# Units and Dimensions in Physical Chemistry

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 Units and Dimensions in Physical Chemistry Units and dimensions tend to cause untold amounts of grief to many chemists throughout the course of their degree. My hope is that by having a dedicated tutorial on them we can avoid this for Hertford chemists. It is very important that you understand everything in this tutorial and that you (eventually) find the associated problems quite straightforward. Please make sure you ask lots of questions if there are things you don t understand (this goes for all tutorials, of course). SECTION A Reading and notes Read the material taken from the book Quantities, units and symbols in physical chemistry (often called the Green Book ), and also the overview below. Read them in any order you like, and take notes if it helps you. Physical quantitites A physical quantity is the product of a numerical value and a unit. (Physical quantity) = (numerical value) x (unit) e.g. (mass of an average person) = (70) x (kg) Obviously, this is usually just written 70 kg. (speed of light) = ( x 10 8 ) x (ms 1 ) If you are one of the many people who, up until now, has always thought of units as something you have to tack onto the end of your calculations, appreciating the significance of the above is even more important. In science, we are generally dealing with physical quantities, not with pure numbers (we ll leave that to the mathematicians). This means that virtually every number you write down should have units with it. The numerical value of a physical quantity will vary depending on what units you choose to use (for example, an energy of 1 kj could equally well be expressed as 1000 J, or x ev, or x Hartree), which means that just writing down a number without also stating its units is completely meaningless. Units are not optional! The good news is that by thinking of units in this way, all the calculations and conversions and conventions that you previously may have found tortuous and completely incomprehensible should suddenly become much more straightforward. All calculations to do with units now essentially just become very basic algebra. For example, the tick marks along the axis of a graph are generally only labelled with numerical values. The axis label must therefore be consistent with this. Rearranging the above equation gives (numerical value) = (physical quantity)/(unit), so axes should always be labelled to be consistent with this e.g. speed / ms 1, or mass / kg. The alternative, often seen in publications from the US and written e.g. speed (ms) or mass (kg) is technically incorrect and unfortunately shows that the authors do not understand physical quantities. Before we move onto calculations, we need a short recap of the SI (Système Internationale) system of units.

2 SI units The SI system identifies base units. These are defined very precisely (see the Green Book material for details) and are independent of one another. Quantity Unit Symbol Mass kilogram kg Length metre m Time second s Current Ampere A Temperature Kelvin K Amount mole mol All other SI units can be expressed in terms of these base units. You can work out the definitions very easily if you know a definition of the quantity you re interested in. For example, the SI unit of energy is the Joule (J). If we want to know how a Joule is defined in terms of the base units, we could use the definition of the kinetic energy of a moving object: E = ½ mv 2, where m and v are the mass and velocity of the object. You will be used to substituting numerical values into this type of equation, but really what you are doing is substituting in physical quantities. The only reason you don t usually substitute in the units with your numerical value is that the units part of the calculation is the same every time, so you already know the result (though you may not have realised this before!). Consider the kinetic energy of a 10 kg object travelling at 2 ms 1. E = ½ (10 kg)(2 ms 1 ) 2 = 40 kg m 2 s 2 = 40 J We see that the units of J are equivalent to kg m 2 s 2. If we re just interested in relationships between units, then we can just substitute the units into an equation (just as if we re just interested in the numerical result then we only substitute the numerical values into an equation). If we re just doing a units calculation then we can ignore constant factors (e.g. the factor of ½ in the equation for the kinetic energy). As another example, consider the potential energy of an object in the gravitational field of the earth at a height h above the earth s surface. A units calculation would therefore give: E = mgh, where g is the acceleration due to gravity, 9.8 ms 2. J = (kg) (ms 2 ) (m) = kg m 2 s 2. Reassuringly, this is the same result as before. Hopefully this convinces you that you can choose any equation you like to work out how to express an SI unit in terms of the base units. Often, you will see SI units with prefixes, which denote powers of ten. You need to know these prefixes (at least up to powers of plus or minus 15).

3 10 1 deci d 10 1 deca da 10 2 centi c 10 2 hecto h 10 3 milli m 10 3 kilo k 10 6 micro μ 10 6 mega M 10 9 nano n 10 9 giga G pico p tera T femto f peta P atto a exa E zepto z zetta Z yocto y yotta Y Calculations with physical quantities There are a few very simple rules regarding calculations with physical quantities. 1. You can only add or subtract quantities with the same units e.g. 10 kg + 5 kg = 15 kg, while 10 kg m is completely nonsensical. Note: check that you have all energies in the same units before carrying out this type of calculation e.g. all in J or all in kj, not a mixture of the two. 2. When you multiply or divide, the units multiply and divide with the quantities, as shown in the previous section. 3. The arguments of logs, exponentials, and other functions that may be expanded as power series may only be dimensionless numbers. e.g. e x = 1 + x + x2 2! + x3 3! If x was not dimensionless, every term in the expansion would have different units! This can be very useful in helping us work out the units of physical quantities. For example, a first order radioactive decay can be described by the equation n = n 0 e kt, where n is the amount of substance, n 0 is the amount of substance at time zero, k is the rate constant for the decay, and t is time. If we didn t know the units for the rate constant, we could use the fact that the product kt must be dimensionless to work them out. Since we know that time has units of seconds, k must have units of s 1. Unit conversions This is an area in which many students frequently get themselves in a complete tangle or despair completely. However, once you have the definition of a physical quantity clear in your head it is really very simple to convert between units. As an example, consider the volume V of a cube with sides of length L. V = L 3 In SI units, L would be given in m, and V would therefore be in m 3. Assume we have sides of length 2 m. This would give a volume of 8 m 3. However, what if we wanted to know the volume in cm 3? Simple: 1 m = 100 cm, so: V = (2 m) 3 = (2 x 100 cm) 3 = 8x10 6 cm 3

