Chapter 10, Section 1 Promoting Economic Growth Protecting American Security Preserving American Spirit The United States needed to secure new markets in other countries. The United Fruit Company invested and gained political influence in some Central American nations. These nations were called banana republics. An expanded navy with bases around the world would protect U.S. Interests. By 1900, the United States had one of the most powerful navies in the world. Some leaders of the day believed that introducing Christianity and modern civilization to less developed nations around the world was a noble pursuit.
7 States Exports Chapter 10, Section 1
8 The Pressure to Expand-Assessment Chapter 10, Section 1 What was Seward s Folly? (A) A vaudeville show (B) Negotiating a treaty with Hawaii (C) The purchase of Alaska (D) Promoting economic growth in other countries Which of the following was not an argument for U.S. expansion? (A) Preserving the American spirit (B) Protecting the U.S. from a domestic attack (C) Promoting economic growth (D) Protecting the security of American investments Want to link to the Pathways Internet activity for this chapter? Click here!
9 The Pressure to Expand-Assessment Chapter 10, Section 1 What was Seward s Folly? (A) A vaudeville show (B) Negotiating a treaty with Hawaii (C) The purchase of Alaska (D) Promoting economic growth in other countries Which of the following was not an argument for U.S. expansion? (A) Preserving the American spirit (B) Protecting the U.S. from a domestic attack (C) Promoting economic growth (D) Protecting the security of American investments Want to link to the Pathways Internet activity for this chapter? Click here!
10 The Spanish-American War Chapter 10, Section 2 How did the activities of the United States in Latin America set the stage for war with Spain? What were the events leading up to and following the Spanish-American War? What challenges did the United States face after the war? Why did the United States seek to gain influence in the Pacific?
11 Setting the Stage for War Chapter 10, Section 2 By demanding that a dispute between Venezuela and Great Britain be sent to arbitration, the United States defended the validity of the Monroe Doctrine. (Arbitration is the settlement of a dispute by a person or panel chosen to listen to both sides and come to a decision.) The British government backed down because it needed to stay on friendly terms with the United States. The United States became involved in the Cuban rebellion against Spain, to protect American business interests. In competition for readership, two New York newspapers wrote exaggerated stories about the Cuban rebellion. This yellow journalism sold a lot of papers but had other effects as well: It whipped up American public opinion in favor of the Cuban rebels. It led to a burst of national pride and the desire for an aggressive foreign policy, which became known as jingoism.
12 The Spanish-American War Chapter 10, Section 2 Steps to War A Splendid Little War The Treaty of Paris The USS Maine was stationed in Havana harbor. Spanish Ambassador de Lôme insulted President McKinley. The USS Maine exploded, and the American public blamed Spain. Congress recognized Cuban independence and authorized force against Spain. May 1, 1898: The United States launched a surprise attack in Manila Bay and destroyed Spain s entire Pacific fleet in seven hours. July 1: Roosevelt led the Rough Riders up San Juan Hill. July 3: The United States Navy sank the remaining Spanish ships. The Spanish government recognized Cuba s independence. Spain gave up the Philippines, Guam, and Puerto Rico in return for $20 million. The island nations then became unincorporated territories of the United States.
13 The Spanish-American War Chapter 10, Section 2
14 New Challenges After the War Chapter 10, Section 2 The Philippines President McKinley s arguments for annexation: Filipinos were unfit for selfgovernment. Independence would bring anarchy. European powers would try to seize the islands. The Filipinos fought a three-year war for independence. The Philippines did not gain complete independence until Cuba President McKinley installed a military government to protect American business interests. Cuba drafted a constitution in 1900 that did not allow for U.S. involvement. The U.S. government only agreed to remove its troops if Cuba included the Platt Amendment. The Platt Amendment remained in place until It allowed for U.S. naval bases on the island and intervention whenever necessary.
