Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

2 Figure 2. Above: Measurement standards embedded in the wall of the city hall in Assisi, Italy. The measurements are the foot, the cubit, and the yard. Right: Measurements in the wall of the city hall in Regensburg, Germany. The measurements are the foot, the yard, and the fathom. A parliamentary Committee undertook the job of clearing away the medieval weights and measures, setting up a standard system of weights and measures in The Americans, already accustomed to the English system of weights and measures, set up their system which became standardized in the mid-1900 s. While the British and Americans were trying to standardize their weights and measures, the National Assembly of France called upon the French Academy of Science, on May 8, 1790, to deduce an invariable standard for all of the measures and all weights. In 1791, the French National Assembly approved the report of the French Academy of Sciences outlining the metric system. On June 19, 1791, a committee of 12 mathematicians, geodesists, and physicists met with Louis XVI and received his formal approval, one day before he tried to escape from France and was arrested. The metric system was adopted by France in 1795, but it existed along with use of the old medieval units until 1840 when it proclaimed as the exclusive system of weights and measures. In 1875, the metric system was universally accepted at the International Metric Convention in France and provisions were made to set up an International Bureau of Weights and Measures in Paris. At the 11th General Conference on Weights and Measures, in Paris in October 1960, the definitions of the original metric standards were redefined to 20th-century standards of measurement and a new International System of Units was formulated.

3 THE INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM OF UNITS (SI) The International System of Units, as amended in 1971, consists of seven base units as listed in Table 1. Table 1. SI Base Units Quantity Measured Unit Symbol Length meter m Mass kilogram kg Time second s Thermodynamic kelvin K temperature Amount of substance mole mol Electric current ampere A Luminous intensity candela Cd The five base units that are useful in general chemistry are defined below: 1. The meter (m) was originally measured to be one ten-millionth of the distance from the north pole to the equator along the meridian running near Dunkirk, Paris, and Barcelona. It was redefined in 1971 as the length of path traveled by light in a vacuum during the time interval of 1/ second. 2. The kilogram (kg) is the mass of a particular cylinder of platinum-iridium alloy, called the International Prototype Kilogram, kept at the International Bureau of Weights and Measures in Serves, France. The kilogram, the only unit still defined by an artifact, was derived from the mass of a cubic decimeter of water. 3. The second (s) was originally defined as 1/86,400th of a mean solar day. It was redefined in 1967 as the duration of 9,192,631,770 periods of the radiation corresponding to the transition between two hyperfine levels of the fundamental state of a cesium-133 atom. 4. The kelvin (K) is 1/ of the temperature interval between absolute zero and the triple point of water (the temperature at which ice, liquid water, and water vapor are in equilibrium). The -Celsius scale is derived from the -Kelvin scale. An interval of 1 K is equal to 1 C. 5. The mole (mol) is the amount of substance which contains as many entities as there are atoms in exactly kg of carbon-12. This number is known as Avogadro s Number which has a value of x 23 per mole *6.3 x 17 (determined by U.S. National Bureau of Standards in 1974). Instead of having a large number of units of different sizes, such as inches, feet, years, fathoms, furlongs, and miles in the English system, it was decided to use prefixes which would multiply base units by multiples of tens for larger measurements and decimal fractions for smaller measurements. The prefixes used for multiples and submultiples of SI units are listed in Table 2. The prefixes commonly used in chemistry are printed in bold print.

4 Table 2. The SI prefixes These prefixes multiply base units for larger measurements These prefixes are decimal fractions that multiply base units for smaller measurements Prefix Symbol Multiple Prefix Symbol Submultiple exa E 18 deci d -1 peta P 15 centi c -2 tera T 12 milli m -3 giga G 9 micro µ -6 mega M 6 nano n -9 kilo k 3 pico p -12 hecto h 2 femto f -15 deka da atto a -18 Prefix symbols are printed in Roman type with no space between the prefix symbol and the base unit symbol. Examples: millimeter is mm microsecond is µs It should be noted that the first letter of the SI abbreviation represents the prefix and the second letter represents the base unit. Among the base units, the kilogram has a prefix built into its name. The names of the decimal fractions and multiples of the kilogram are constructed using the appropriate prefix with the stem word gram (symbol: g). Examples: megagram is Mg centigram is cg When a prefix is affixed to an SI unit, it multiplies the base unit by the appropriate factor listed in Table 2. Examples: millimeter: 1 mm = -3 m microsecond: 1 µs = -6 s megagram: 1 Mg = 6 g centigram: 1 cg = -2 g kilometer: 1 km = 3 m Since the SI system is based on factors of ten, there are relationships between the metric prefixes that should be noted. Each of the first three prefixes above or below the base unit either multiply or divide the base unit by ten. After that, each prefix represents a multiplication or division by 1,000. The factors that relate the more commonly used SI prefixes are shown in Table 3. Examples: Using m as the base unit: 1,000 pm = 1 nm 1,000 nm = 1 µm 1,000 µm = 1 mm mm = 1 cm cm = 1 dm To convert between units with difference prefixes, multiply by the factors that occur between them. Some examples, using m as the base unit, are shown below.