4 Consider a second example. Suppose we want to convert 324 kj mol 1 into J molecule 1. We know that 1 kj = 1000 J, and that 1 mol = x molecules. Therefore: 324 kj mol 1 = 324 x (1000 J) x (6.022 x molecules) 1 = 5.38 x J molecule 1 Dimensional analysis Sometimes we can work out the form of an equation simply by knowing the units of the quantities involved. There is often only one combination of the quantities that is consistent with their units. As a very simple example, suppose somebody tells you that the speed of an object has units of ms 1, and they know that you can work out the speed of an object from the distance it has travelled and the time it took to travel that distance. However, they can t remember the required equation. You can work it out by looking at the units: Speed v has units of ms 1 Distance d has units of m Time t has units of s The obvious combination of quantities with units of m and s to give a quantity with units of ms 1 is v = d / t We could have done this calculation in a more formal way by equating powers of units i.e. (speed) = (distance) a (time) b So in terms of units (ms 1 ) = (m) a (s) b We immediately see that a = 1 and b = -1, so speed = (distance) 1 (time) 1, or v = d / t as before. We can also go back to our kinetic energy example. Suppose you know that kinetic energy is measured in J (and that the equivalent in SI base units is kg m 2 s 2, and you also know that the kinetic energy depends on the mass of the object and on its velocity, but you can t remember the relationship. (Energy) = (mass) a (velocity) b So in terms of units (kg m 2 s 2 ) = (kg) a (ms 1 ) b It is very straightforward to see that a = 1 and b = 2. If it had been less straightforward we could have matched terms on the left and right hand sides of the equation kg = kg a m 2 = m b s 2 =(s 1 ) b which again gives a = 1, b = 2. Our dimensional analysis therefore tells us that E mv 2 Dimensional analysis unfortunately can only give us the proportionalities between physical quantities. In this case it cannot give us the required factor of ½.

5 SECTION B Problems 1. Identify the SI units for the following quantities, and use the accompanying expressions to express them in terms of SI base units. (a) Force F = ma, where F = force, m = mass, a = acceleration (b) Pressure p = F/A where p = pressure, F = force, A = area 2. How many dm 3 are there in one m 3? 3. When a substance diffuses, the flux is defined as the rate at which the amount of substance diffuses per unit area. According to Fick s law of diffusion, the flux is equal to minus the diffusion coefficient, D, times the concentration gradient, dc/dx. (a) (b) What are the correct SI units for the flux and the concentration gradient? Hence deduce the SI units for the diffusion coefficient. 4. The universal gas constant, R, can be calculated from measurements of pressure, volume, temperature and amount of substance under ideal conditions from R = pv/nt. (a) Find the SI units for R. (b) 1 mol of gas occupies 24.8 m 3 at 298 K and 1.00 mbar. Calculate R. (c) What is the concentration of the gas? (mol dm 3 and molecules cm 3 ). 5. Consider the following statement: It is not permitted to take the log of a unit, so in the equation ΔG o = RT ln K, the equilibrium constant has no units. The only equilibrium constants with no units are for equilibria with equal numbers of particles on each side of the reaction equation, and so the equation above is only meaningful for reactions of this type. Which of the following is the best statement of the flaw in this argument? A B C D Units are always ignored when logarithms are taken. The units of K depend on the relative numbers of reactants and products in the chemical equation. In calculating K, it is necessary to use activities instead of concentrations, and activities are dimensionless. There is no flaw in this argument. 6. A molecule of carbon dioxide occupies a volume of 3.2 x m 3. In the British system the smallest unit of volume is the minim, which is equivalent to cm 3. What is the volume of the molecule in minims?