15 United States Acquisitions and Annexations Chapter 10, Section 2
16 Other Gains in the Pacific Chapter 10, Section 2 The United States government intervened in other parts of the Pacific at the same time that events played out in the Spanish-American War. This intervention eventually brought about changes in the relationships of the United States with Hawaii, Samoa, and China. Hawaii became increasingly important to United States business interests. Hawaii also leased Pearl Harbor to the United States as a fueling and repair station for naval vessels. In 1898, Congress approved the annexation of Hawaii. The Polynesian islands of Samoa and their harbor at Pago Pago were also important to the United States. A year after the annexation of Hawaii, the United States acquired the harbor at Pago Pago as well. China s huge population and its vast markets became very important to American trade. President McKinley s Secretary of State, John Hay, wrote notes to the major European powers trying to persuade them to keep an open door to China. He wanted to ensure through his Open Door Policy that the United States would have equal access to China s millions of consumers.
17 The Spanish-American War-Assessment Chapter 10, Section 2 Which of the following was a reason President McKinley stated for the annexation of the Philippines? (A) (B) (C) (D) The United States needed raw materials from the Philippines. McKinley believed that the Filipinos could not govern themselves. McKinley believed that if the United States fought for it, they should own it. McKinley was concerned that granting independence would damage his public image. How did the United States defend the Monroe Doctrine? (A) (B) (C) (D) By forcing the British to go to arbitration over their dispute with Venezuela By demolishing Spain s navy By annexing the Philippines By winning the Spanish-American War Want to link to the Pathways Internet activity for this chapter? Click here!
18 The Spanish-American War-Assessment Chapter 10, Section 2 Which of the following was a reason President McKinley stated for the annexation of the Philippines? (A) (B) (C) (D) The United States needed raw materials from the Philippines. McKinley believed that the Filipinos could not govern themselves. McKinley believed that if the United States fought for it, they should own it. McKinley was concerned that granting independence would damage his public image. How did the United States defend the Monroe Doctrine? (A) (B) (C) (D) By forcing the British to go to arbitration over their dispute with Venezuela By demolishing Spain s navy By annexing the Philippines By winning the Spanish-American War Want to link to the Pathways Internet activity for this chapter? Click here!
19 A New Foreign Policy Chapter 10, Section 3 Why did the United States want to build the Panama Canal? What were the goals of Theodore Roosevelt s big stick diplomacy? In what ways did the foreign policies of Presidents Taft and Wilson differ from those of President Roosevelt?
20 The Panama Canal Chapter 10, Section 3 Americans needed a shorter route between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. A French company had bought a 25-year concession from Colombia to build a canal across Panama. (A concession is a grant for a piece of land in exchange for a promise to use the land for a specific purpose.) Defeated by yellow fever and mismanagement, the company abandoned the project and offered its remaining rights to the United States for $100 million.
21 Roosevelt s Big Stick Diplomacy Chapter 10, Section 3 Speak softly and carry a big stick and you will go far. Roosevelt used this old African proverb to guide his foreign policy. The Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine The United States will act as an international police power in the Western Hemisphere and intervene to prevent intervention by other powers. Roosevelt in Latin America Under Roosevelt, the United States often intervened in Latin America. Roosevelt in Asia Roosevelt wanted to preserve an open door to trade with China. He won a Nobel peace prize for negotiating a peace settlement between Russia and Japan.
22 Foreign Policy After Roosevelt Chapter 10, Section 3 William Howard Taft Elected President in 1908 Taft believed in maintaining influence through American investments, not military might. This policy was called dollar diplomacy. The United States reached new heights of international power under Roosevelt and Taft. However, the policies of both Presidents also created enemies in Latin America and a growing international resentment of U.S. intervention. Woodrow Wilson Under Wilson, the United States applied more moral and legalistic standards to foreign policy decisions. Wilson s policy drew the United States into the complex and bloody Mexican Revolution. Wilson s moral diplomacy did not work well in Mexico. Many lives were lost, and U.S. financial interests lost ground. U.S. Mexico relations were strained for many years.