5 To convert from nm to mm, we first note that there are 1,000 nm in 1 µm and 1,000 µm in 1 mm, then, to convert, multiply the two factors of 1,000 together to get: 1,000,000 nm = 1 mm To convert from µm to cm, multiply the factors of 1,000 µm in 1 mm and mm in 1 cm together to get:,000 µm = 1 cm To convert from cm to km, multiply the factors of 0 cm in 1 m and 00 m in 1 km to get: 0,000 cm = 1 km Table 3. Relationship between SI prefixes Prefix Symbol Multiple Base unit to mega: units micro to base unit: units Base unit to kilo: 00 units milli to base unit: 00 units mega M 6 kilo k 3 hecto h 2 deka da [base unit] deci d -1 centi c -2 milli m -3 micro µ -6 nano n pico p -12

6 Table 4 lists SI-derived units with special names. The most commonly used units in general chemistry are listed in bold print. A number of these units are named in honor of individuals who did significant work in the area where the unit is often used. Table 4. SI-Derived units with special names Physical Quantity Unit Symbol Formula Frequency hertz Hz (cycles) s -1 Force newton N kg m s -2 Pressure pascal Pa N m -2 Energy joule J N m Power watt W J s -1 Electric potential difference volt V W A -1 Electric charge coulomb C A s Electric resistance ohm Ω V A -1 Electric capacitance farad F C V -1 Electric conductance siemens S A V -1 Magnetic flux weber Wb V s Magnetic flux density tesla T Wb m -2 Inductance henry H Wb A -1 Luminous flux lumen lm cd sr (a) Illuminance lux lx lm m -2 Activity (radionuclide) becquerel Bq (disintegration) s -1 Absorbed dose (radiation) gray Gy m 2 s -2 (a) sr = steradian Table 5 lists units that are derived from either SI base units or from the SI derived units with special names. The units from which each is derived are shown in the column labeled Symbol Table 5. Other SI-Derived Units Physical Quantity Unit Symbol Area square meter m 2 Volume cubic meter m 3 Velocity meter per second m s -1 Acceleration meter per second squared m s -2 Wave number 1 (Wave) per meter m -1 Density kilogram per cubic meter kg m -3 Concentration mole per cubic meter mol m -3 Molar mass kilogram per mole kg mol -1 Molar volume cubic meter per mole m 3 mol -1 Heat capacity joule per kelvin J K -1 Molar energy joule per mole J mol -1 Electric field strength volt per meter V m -1 Electric dipole moment coulomb meter C m

7 In general chemistry, there are certain non-si units which may be retained due to widespread use. The definitions of some of these units are given below: The calorie (cal) is the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1.0 gram of water by 1 C at 15 C. The erg is the energy involved when a force of one dyne acts through a distance of one centimeter. A dyne (dyn), is the force required to produce an acceleration of one centimeter per second squared on a mass of one gram. The Angstrom (Å) is a unit of length that was commonly used in describing sizes of atoms. One Angstrom is equal to one-tenth of a nanometer. The tonne or metric ton (t) is equal to 00 kg. It is an established commercial unit of volume. The atmosphere (atm) is the unit of pressure based on the Earth s standard air pressure at sea level. One atmosphere pressure is equal to a barometric pressure of 760 mm Hg. The liter (L) is an established unit of volume in nations using the metric system. It is equal to one cubic decimeter. (Formerly defined as one kilogram of water.) Two units of energy that are used with SI whose values are obtained by experiment are: The electronvolt (ev) is the kinetic energy acquired by an electron passing through a potential difference of 1 volt in vacuum. The unified atomic mass unit (u) is equal to the fraction 1/12 of the mass of an atom of the nuclide 12 C Table 6 lists these non-si units with conversion factors to SI. Table 6. Non-SI units used in chemistry with conversion factors to SI Physical Quantity SI Unit Non-SI Unit Symbol Conversion Factor Energy joule calorie cal 1 cal = J erg erg 1 erg = -7 J electronvolt ev 1 ev = x -19 J Force newton dyne dyn 1 dyn = -5 N Length meter Angstrom Å 1 Å = - m = -1 nm Mass kilogram tonne t 1 t = 3 kg atomic mass unit amu 1 amu = x -27 kg Pressure pascal atmosphere atm 1 atm = x 5 Pa torr or mm Hg 1 torr = 1 mm Hg = 133 Pa Temperature kelvin Celsius C 1 C = 1 K Volume cubic meter liter L 1 L = 1 dm 3 = -3 m 3 Time second minute min 1 min = 60 s hour hr 1 hr = 3600 s day d 1 d = s