6 7. The speed limit on a road in Rutland is furlongs per fortnight. Given that a furlong is 1/8 mile and a fortnight is 14 days, calculate the speed limit in miles per hour. 8. The slug is an American unit of mass equivalent to kg, and 1 foot = cm (exactly). The density of a soil sample is 3.01 g cm 3. Convert this density to slugs per cubic foot. 9. A solution of sodium chloride has concentration 0.15 mol dm 3. Convert this concentration into molecules nm (a) Express the SI units for density and pressure in terms of SI base units. (b) Gas escapes through a small hole in the side of a vessel. The rate of loss of mass depends on the pressure of the gas, its density and the area of the hole. (i) (ii) Use dimensional analysis to determine this dependence. If the gas is ideal, how will the rate of loss depend on the molecular weight at a given pressure and temperature? 11. The speed of sound in a gas can be expressed in terms of its pressure and its density. (a) (b) (c) Use dimensional analysis to determine this dependence. If the gas is ideal, how will the speed of sound depend on the molecular weight at a given temperature? The speed of sound in air at room temperature is 330 ms 1. Calculate the speed of sound in gaseous helium at the same temperature. 12. When an oil droplet is released, it falls under the influence of gravity until it reaches its terminal velocity, at which the gravitational force exactly balances the frictional force exerted by the air through which it passes. The terminal velocity depends on the weight mg of the drop (g is the acceleration due to gravity and m is the mass of the droplet), the viscosity η of the medium, and the radius a of the droplet. (a) (b) Use dimensional analysis to work out how the terminal velocity should depend on all of these factors. [The SI units of viscosity are kg m 1 s 1.] What will be the effect of the following changes on the terminal velocity? (i) (ii) Using a gas with twice the viscosity of air. Using an oil drop with double the radius.

7 13. The rotational energy of a diatomic molecule is a function of its bond length, r, its reduced mass, μ, and Planck s constant, h. Use dimensional analysis to find out how the energy depends on these quantities. 14. The wind chill factor is the reduction in temperature due to the wind speed. It arises from the conversion of random motion (temperature) into organised motion (wind). The wind chill factor ΔT depends on the wind speed, v, the molecular mass of the gas, m, and Boltzmann s constant k, which has the value 1.38 x J K 1. Find the dimensions of each of these quantities and use dimensional analysis to discover how ΔT depends on them. 15. The molecular collision frequency per unit concentration in a gas, Z, has units m 3 s 1 and depends on the Boltzmann constant, k B, the temperature, T, the molecular mass, m, and the molecular diameter, d. Use dimensional analysis to determine how Z depends on these quantities.

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

### Note that the terms scientific notation, exponential notation, powers, exponents all mean the same thing.

...1 1.1 Rationale: why use scientific notation or powers?...1 1.2 Writing very large numbers in scientific notation...1 1.3 Writing very small numbers in scientific notation...3 1.4 Practice converting

### Consistency of units. Units of Common Physical Properties

Introduction to Chemical Engineering Processes/Units Sept. 5 th, 2012 Consistency of units Most values that you'll run across as an engineer will consist of a number and a unit. Some do not have a unit

### Conversions and Dimensional Analysis

Conversions and Dimensional Analysis Conversions are needed to convert one unit of measure into another equivalent unit of measure. Ratios, sometimes called conversion facts, are fractions that denote

### Dimensions, Units and Conversions

Dimensions, Units and Conversions Science depends on measured numbers, most of which have units. The following sections should help you understand what units are, how they are used, and how they are converted

### Electricity and Energy

Lesmahagow High School National 5 Physics Electricity and Energy Summary Notes Throughout the Course, appropriate attention should be given to units, prefixes and scientific notation. tera T 10 12 x 1,000,000,000,000

### Chapter 1. Matter, Measurement and Problem Solving. Chapter 1. Helleur. Principles of Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 1 st Ed.

Why Clickers? to refresh the students during the lecture to assess student understanding of a topic to increase student participation in class to encourage student interaction in large lectures peer teaching

### Spectroscopy. SI Base Units

Spectroscopy SI Base Units m - meter - length s - second - time kg - kilogram - mass K - kelvin - thermodynamic temperature A - ampere - electric current cd - candela - luminous intensity mol - amount

### A physical quantity is any quantity that can be measured with a certain mathematical precision. Example: Force

1 Unit Systems Conversions Powers of Physical Quantities Dimensions Dimensional Analysis Scientific Notation Computer Notation Calculator Notation Significant Figures Math Using Significant Figures Order

### The Importance of MEASUREMENT

Scientists use many skills as they investigate the world around them. They make observations by gathering information with their senses. Some observations are simple. For example, a simple observation

### Measurements. SI Units

Measurements When you measure something, you must write the number with appropriate unit. Unit is a standard quantity used to specify the measurement. Without the proper unit, the number you write is meaningless.