23 United States Interventions, Chapter 10, Section 3
24 A New Foreign Policy-Assessment Chapter 10, Section 3 Roosevelt s foreign policy was based on (A) the threat of military intervention. (B) the use of American investments. (C) moral and legalistic standards. (D) the fear of foreign invasion. The dollar in the phrase dollar diplomacy referred to: (A) bribing foreign diplomats. (B) American investments in other countries. (C) being conservative about buying goods from other countries. (D) spending campaign dollars to influence public opinion. Want to link to the Pathways Internet activity for this chapter? Click here!
25 A New Foreign Policy-Assessment Chapter 10, Section 3 Roosevelt s foreign policy was based on (A) the threat of military intervention. (B) the use of American investments. (C) moral and legalistic standards. (D) the fear of foreign invasion. The dollar in the phrase dollar diplomacy referred to: (A) bribing foreign diplomats. (B) American investments in other countries. (C) being conservative about buying goods from other countries. (D) spending campaign dollars to influence public opinion. Want to link to the Pathways Internet activity for this chapter? Click here!
26 Debating America s New Role Chapter 10, Section 4 What were the main arguments raised by the antiimperialists? Why did imperialism appeal to many Americans? How was American imperialism viewed from abroad?
27 Debating Imperialism Chapter 10, Section 4 Anti-Imperialists A moral and political argument: Expansionism was a rejection of our nation s founding principle of liberty for all. A racial argument: Imperialism was just another form of racism. An economic argument: Expansion involved too many costs. Maintaining the armed forces required more taxation, debt, and possibly even compulsory, or required, military service. In addition, laborers from other countries would compete for jobs with U.S. workers. Pro-Imperialists Imperialism offered a new kind of frontier for American expansion. A new international frontier would keep Americans from losing their competitive edge. Access to foreign markets made the economy stronger. In 1907, President Roosevelt sent the Great White Fleet, part of the United States Navy, on a cruise around the world to demonstrate U.S. naval power to other nations. American citizens clearly saw the advantages of having a powerful navy.
28 Imperialism Viewed From Abroad Chapter 10, Section 4 In the Caribbean and Central America, the United States often had to defend governments that were unpopular with local inhabitants. Many U.S. citizens in Latin America heard the cry Yankee, Go Home! Even before the completion of the Panama Canal, the Panamanians began to complain that they suffered from discrimination. However, many countries also began to turn to the United States for help. The United States was both welcomed and rejected in other countries. The American government still struggles to reconcile its great power and national interests with its relationships with other nations.
29 Debating America s New Role-Assessment Chapter 10, Section 4 Which of the following was not an argument against imperialism? (A) (B) (C) (D) Foreign workers would compete for jobs against U.S. laborers. Other nations might boycott U.S. goods. Imperialism is another form of racism. Imperialism goes against the founding principles of our nation. Which of the following was not an argument for imperialism? (A) (B) (C) (D) People with non-western cultures would enrich and strengthen the United States. Access to foreign markets would make a stronger U.S. economy. Imperialism offered a new frontier. Expansion helped to make the United States Navy stronger. Want to link to the Pathways Internet activity for this chapter? Click here!
30 Debating America s New Role-Assessment Chapter 10, Section 4 Which of the following was not an argument against imperialism? (A) (B) (C) (D) Foreign workers would compete for jobs against U.S. laborers. Other nations might boycott U.S. goods. Imperialism is another form of racism. Imperialism goes against the founding principles of our nation. Which of the following was not an argument for imperialism? (A) (B) (C) (D) People with non-western cultures would enrich and strengthen the United States. Access to foreign markets would make a stronger U.S. economy. Imperialism offered a new frontier. Expansion helped to make the United States Navy stronger. Want to link to the Pathways Internet activity for this chapter? Click here!
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