8 Two conversion factors which will be extremely useful, especially in laboratory work are: The relationship between volume in cubic centimeters and the non-si unit of liters: 1 cm 3 = 1 ml Note: A cubic centimeter is sometimes called a cc in the medical field The relationship between volume and mass of water is: 1 ml H 2 O = 1 g H 2 O SOME ENGLISH-SI CONVERSION FACTORS Although modern chemistry uses only SI units, it may be useful to know some English-SI conversion factors in the event it may be necessary to convert between the English system and the SI system. There are a great number of conversion factors that apply to the large number of English units. The ones that will be most useful in everyday encounters are: Length: Volume: Mass: 1 in = 2.54 cm qt = 1 L 1 lb = g Since length has many English units with different names, some other useful conversion factors for length are: in = 1 m 1 mi = km Another useful conversion factor for mass is: 2.2 lb = 1 kg

### Unified Lecture # 3 Measurement of physical quantities, Units and Systems of Units

Unified Lecture # 3 Measurement of physical quantities, Units and Systems of Units References [1] Editor: Barry N. Taylor. NIST Special Publication 330, 2001 Edition: The International System of Units

### Module 2.1. Introduction to S.I units

Module 2.1 Introduction to S.I units Learning Outcomes On successful completion of this module learners will be able to - Describe some of the S.I units relevant to energy use in buildings. S.I = The International

### MEASUREMENT. Historical records indicate that the first units of length were based on people s hands, feet and arms. The measurements were:

MEASUREMENT Introduction: People created systems of measurement to address practical problems such as finding the distance between two places, finding the length, width or height of a building, finding

### A physical quantity is any quantity that can be measured with a certain mathematical precision. Example: Force

1 Unit Systems Conversions Powers of Physical Quantities Dimensions Dimensional Analysis Scientific Notation Computer Notation Calculator Notation Significant Figures Math Using Significant Figures Order

### Unit 3.3 Metric System (System International)

Unit 3.3 Metric System (System International) How long is a yard? It depends on whom you ask and when you asked the question. Today we have a standard definition of the yard, which you can see marked on

### Section 1.6 Systems of Measurement

Systems of Measurement Measuring Systems of numeration alone do not provide enough information to describe all the physical characteristics of objects. With numerals, we can write down how many fish we

### APPENDIX H CONVERSION FACTORS

APPENDIX H CONVERSION FACTORS A ampere American Association of State AASHTO Highway & Transportation Officials ABS (%) Percent of Absorbed Moisture Abs. Vol. Absolute Volume ACI American Concrete Institute

### Numbers and Calculations

Numbers and Calculations Topics include: Metric System, Exponential Notation, Significant Figures, and Factor-Unit Calculations Refer to Chemistry 123 Lab Manual for more information and practice. Learn

### 1Physical quantities and units

1Physical quantities and units By the end of this chapter you should be able to: explain what is meant by a in physics; state the five fundamental quantities recognised and used in physics; explain the

### JAMNABAI NARSEE SCHOOL ESTIMATION AND UNITS. Std 8

JAMNABAI NARSEE SCHOOL ESTIMATION AND UNITS Std 8 Order of magnitude Definition: The order of magnitude of a physical quantity is its magnitude in powers of ten when that physical quantity is expressed

### The Importance of MEASUREMENT

Scientists use many skills as they investigate the world around them. They make observations by gathering information with their senses. Some observations are simple. For example, a simple observation

### METRIC SYSTEM CONVERSION FACTORS

METRIC SYSTEM CONVERSION FACTORS LENGTH 1 m = 1 cm 1 m = 39.37 in 2.54 cm = 1 in 1 m = 1 mm 1 m = 1.9 yd 1 km =.621 mi 1 cm = 1 mm 1 cm =.394 in 3 ft = 1 yd 1 km = 1 m 1 cm =.328 ft 1 ft = 3.48 cm 6 1

### Measurements. SI Units

Measurements When you measure something, you must write the number with appropriate unit. Unit is a standard quantity used to specify the measurement. Without the proper unit, the number you write is meaningless.