### Applied AS/A Level GCE

Science Department Applied AS/A Level GCE GCE in Applied Science OCR Advanced Subsidiary GCE in Applied Science H7 OCR Advanced Subsidiary GCE in Applied Science (Double Award) H7 OCR Advanced GCE in Applied

### A.P. Physics/Physics Notes Chapter 1 Physics is the study of the nature of matter and energy and its interactions in the

A.P. Physics/Physics Notes Chapter 1 Physics is the study of the nature of matter and energy and its interactions in the fields of mechanics (kinematics and dynamics), electricity and magnetism, waves

### Physical Quantities and Units

Physical Quantities and Units 1 Revision Objectives This chapter will explain the SI system of units used for measuring physical quantities and will distinguish between vector and scalar quantities. You

### Metric System Math Review -Dimensional Analysis

Metric System Math Review -Dimensional Analysis In 1960 the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (Sevres, France) adopted the "International System of Units", also known as "SI" units. 7 base units

### Unit 3.3 Metric System (System International)

Unit 3.3 Metric System (System International) How long is a yard? It depends on whom you ask and when you asked the question. Today we have a standard definition of the yard, which you can see marked on

### 4 Calculations Used in Analytical Chemisty

4 Calculations Used in Analytical Chemisty 4A SOME IMPORTANT UNITS OF MEASUREMENT 4A-1 Sl Units SI Base Units Physical Quantity Name of unit Abbreviation Mass kilogram kg Length meter m Time second s Temperature

### Chemistry 11 Some Study Materials for the Final Exam

Chemistry 11 Some Study Materials for the Final Exam Prefix Abbreviation Exponent giga G 10 9 mega M 10 6 kilo k 10 3 hecto h 10 2 deca da 10 1 deci d 10-1 centi c 10-2 milli m 10-3 micro µ 10-6 nano n

### Numbers and Calculations

Numbers and Calculations Topics include: Metric System, Exponential Notation, Significant Figures, and Factor-Unit Calculations Refer to Chemistry 123 Lab Manual for more information and practice. Learn

### HEAT UNIT 1.1 KINETIC THEORY OF GASES. 1.1.1 Introduction. 1.1.2 Postulates of Kinetic Theory of Gases

UNIT HEAT. KINETIC THEORY OF GASES.. Introduction Molecules have a diameter of the order of Å and the distance between them in a gas is 0 Å while the interaction distance in solids is very small. R. Clausius

### Unified Lecture # 3 Measurement of physical quantities, Units and Systems of Units

Unified Lecture # 3 Measurement of physical quantities, Units and Systems of Units References [1] Editor: Barry N. Taylor. NIST Special Publication 330, 2001 Edition: The International System of Units

### PHYSICS 151 Notes for Online Lecture #1

PHYSICS 151 Notes for Online Lecture #1 Whenever we measure a quantity, that measurement is reported as a number and a unit of measurement. We say such a quantity has dimensions. Units are a necessity

### = mass ( final,total)

1 Chapter 1: Chemistry and Measurement Chemistry (noun): a science studying the composition, characteristics, properties, and transformations of all matter in the known universe. Most modern textbooks

Section 2.2 Scientific Notation and Dimensional Analysis In your textbook, read about scientific notation. 1. Circle the figures that are written in scientific notation. 1.61 10 2 1.61 10 10 1.61 100 161

### Chapter 1. An Introduction to Chemistry By Mark Bishop

Chapter 1 An Introduction to Chemistry By Mark Bishop Chemistry The science that deals with the structure and behavior of matter Summary of Study Strategies The will to succeed is important, but what s

### 3.2 Units of Measurement > Chapter 3 Scientific Measurement. 3.2 Units of Measurement. 3.1 Using and Expressing Measurements

Chapter 3 Scientific Measurement 3.1 Using and Expressing Measurements 3.2 Units of Measurement 3.3 Solving Conversion Problems 1 Copyright Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.

### A QUICK OVERVIEW OF CHAPTERS 1-3 AP C H E M I S T R Y M S. G R O B S K Y

A QUICK OVERVIEW OF CHAPTERS 1-3 AP C H E M I S T R Y M S. G R O B S K Y CHAPTER 1 S C I E N T I F I C M E T H O D, SI U N I T S, M E T R I C P R E F I X E S S I G F I G S, D I M E N S I O N A L A N A

### UNIT II: MATHEMATICS in CHEMISTRY Earland

Quantitative analysis used in Chemistry is not difficult, but it requires you to be able to toggle between different units and be accurate in your calculation. In other words, you must become extremely

### U Step by Step: Conversions. UMultipliersU UExample with meters:u (**Same for grams, seconds & liters and any other units!

U Step by Step: Conversions SI Units (International System of Units) Length = meters Temperature: o C = 5/9 ( o F 32) Mass = grams (really kilograms) K = o C + 273 Time = seconds Volume = liters UMultipliersU

### JAMNABAI NARSEE SCHOOL ESTIMATION AND UNITS. Std 8

JAMNABAI NARSEE SCHOOL ESTIMATION AND UNITS Std 8 Order of magnitude Definition: The order of magnitude of a physical quantity is its magnitude in powers of ten when that physical quantity is expressed

### a brisk nanotechnology tutorial in four packets Where It Is Happening Finding What You Can Not See The First Nano Step Nano Power Possibilities

10-9 PSMA Nano 100 a brisk nanotechnology tutorial in four packets Where It Is Happening Finding What You Can Not See The First Nano Step Nano Power Possibilities A Synopsis To View To Read Definition

### AP Physics Course 1 Summer Assignment. Teachers: Mr. Finn, Mrs. Kelly, Mr. Simowitz, Mr. Slesinski

AP Physics Course 1 Summer Assignment Teachers: Mr. Finn, Mrs. Kelly, Mr. Simowitz, Mr. Slesinski On the following pages, there are six sections that use the basic skills that will be used throughout the

### Chapter 3 How Do We Make Measurements?

Chapter 3 How Do We Make Measurements? Chemistry, like all sciences, has its quantitative side. In this chapter, you will be introduced to the units and types of measurement in chemistry. 3.1 Background

### = 800 kg/m 3 (note that old units cancel out) 4.184 J 1000 g = 4184 J/kg o C

Units and Dimensions Basic properties such as length, mass, time and temperature that can be measured are called dimensions. Any quantity that can be measured has a value and a unit associated with it.

### Changkat Changi Secondary School

Changkat Changi Secondary School UNIT 1 Measurement Name: Class: Date: 1 CONTENT PAGE Date Notes/Worksheets Marks Remarks Notes 1.1 Notes 1.2 Notes 1.3 Worksheet 1.1 Worksheet 1.2 Worksheet 1.3 "The whole

### Chemical Conversions and Problems

Chemical Conversions and Problems Contents: Temperature Conversions: pg. 1 Basic Unit Conversions: pg. 1-3 Chemical Quantity Conversions: pg. 3-5 Density: pg. 5-6 Percent Composition & Empirical & Molecular

### 10 g 5 g? 10 g 5 g. 10 g 5 g. scale

The International System of Units, or the SI Units Vs. Honors Chem 1 LENGTH In the SI, the base unit of length is the Meter. Prefixes identify additional units of length, based on the meter. Smaller than

### AS Physics INDUCTION WORK XKCD. Student. Class 12 A / B / C / D Form

AS Physics 2014-15 INDUCTION WORK XKCD Student Class 12 A / B / C / D Form MCC 2014 1. Physical Quantities Maths and Physics have an important but overlooked distinction by students. Numbers in Physics

### 1Physical quantities and units

1Physical quantities and units By the end of this chapter you should be able to: explain what is meant by a in physics; state the five fundamental quantities recognised and used in physics; explain the

### METRIC SYSTEM CONVERSION FACTORS

METRIC SYSTEM CONVERSION FACTORS LENGTH 1 m = 1 cm 1 m = 39.37 in 2.54 cm = 1 in 1 m = 1 mm 1 m = 1.9 yd 1 km =.621 mi 1 cm = 1 mm 1 cm =.394 in 3 ft = 1 yd 1 km = 1 m 1 cm =.328 ft 1 ft = 3.48 cm 6 1

### Pump Formulas Imperial and SI Units

Pump Formulas Imperial and Pressure to Head H = head, ft P = pressure, psi H = head, m P = pressure, bar Mass Flow to Volumetric Flow ṁ = mass flow, lbm/h ρ = fluid density, lbm/ft 3 ṁ = mass flow, kg/h

### Error and Uncertainty

Error and Uncertainty All that any experimental procedure can do is to give a for the result that we can say may be near the true. We can never say that we know the true result, only that we have a result

### Units represent agreed upon standards for the measured quantities.

Name Pd Date Chemistry Scientific Measurement Guided Inquiry Teacher s Notes Work with your group using your prior knowledge, the textbook (2.1 2.7), internet research, and class discussion to complete

### WEEK 1. Engineering Calculations Processes Process Variables

WEEK 1 Engineering Calculations Processes Process Variables 2.1 Units and Dimensions Units and dimensions are important in science and engineering A measured quantity has a numerical value and a unit (ex:

### The AS Physics content is as follows:

Science Department The AS Physics content is as follows: Module 1 Development of practical skills in physics 1.1 Practical skills assessed in a written examination 1. Practical skills assessed in the

### Module 2.1. Introduction to S.I units

Module 2.1 Introduction to S.I units Learning Outcomes On successful completion of this module learners will be able to - Describe some of the S.I units relevant to energy use in buildings. S.I = The International

### Thermodynamics: The Kinetic Theory of Gases

Thermodynamics: The Kinetic Theory of Gases Resources: Serway The Kinetic Theory of Gases: 10.6 AP Physics B Videos Physics B Lesson 5: Mechanical Equivalent of Heat Physics B Lesson 6: Specific and Latent

### Gravitational Potential Energy

Gravitational Potential Energy Consider a ball falling from a height of y 0 =h to the floor at height y=0. A net force of gravity has been acting on the ball as it drops. So the total work done on the

### PHYSICS Unit 1A- Kinematics 1

PHYSICS 2204 Unit 1A- Kinematics 1 SI Units Metric Prefixes Factor Prefix Symbol 10 12 tera T 10 9 giga G 10 6 mega M 10 3 kilo k 10 2 hecto h 10 0 Standard unit --- 10-1 deci d 10-2 centi c 10-3 milli