### Jones and Bartlett Publishers, LLC. NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION.

Chapter 3 Metric System You shall do no unrighteousness in judgment, in measure of length, in weight, or in quantity. Just balances, just weights, shall ye have. Leviticus. Chapter 19, verse 35 36. Exhibit

### Units, Dimensions, and Standards

Units, Dimensions, and Standards INTRODUCTION Before standard systems of measurement were invented, many approximate units were used. A long distance was often measured by the number of days it would take

### Lab 1: Units and Conversions

Lab 1: Units and Conversions The Metric System In order to measure the properties of matter, it is necessary to have a measuring system and within that system, it is necessary to define some standard dimensions,

### The Metric System. J. Montvilo

The Metric System J. Montvilo 1 Measuring Systems There are two major measuring systems in use: The English System and The Metric System Which do you prefer and why? 2 Measuring Systems Assuming you prefer

### Abbreviations and Metric Conversion Factors

B Symbols, Abbreviations and Metric Conversion Factors Signs and Symbols + plus, or more than minus, or less than ± plus or minus Feet " nches > is greater than is greater than or equal to < is less than

### Conversions and Dimensional Analysis

Conversions and Dimensional Analysis Conversions are needed to convert one unit of measure into another equivalent unit of measure. Ratios, sometimes called conversion facts, are fractions that denote

### Consolidated TEXT CONSLEG: 1980L /02/2000. produced by the CONSLEG system. of the Office for Official Publications of the European Communities

EN Consolidated TEXT produced by the CONSLEG system of the Office for Official Publications of the European Communities CONSLEG: 1980L0181 09/02/2000 Number of pages: 12 < Office for Official Publications

### Consistency of units. Units of Common Physical Properties

Introduction to Chemical Engineering Processes/Units Sept. 5 th, 2012 Consistency of units Most values that you'll run across as an engineer will consist of a number and a unit. Some do not have a unit

### 2. List the fundamental measures and the units of measurement for each. 3. Given the appropriate information, calculate force, work and power.

Lab Activity 1 The Warm-Up Interpretations Student Learning Objectives After Completing this lab, you should be able to: 1. Define, explain and correctly use the key terms. 2. List the fundamental measures

### APPENDIX I SI AND ENGLISH UNITS AND CONVERSION FACTORS

APPENDIX I SI AND ENGLISH UNITS AND CONVERSION FACTORS The International System of Units (Systéme International d Unités, or SI) recognizes seven basic units from which all others are derived. They are:

### Learning Centre CONVERTING UNITS

Learning Centre CONVERTING UNITS To use this worksheet you should be comfortable with scientific notation, basic multiplication and division, moving decimal places and basic fractions. If you aren t, you

### Note that the terms scientific notation, exponential notation, powers, exponents all mean the same thing.

...1 1.1 Rationale: why use scientific notation or powers?...1 1.2 Writing very large numbers in scientific notation...1 1.3 Writing very small numbers in scientific notation...3 1.4 Practice converting

### Homework 1: Exercise 1 Metric - English Conversion [based on the Chauffe & Jefferies (2007)]

MAR 110 HW 1: Exercise 1 Conversions p. 1 1-1. THE METRIC SYSTEM Homework 1: Exercise 1 Metric - English Conversion [based on the Chauffe & Jefferies (2007)] The French developed the metric system during

### EXERCISE # 1.Metric Measurement & Scientific Notation

EXERCISE # 1.Metric Measurement & Scientific Notation Student Learning Outcomes At the completion of this exercise, students will be able to learn: 1. How to use scientific notation 2. Discuss the importance

### REVIEW SHEETS INTRODUCTORY PHYSICAL SCIENCE MATH 52

REVIEW SHEETS INTRODUCTORY PHYSICAL SCIENCE MATH 52 A Summary of Concepts Needed to be Successful in Mathematics The following sheets list the key concepts which are taught in the specified math course.