### EXERCISE # 1.Metric Measurement & Scientific Notation

EXERCISE # 1.Metric Measurement & Scientific Notation Student Learning Outcomes At the completion of this exercise, students will be able to learn: 1. How to use scientific notation 2. Discuss the importance

### Type: Double Date: Kinetic Energy of an Ideal Gas II. Homework: Read 14.3, Do Concept Q. # (15), Do Problems # (28, 29, 31, 37)

Type: Double Date: Objective: Kinetic Energy of an Ideal Gas I Kinetic Energy of an Ideal Gas II Homework: Read 14.3, Do Concept Q. # (15), Do Problems # (8, 9, 31, 37) AP Physics Mr. Mirro Kinetic Energy

### Gas particles move in straight line paths. As they collide, they create a force, pressure.

#28 notes Unit 4: Gases Ch. Gases I. Pressure and Manometers Gas particles move in straight line paths. As they collide, they create a force, pressure. Pressure = Force / Area Standard Atmospheric Pressure

### 1.4.6-1.4.8 Gas Laws. Heat and Temperature

1.4.6-1.4.8 Gas Laws Heat and Temperature Often the concepts of heat and temperature are thought to be the same, but they are not. Perhaps the reason the two are incorrectly thought to be the same is because

### READING MEASURING DEVICES NOTES Here are a couple of examples of graduated cylinders:

READING MEASURING DEVICES NOTES Here are a couple of examples of graduated cylinders: An important part of Chemistry is measurement. It is very important that you read the measuring devices we use in lab

### CHAPTER 8 UNITS, PREFIXES AND ENGINEERING NOTATION

CHAPTER 8 UNITS, PREFIXES AND ENGINEERING NOTATION EXERCISE 34 Page 62 1. State the SI unit of volume. The SI unit of volume is cubic metres, m 3 2. State the SI unit of capacitance. The SI unit of capacitance

### PS Chapter 1 Review. Name: Class: Date: Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Name: Class: Date: ID: A PS Chapter 1 Review Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. The two main branches of science are a. physics and chemistry.

### Measurements 1. BIRKBECK MATHS SUPPORT www.mathsupport.wordpress.com. In this section we will look at. Helping you practice. Online Quizzes and Videos

BIRKBECK MATHS SUPPORT www.mathsupport.wordpress.com Measurements 1 In this section we will look at - Examples of everyday measurement - Some units we use to take measurements - Symbols for units and converting

### What is the SI system of measurement?

ALE 3. SI Units of Measure & Unit Conversions Name CHEM 161 K. Marr Team No. Section What is the SI system of measurement? The Model the International System of Units (Reference: Section 1.5 in Silberberg

### The car is pulled up a long hill. 2. Does the roller coaster ever get higher than the first hill? No.

Roller Coaster Physics Answer Key Vocabulary: friction, gravitational potential energy, kinetic energy, momentum, velocity Prior Knowledge Questions (Do these BEFORE using the Gizmo.) [Note: The purpose

### AP Physics 1: Algebra-Based 2015 Free-Response Questions

AP Physics 1: Algebra-Based 015 Free-Response Questions 015 The College Board. College Board, Advanced Placement Program, AP, AP Central, and the acorn logo are registered trademarks of the College Board.

### Fundamentals of Transport Processes Prof. Kumaran Department of Chemical Engineering Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore

Fundamentals of Transport Processes Prof. Kumaran Department of Chemical Engineering Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore Module No. # 02 Lecture No. # 06 Mechanisms of diffusion-1 Welcome to the sixth

### Thermal Properties of Matter

Chapter 18 Thermal Properties of Matter PowerPoint Lectures for University Physics, Thirteenth Edition Hugh D. Young and Roger A. Freedman Lectures by Wayne Anderson Goals for Chapter 18 To relate the

### Physics Notes Class 11 CHAPTER 2 UNITS AND MEASUREMENTS

1 P a g e Physics Notes Class 11 CHAPTER 2 UNITS AND MEASUREMENTS The comparison of any physical quantity with its standard unit is called measurement. Physical Quantities All the quantities in terms of

### Physical Science Test - Final Exam

Physical Science Test: 05-26-10 - Final Exam Name and Nickname: Calculators are allowed. Physical Science Final Exam: Table of Contents I. Metric Prefixes, Defined Units, Derived Units, Conversions, Addition

### Units in Physical Chemistry Physical Chemistry - University of Windsor

Units in Physical Chemistry - 59-240 Physical Chemistry - University of Windsor Introduction This handout (compiled from web pages at Oxford University) provides an introduction to the notation and systems

### บทท 1 บทน า 1.1 ฟ ส กส ว ทยาศาสตร และเทคโนโลย

บทท 1 บทนา 1.1 ฟ ส กส ว ทยาศาสตร และเทคโนโลย ฟ ส กส (Physics) มาจากภาษากร ก ซ งหมายความว าธรรมชาต (nature) ค อว ทยาศาสตร ท ศ กษา เก ยวก บมวลสารและพล งงานเพ อนาไปอธ บายปรากฏการณ ทางธรรมชาต ท ส งเกตเห นหร

### 1. Metric system- developed in Europe (France) in 1700's, offered as an alternative to the British or English system of measurement.