### Units represent agreed upon standards for the measured quantities.

Name Pd Date Chemistry Scientific Measurement Guided Inquiry Teacher s Notes Work with your group using your prior knowledge, the textbook (2.1 2.7), internet research, and class discussion to complete

### TIME ESTIMATE FOR THIS LESSON One class period

TITLE OF LESSON Physical Science Unit 1 Lesson 2 Systéme Internationale aka the Metric System Nature of Matter: How do tribes standardize their lives? TIME ESTIMATE FOR THIS LESSON One class period ALIGNMENT

### Work, Power & Conversions

Purpose Work, Power & Conversions To introduce the metric system of measurement and review related terminology commonly encountered in exercise physiology Student Learning Objectives After completing this

### UNIT (1) MEASUREMENTS IN CHEMISTRY

UNIT (1) MEASUREMENTS IN CHEMISTRY Measurements are part of our daily lives. We measure our weights, driving distances, and gallons of gasoline. As a health professional you might measure blood pressure,

### CHAPTER 8 UNITS, PREFIXES AND ENGINEERING NOTATION

CHAPTER 8 UNITS, PREFIXES AND ENGINEERING NOTATION EXERCISE 34 Page 62 1. State the SI unit of volume. The SI unit of volume is cubic metres, m 3 2. State the SI unit of capacitance. The SI unit of capacitance

### Physics Notes Class 11 CHAPTER 2 UNITS AND MEASUREMENTS

1 P a g e Physics Notes Class 11 CHAPTER 2 UNITS AND MEASUREMENTS The comparison of any physical quantity with its standard unit is called measurement. Physical Quantities All the quantities in terms of

### U Step by Step: Conversions. UMultipliersU UExample with meters:u (**Same for grams, seconds & liters and any other units!

U Step by Step: Conversions SI Units (International System of Units) Length = meters Temperature: o C = 5/9 ( o F 32) Mass = grams (really kilograms) K = o C + 273 Time = seconds Volume = liters UMultipliersU

### Chapter 1. Matter, Measurement and Problem Solving. Chapter 1. Helleur. Principles of Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 1 st Ed.

Why Clickers? to refresh the students during the lecture to assess student understanding of a topic to increase student participation in class to encourage student interaction in large lectures peer teaching

### History of U.S. Measurement

SECTION 11.1 LINEAR MEASUREMENT History of U.S. Measurement The English system of measurement grew out of the creative way that people measured for themselves. Familiar objects and parts of the body were

### Section 1.7 Dimensional Analysis

Dimensional Analysis Dimensional Analysis Many times it is necessary to convert a measurement made in one unit to an equivalent measurement in another unit. Sometimes this conversion is between two units

### Appendix G. Units of Measure

Appendix G Units of Measure A. Measurement Magnitudes of measurements are typically given in terms of a specific unit. In surveying, the most commonly used units define quantities of length (or distance),

SI Guide for HVAC&R 2013 ASHRAE. All rights reserved. ASHRAE has compiled this publication with care, but ASHRAE has not investigated, and ASHRAE expressly disclaims any duty to investigate, any product,

### Section 3 - Measurements, Scales, and Conversions 1 of 8

Section 3 - Measurements, Scales, and Conversions 1 of 8 Read the following notes on recording measurements, choosing the correct scale, and converting measurements. It may help to underline, highlight,

### UNIT 1 MASS AND LENGTH

UNIT 1 MASS AND LENGTH Typical Units Typical units for measuring length and mass are listed below. Length Typical units for length in the Imperial system and SI are: Imperial SI inches ( ) centimetres

### Chapter 1. An Introduction to Chemistry By Mark Bishop

Chapter 1 An Introduction to Chemistry By Mark Bishop Chemistry The science that deals with the structure and behavior of matter Summary of Study Strategies The will to succeed is important, but what s

### Appendix C. General Tables of Units of Measurement 1. TABLES OF METRIC UNITS OF MEASUREMENT

Appendix C General Tables of Units of Measurement These tables have been prepared for the benefit of those requiring tables of units for occasional ready reference. In Section 4 of this Appendix, the tables

### Units in Physical Chemistry Physical Chemistry - University of Windsor

Units in Physical Chemistry - 59-240 Physical Chemistry - University of Windsor Introduction This handout (compiled from web pages at Oxford University) provides an introduction to the notation and systems

### US, Burma, Liberia are three countries that have not adopted the SI as the sole system of units (from Wikipedia)

1.2 System of Units A single system is efficient, convenient, economical, and makes sense. The US system units is difficult for the United States to give up because a lot of expert technical knowledge

### Spectroscopy. SI Base Units

Spectroscopy SI Base Units m - meter - length s - second - time kg - kilogram - mass K - kelvin - thermodynamic temperature A - ampere - electric current cd - candela - luminous intensity mol - amount