GS104 Basics Review of Math I. MATHEMATICS REVIEW A. Decimal Fractions, basics and definitions 1. Decimal Fractions - a fraction whose deonominator is 10 or some multiple of 10 such as 100, 1000, 10000,

### Introduction to Engineering Calculations

Introduction to Engineering Calculations We usually deal with chemical manufacturing processes, genetic engineering, Semicondcutor manufacturing, pollution control, etc. We will see the basic princiles

### Gases. Gas: fluid, occupies all available volume Liquid: fluid, fixed volume Solid: fixed volume, fixed shape Others?

CHAPTER 5: Gases Chemistry of Gases Pressure and Boyle s Law Temperature and Charles Law The Ideal Gas Law Chemical Calculations of Gases Mixtures of Gases Kinetic Theory of Gases Real Gases Gases The

### 2. List the fundamental measures and the units of measurement for each. 3. Given the appropriate information, calculate force, work and power.

Lab Activity 1 The Warm-Up Interpretations Student Learning Objectives After Completing this lab, you should be able to: 1. Define, explain and correctly use the key terms. 2. List the fundamental measures

### Scientific Notation, Engineering Notation

Scientific, Engineering Scientific Scientific or Standard Form is a way of writing numbers in a compact form. A number written in Scientific is expressed as a number from 1 to less than multiplied by a

### AP Chemistry A. Allan Chapter 1 Notes - Chemical Foundations

AP Chemistry A. Allan Chapter 1 Notes - Chemical Foundations 1.1 Chemistry: An Overview A. Reaction of hydrogen and oxygen 1. Two molecules of hydrogen react with one molecule of oxygen to form two molecules

### Chapter 1 (Part 2) Measurements in Chemistry

Chapter 1 (Part 2) Measurements in Chemistry 1.7 Physical Quantities English Units Those of us who were raised in the US are very accustomed to these. Elsewhere in the world, these are very confusing.

### 1 of 6 12/3/2009 4:47 PM

1 of 6 12/3/2009 4:47 PM Chapter 16 Homework Due: 9:00am on Tuesday December 1 2009 Note: To understand how points are awarded read your instructor's Grading Policy. [Return to Standard Assignment View]

### Work, Power & Conversions

Purpose Work, Power & Conversions To introduce the metric system of measurement and review related terminology commonly encountered in exercise physiology Student Learning Objectives After completing this

### THE IDEAL GAS LAW AND KINETIC THEORY

Chapter 14 he Ideal Gas Law and Kinetic heory Chapter 14 HE IDEAL GAS LAW AND KINEIC HEORY REIEW Kinetic molecular theory involves the study of matter, particularly gases, as very small particles in constant

### Assignment 6 Solutions. Chapter 6, #6.4, 6.12, 6.32, 6.36, 6.43, 6.60, 6.70, 6.80, 6.88, 6.90, 6.100, 6.104,

Assignment 6 Solutions Chapter 6, #6.4, 6.12, 6.32, 6.36, 6.43, 6.60, 6.70, 6.80, 6.88, 6.90, 6.100, 6.104, 6.108. 6.4. Collect and Organize When the temperature of the balloon Figure P6.3 increases, does

### UNIT (1) MEASUREMENTS IN CHEMISTRY

UNIT (1) MEASUREMENTS IN CHEMISTRY Measurements are part of our daily lives. We measure our weights, driving distances, and gallons of gasoline. As a health professional you might measure blood pressure,

### Basic Concepts of Thermodynamics

Basic Concepts of Thermodynamics Every science has its own unique vocabulary associated with it. recise definition of basic concepts forms a sound foundation for development of a science and prevents possible

### Final Exam Review Questions PHY Final Chapters

Final Exam Review Questions PHY 2425 - Final Chapters Section: 17 1 Topic: Thermal Equilibrium and Temperature Type: Numerical 12 A temperature of 14ºF is equivalent to A) 10ºC B) 7.77ºC C) 25.5ºC D) 26.7ºC

### 1 Introduction The Scientific Method (1 of 20) 1 Introduction Observations and Measurements Qualitative, Quantitative, Inferences (2 of 20)

The Scientific Method (1 of 20) This is an attempt to state how scientists do science. It is necessarily artificial. Here are MY five steps: Make observations the leaves on my plant are turning yellow

### Kinetic Theory of Gases

Kinetic Theory of Gases Important Points:. Assumptions: a) Every gas consists of extremely small particles called molecules. b) The molecules of a gas are identical, spherical, rigid and perfectly elastic

### 5. Suppose you had to test how well two types of soap work. Describe your experiment using the terms control and variable.