### Dimensions, Units and Conversions

Dimensions, Units and Conversions Science depends on measured numbers, most of which have units. The following sections should help you understand what units are, how they are used, and how they are converted

### Units and Dimensions in Physical Chemistry

Units and Dimensions in Physical Chemistry Units and dimensions tend to cause untold amounts of grief to many chemists throughout the course of their degree. My hope is that by having a dedicated tutorial

### HFCC Math Lab General Math Topics -1. Metric System: Shortcut Conversions of Units within the Metric System

HFCC Math Lab General Math Topics - Metric System: Shortcut Conversions of Units within the Metric System In this handout, we will work with three basic units of measure in the metric system: meter: gram:

### Metric Conversion Factors

332 Metric Conversion Factors The following list provides the conversion relationship between U.S. customary units and SI (International System) units. The proper conversion procedure is to multiply the

### Metric System Math Review -Dimensional Analysis

Metric System Math Review -Dimensional Analysis In 1960 the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (Sevres, France) adopted the "International System of Units", also known as "SI" units. 7 base units

### Sample Questions Chapter 2. Stoker

Sample Questions Chapter 2. Stoker 1. The mathematical meaning associated with the metric system prefixes centi, milli, and micro is, respectively, A) 2, 4, and 6. B) 2, 3, and 6. C) 3, 6, and 9. D) 3,

### 2. Length, Area, and Volume

Name Date Class TEACHING RESOURCES BASIC SKILLS 2. In 1960, the scientific community decided to adopt a common system of measurement so communication among scientists would be easier. The system they agreed

### Chapter 2 Measurement and Problem Solving

Introductory Chemistry, 3 rd Edition Nivaldo Tro Measurement and Problem Solving Graph of global Temperature rise in 20 th Century. Cover page Opposite page 11. Roy Kennedy Massachusetts Bay Community

### APPENDIX FACTORS FOR CONVERSION TO THE METRIC SYSTEM (SI) OF UNITS

APPENDIX FACTORS FOR CONVERSION TO THE METRIC SYSTEM (SI) OF UNITS Frederick S. Merritt Consulting Engineer West Palm Beach, Florida Congress committed the United States to conversion to the metric system

### Physical Quantities, Symbols and Units

Table 1 below indicates the physical quantities required for numerical calculations that are included in the Access 3 Physics units and the Intermediate 1 Physics units and course together with the SI

### 4 September 2008 MAR 110 Homework 1: Met-Eng Conversions p. 1. MAR 110 Homework 1

4 September 2008 MAR 110 Homework 1: Met-Eng Conversions p. 1 1-1. THE METRIC SYSTEM MAR 110 Homework 1 Metric - English Conversion [based on the Chauffe & Jefferies (2007)] The French developed the metric

### Chapter 7. Units and Measurements

Chapter 7. Units and Measurements The SI system (Système International d Unités) of reporting measurements is required in all ASA, CSSA, and SSSA publications. Other units may be reported parenthetically

### 1 GRAM = HOW MANY MILLIGRAMS?

1 GRAM = HOW MANY MILLIGRAMS? (1) Take the 1-gram expression and place the decimal point in the proper place. 1 gram is the same as 1.0 gram (decimal point in place) (2) Move that decimal point three places

### Handout Unit Conversions (Dimensional Analysis)

Handout Unit Conversions (Dimensional Analysis) The Metric System had its beginnings back in 670 by a mathematician called Gabriel Mouton. The modern version, (since 960) is correctly called "International

### Appendix C of NIST Handbook 44, Specifications, Tolerances, and Other Technical Requirements for Weighing and Measuring Devices

Dimensional Analysis Background Website: http://ts.nist.gov/ts/htdocs/230/235/appxc/appxc.htm Appendix C of NIST Handbook 44, Specifications, Tolerances, and Other Technical Requirements for Weighing and

### Section 1 Tools and Measurement

Section 1 Tools and Measurement Key Concept Scientists must select the appropriate tools to make measurements and collect data, to perform tests, and to analyze data. What You Will Learn Scientists use

### PHYSICAL QUANTITIES AND UNITS

1 PHYSICAL QUANTITIES AND UNITS Introduction Physics is the study of matter, its motion and the interaction between matter. Physics involves analysis of physical quantities, the interaction between them

### Metric Conversion: Stair-Step Method

ntroduction to Conceptual Physics Metric Conversion: Stair-Step Method Kilo- 1000 Hecto- 100 Deka- 10 Base Unit grams liters meters The Metric System of measurement is based on multiples of 10. Prefixes

### 4.5.1 The Metric System

4.5.1 The Metric System Learning Objective(s) 1 Describe the general relationship between the U.S. customary units and metric units of length, weight/mass, and volume. 2 Define the metric prefixes and

### Pump Formulas Imperial and SI Units

Pump Formulas Imperial and Pressure to Head H = head, ft P = pressure, psi H = head, m P = pressure, bar Mass Flow to Volumetric Flow ṁ = mass flow, lbm/h ρ = fluid density, lbm/ft 3 ṁ = mass flow, kg/h

### Writing SI units and symbols 1

Charles Poynton +1 416 535 7187 charles @ poynton.com www.poynton.com Writing SI units and symbols 1 This note explains how I write quantities and units in the Système international d unités (SI), loosely

### 5. Suppose you had to test how well two types of soap work. Describe your experiment using the terms control and variable.

Page # 31: 1. What is the scientific method? A logical approach to solving problems by observing and collecting data, formulating hypotheses, testing hypotheses, and formulating theories supported by data.

### 1. Metric system- developed in Europe (France) in 1700's, offered as an alternative to the British or English system of measurement.

GS104 Basics Review of Math I. MATHEMATICS REVIEW A. Decimal Fractions, basics and definitions 1. Decimal Fractions - a fraction whose deonominator is 10 or some multiple of 10 such as 100, 1000, 10000,

### MATH FOR NURSING MEASUREMENTS. Written by: Joe Witkowski and Eileen Phillips

MATH FOR NURSING MEASUREMENTS Written by: Joe Witkowski and Eileen Phillips Section 1: Introduction Quantities have many units, which can be used to measure them. The following table gives common units

### = 800 kg/m 3 (note that old units cancel out) 4.184 J 1000 g = 4184 J/kg o C

Units and Dimensions Basic properties such as length, mass, time and temperature that can be measured are called dimensions. Any quantity that can be measured has a value and a unit associated with it.

Seite 1 von 12 Appendix C of NIST Handbook 44, Specifications, Tolerances, and Other Technical Requirements for Weighing and Measuring Devices General Tables of Units of Measurement These tables have been

### MEASUREMENTS. U.S. CUSTOMARY SYSTEM OF MEASUREMENT LENGTH The standard U.S. Customary System units of length are inch, foot, yard, and mile.

MEASUREMENTS A measurement includes a number and a unit. 3 feet 7 minutes 12 gallons Standard units of measurement have been established to simplify trade and commerce. TIME Equivalences between units

ONTARIO BASE HOSPITAL GROUP ADVANCED LIFE SUPPORT PRECOURSE MEDICAL MATH SECTION TEN 2005 Update by Ontario Base Hospital Group Education Subcommittee Copyright 2005, 1985 Ministry of Health and Long Term

### Teacher s Preparatory Guide

NNIN Nanotechnology Education Teacher s Preparatory Guide The SI system and nanoscale science Purpose: To provide opportunities for students to develop a working knowledge of the SI system of measurement

### PHYSICS 151 Notes for Online Lecture #1

PHYSICS 151 Notes for Online Lecture #1 Whenever we measure a quantity, that measurement is reported as a number and a unit of measurement. We say such a quantity has dimensions. Units are a necessity

### Preferred SI (Metric) Units

Quantity Unit Symbol LENGTH meter m Preferred SI (Metric) Units Metric-U.S. Customary Unit Equivalents 1 m = 1000 mm = 39.37 in. = millimeter mm 25.4 mm = 1 inch micrometer μm 1 μm = 10-6 m Remarks 3.281

### Surface Analysis Maps

Notes 1 Weather Maps The purpose of a weather map is to give a graphical or pictorial image of weather to a meteorologist. As a forecasting tool, weather maps allow a meteorologist to see what is happening

### Chapter 1 An Introduction to Chemistry

1 Chapter 1 An Introduction to Chemistry 1.1 What Is Chemistry, and What Can Chemistry Do for You? Special Topic 1.1: Green Chemistry 1.2 Suggestions for Studying Chemistry 1.3 The Scientific Method 1.4

### Measurement. Customary Units of Measure

Chapter 7 Measurement There are two main systems for measuring distance, weight, and liquid capacity. The United States and parts of the former British Empire use customary, or standard, units of measure.