Page # 31: 1. What is the scientific method? A logical approach to solving problems by observing and collecting data, formulating hypotheses, testing hypotheses, and formulating theories supported by data.

### CHAPTER : 1 SOME BASIC CONCEPTS OF CHEMISTRY. 1 mark questions

CHAPTER : 1 SOME BASIC CONCEPTS OF CHEMISTRY 1 mark questions 1. What is Chemistry? Ans: It is a Branch of science deals with the study of composition, properties and interaction of matter. 2. What are

### momentum change per impact The average rate of change of momentum = Time interval between successive impacts 2m x 2l / x m x m x 2 / l P = l 2 P = l 3

Kinetic Molecular Theory This explains the Ideal Gas Pressure olume and Temperature behavior It s based on following ideas:. Any ordinary sized or macroscopic sample of gas contains large number of molecules.

### Chapter 2 Measurement and Problem Solving

Introductory Chemistry, 3 rd Edition Nivaldo Tro Measurement and Problem Solving Graph of global Temperature rise in 20 th Century. Cover page Opposite page 11. Roy Kennedy Massachusetts Bay Community

### Dimensional Analysis I: Length, Mass, Volume and Area Conversions

EXPERIMENT Dimensional Analysis I: Length, Mass, Volume and Area Conversions Student will use the Dimensional Analysis Map to introduce / reinforce the process of basic unit conversions in chemistry. OBJECTIVE

### Measurement. Chapter 1

Chapter 1 Measurement Figure 1.1 What s the difference between mass and weight? Figure 1.2 How did early clocks measure time? Figure 1.3 Why does a block of iron sink but an iron ship floats? Physics is

### Chapter Test B. Chapter: Measurements and Calculations

Assessment Chapter Test B Chapter: Measurements and Calculations PART I In the space provided, write the letter of the term or phrase that best completes each statement or best answers each question. 1.

### Chapter 11. Differential Equations Introduction Unlimited population growth

Chapter 11 Differential Equations 11.1 Introduction A differential equation is a relationship between some (unknown) function and one of its derivatives. Generally, such equations are encountered in scientific

### IT IS THEREFORE A SCIENTIFIC LAW.

361 Lec 4 Fri 2sep16 Now we talk about heat: Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics: (inserted after the 1 st 3 Laws, and often not mentioned) If two objects are in thermal equilibrium with a third object, they

### PASSPORT TO SCIENCE EXPLORATION: THE CORE OF CHEMISTRY CREATED BY THE CHEMICAL EDUCATIONAL FOUNDATION

PASSPORT TO SCIENCE EXPLORATION: THE CORE OF CHEMISTRY CREATED BY THE CHEMICAL EDUCATIONAL FOUNDATION Copyright 2016 by the Chemical Educational Foundation Welcome to the You Be The Chemist Challenge!

### PHYS-2010: General Physics I Course Lecture Notes Section XIII

PHYS-2010: General Physics I Course Lecture Notes Section XIII Dr. Donald G. Luttermoser East Tennessee State University Edition 2.5 Abstract These class notes are designed for use of the instructor and

### Question 1.2: Calculate the mass percent of different elements present in sodium sulphate (Na 2 SO 4 ).

Question 1.1: Calculate the molecular mass of the following: (i) H 2 O (ii) CO 2 (iii) CH 4 (i) H 2 O: The molecular mass of water, H 2 O = (2 Atomic mass of hydrogen) + (1 Atomic mass of oxygen) = [2(1.0084)

### Chapter 1: Chemistry: Measurements and Methods

Chapter 1: Chemistry: Measurements and Methods 1.1 The Discovery Process o Chemistry - The study of matter o Matter - Anything that has mass and occupies space, the stuff that things are made of. This

### Physics of Rocket Flight

Physics of Rocket Flight In order to understand the behaviour of rockets it is necessary to have a basic grounding in physics, in particular some of the principles of statics and dynamics. This section

### Lecture 24 - Surface tension, viscous flow, thermodynamics

Lecture 24 - Surface tension, viscous flow, thermodynamics Surface tension, surface energy The atoms at the surface of a solid or liquid are not happy. Their bonding is less ideal than the bonding of atoms

### CHEMISTRY. Matter and Change. Section 13.1 Section 13.2 Section 13.3. The Gas Laws The Ideal Gas Law Gas Stoichiometry

CHEMISTRY Matter and Change 13 Table Of Contents Chapter 13: Gases Section 13.1 Section 13.2 Section 13.3 The Gas Laws The Ideal Gas Law Gas Stoichiometry State the relationships among pressure, temperature,

### Absorption of Heat. Internal energy is the appropriate energy variable to use at constant volume

6 Absorption of Heat According to the First Law, E = q + w = q - P V, assuming P-V work is the only kind that can occur. Therefore, E = q V. The subscript means that the process occurs at constant volume.