### Chapter 2: Approaches to Problem Solving Lecture notes Math 1030 Section B

Section B.1: Standardized Unit Systems: U.S. and Metric Different system of standardized units There are different systems of standardized units: the international metric system, called SI (from the French

### Chapter 3 How Do We Make Measurements?

Chapter 3 How Do We Make Measurements? Chemistry, like all sciences, has its quantitative side. In this chapter, you will be introduced to the units and types of measurement in chemistry. 3.1 Background

### Metric Conversions Ladder Method. T. Trimpe 2008

Metric Conversions Ladder Method T. Trimpe 2008 http://sciencespot.net/ KILO 1000 Units 1 2 HECTO 100 Units Ladder Method DEKA 10 Units 3 Meters Liters Grams DECI 0.1 Unit CENTI 0.01 Unit MILLI 0.001 Unit

### Activity Standard and Metric Measuring

Activity 1.3.1 Standard and Metric Measuring Introduction Measurements are seen and used every day. You have probably worked with measurements at home and at school. Measurements can be seen in the form

### To Convert To Multiply by. inches millimeters inches feet feet inches 12* feet meters feet yards

Conversion Factors To Convert To Multiply by Length inches millimeters 25.4 inches feet 0.0833 feet inches 12* feet meters 0.3048 feet yards 0.3333 feet miles (U.S. statute) 0.0001894 yards yards 3* yards

### Activity Standard and Metric Measuring

Activity 1.3.1 Standard and Metric Measuring Introduction Measurements are seen and used every day. You have probably worked with measurements at home and at school. Measurements can be seen in the form

### Physical Quantities and Units

Physical Quantities and Units 1 Revision Objectives This chapter will explain the SI system of units used for measuring physical quantities and will distinguish between vector and scalar quantities. You

### INTRODUCTORY CHEMISTRY Concepts and Critical Thinking Seventh Edition by Charles H. Corwin

Lecture INTRODUCTORY CHEMISTRY Concepts and Critical Thinking Seventh Edition by Charles H. Corwin The Metric System by Christopher G. Hamaker Illinois State University Content 1. The metric and English

### 4 Calculations Used in Analytical Chemisty

4 Calculations Used in Analytical Chemisty 4A SOME IMPORTANT UNITS OF MEASUREMENT 4A-1 Sl Units SI Base Units Physical Quantity Name of unit Abbreviation Mass kilogram kg Length meter m Time second s Temperature

### A QUICK OVERVIEW OF CHAPTERS 1-3 AP C H E M I S T R Y M S. G R O B S K Y

A QUICK OVERVIEW OF CHAPTERS 1-3 AP C H E M I S T R Y M S. G R O B S K Y CHAPTER 1 S C I E N T I F I C M E T H O D, SI U N I T S, M E T R I C P R E F I X E S S I G F I G S, D I M E N S I O N A L A N A

### Conversions in the Metric System

The metric system is a system of measuring. It is used for three basic units of measure: metres (m), litres (L) and grams (g). Measure of Example Litres (L) Volume 1 L of juice Basic Units Grams (g) Mass

### YOU MUST BE ABLE TO DO THE FOLLOWING PROBLEMS WITHOUT A CALCULATOR!

DETAILED SOLUTIONS AND CONCEPTS - SYSTEMS OF MEASUREMENT Prepared by Ingrid Stewart, Ph.D., College of Southern Nevada Please Send Questions and Comments to ingrid.stewart@csn.edu. Thank you! YOU MUST

### WEEK 1. Engineering Calculations Processes Process Variables

WEEK 1 Engineering Calculations Processes Process Variables 2.1 Units and Dimensions Units and dimensions are important in science and engineering A measured quantity has a numerical value and a unit (ex:

### Physical Science Chapter 1 The Metric System

1 Physical Science Chapter 1 The Metric System A. What is Physical Science? 1.Physical Science is the study of matter and energy. a.matter Anything that has mass, takes up space and has inertia. 2 1.Inertia,

### Introduction to Engineering Calculations

Introduction to Engineering Calculations We usually deal with chemical manufacturing processes, genetic engineering, Semicondcutor manufacturing, pollution control, etc. We will see the basic princiles

### Chemical Conversions and Problems

Chemical Conversions and Problems Contents: Temperature Conversions: pg. 1 Basic Unit Conversions: pg. 1-3 Chemical Quantity Conversions: pg. 3-5 Density: pg. 5-6 Percent Composition & Empirical & Molecular

### INTRODUCTION TO MEASUREMENTS

INTRODUCTION TO MEASUREMENTS Introduction: In the first three experiments you will learn how to use equipment that to measure length, mass, and volume. You will apply the rules about significant figures